Jesuits Develop Ignatian PedagogyIn Europe, we see some of the first Pedagogy programs developed by the Jesuits called the Ignatian Pedagogy. It was designed to make learning more personal between students and teachers by adding a social element to motivate students. This program included these 5 element: context, experience, reflection, action and evaluation.
First Children's TextbookEducator Comenius writes first Children's textbook entitled "The World in Pictures" and the first to use pictures in textbooks. He was the first "to recognize that the play of childhood was learning."
Term Andragogy First UsedGerman High School Teacher, Alexander Kapp, first uses the term Andragogy in the book, "Plato's Educational Ideas" in attempting to explain Plato's ideas. Dapp explains that adults learn through self-reflection and life experience along with instructed learning. His theories were disputed and rejected.
First KindergartenFriedrich Wilhelm August Fröbel establishes the first Kindergarten in Blankenburg, Germany. Friedrich believed children learned best through activities with other children that encouraged their creativity.
Friedrich Wilhelm August Fröbel
Theorist John DeweyAmerican philosopher and educational reformer who argued for Progressive Education, which seeks to engage students on lessons that are relevant to their everyday life. He believed schools should become a community of democracy by which students will learn to have a greater appreciation of their community outside of school and of the country itself.
Theorist Eugen Rosenstock-HuessyGerman Social Philosopher & Historian, Eugen Rosenstock-Huessy, brought up Andragogy as a good method for Germany and it's people to revitalize themselves after their post WWI hardships. He introduced Historal Thinking as a pivotal method in Andragogy. Germans should learn from their past mistakes that led to WWI, using their present suffering to push them forward.
History and Philosophy of Andragogy
Theorist Eduard C. LindemanAmerican Educator and Philosopher Eduard Lindeman laid the groundwork for Andragogy in the USA. Known for his work, The Meaning of Adult Education, he mentions 2 differences for Adult vs. Child learning: adults learn voluntarily and "leave whenever the teaching falls below the level of interest" & adults should learn via discussions & social activity. Lindeman was a mentor to Malcolm Knowles.
Eduard C. Lindeman
Poggeler Publishes, "Introduction into Andragogy"German Teacher, Franz Poggeler, publishes book on the Scientific Basis of Andragogy. His book spread the term Andragogy to adult educators in Germany, Austria, the Netherlands, and Yugoslavia. It became an early "fundamental work" for Adult Education. His focus in the book helped to ensure the goals of childhood education would be the same for adults.
Concepts of Andragogy
Andragogy DefinedEducator Malcom Knowles publishes an article, "Androgogy, Not Pedagogy," in Adult Leadership which not only defined what Andragogy was, but made it practical. Knowles argued for "Self-Directed Learning" approach and thought of himself not as a teacher, but a facilitator. Knowles would later become known as the "Father of Andragogy.
Knowles Assumptions, Principles & PracticesMalcome Knowles publishes more of his studies differentiating between pedagogy and andragogy. specifically the Adult Learning Theory providing more context and application.
David Kolb's Learning CycleDavid Kolb creates a Learning Style by which the learner goes through a "transformation of Experience" in order for knowledge to be maintained. The Learning Cycle (Circular design), still used today, consists of 4 stages: Concrete Experience, Reflective Observation, Abstract Conceptualization and Active Experimentation.