Noam ChomskyCompetence: Use of L yo produce and understand utterances out of rules.
Performance: Applying the knowledge to the actual language use. Transformational Grammar
-grammar system of rules
-combination of words
-combination of sentences Transformation
-Acurrate structure to express human meaning
Michael A. Kirkwood HallidayInteraction
-functions that imply meaning interchange.
William LabovAffirms that the competence co-varies with speaker and his context.
Dell H. HymesSocial life affects outward performance and inner competence.
Rules of use, dominant over grammar rules. LINGUISTIC COMPETENCE: producing and understanding grammatically correct sentences.
COMUNICATIVE COMPETENCE: knowledge of rules for understanding and producing referencial and social meaning of Language.
Henry G. WiddowsonAdquired competence does not guarantee normal language communication.
Wilga M. RiversThe Educational Framework SKILL-GETTING -COGNITION: perception and abstraction
-PRODUCTION (pseudo-communication): articulation and construction SKILL-USING -INTERACTION: reception and expression lead to motivation to communicate. -Importance of "skill-using" activities.
-Learner's independent work (no teacher's direction)
-Pair and group work
WiddowsonCommunicative abilities and linguistic skills must develop at the same time. Knowledge of grammar.
knowledge of appropriateness.
Chrstina Bratt PaulstonCOMMUNICATIVE DRILLS -Mechanical drills
WiddowsonSuggests that we need to teach communicative competence along with linguistic competence by providing linguistic and communicative contexts.
Linguistic context: usage
Communicative context: use ASPECTS OF PERFORMANCE:
USAGE: knowledge of linguistic rules.
USE: use of learned linguistic rules for effective communication ASPECTS OF MEANING:
SIGNIFICANCE: meaning that sentences have in isolation from situation.
VALUE: meaning that sentences take on when communicating.
HallidayMODEL OF LANGUAGE FUNCTIONS
Stephen KrashenProposed: unconscious absortion of language in real use.
Langauge acquisition does not require extensive use of conscious grammatical rules, and does not require tedious drill. -Meaningful interaction in the target language-natural communication. -No concern on the form but the conveying and understanding of messages.
Michael Canale and Merril SwainInteraction of social context, grammar, and social meaning.
The study of grammatical competence and communicative competence are both essential. THREE MAIN COMPETENCIES -Grammatical: lexical items and rules of morfology, syntax, sentence-grammar semantics, and phonology. -Sociolinguistic: sociolinguistic rules of use and rules of discourse. -Strategic: verbal and non-verbal communication strategies.
H. H. SternLive the language as a personal experience through direct contact with the target language community. Development of coping techniques when learners are alone in the new language environment. ASPECTS OF LANGUAGE STUDY AND PRACTICE USE IN AUTHENTIC CONTEXT
Stern and Rivers"skill-getting" and "skill-using" should not be taught as strict sequencing of activities.
Bachman y PalmerLanguage ability:
Ability to get involved in different types of interaction.
Mauricio PilleuxPragmatic Knowledge Ability to understand and use appropriatelly the social meaning of linguistic varieties out of any circumstance, in relation to the functions and language varieties and with cultural assumptions in the communication situation.
Pawlikowska-SmithStrategic competence: Knowledge of knowing how
Solving communication problems
Ways to learn
General manager: general ability that allows an individual to use effectivelly the available abilities to carry out an specific task.
OrmrodTheory of learning: Previous knowledge that allows an individual to establish relationships with new information
and develop learning, thus generating meaningful learning.
Estévez SinghOrganizational knowledge. Grammatical knowledge: sintax, vocabulary, fonology, graphology and writing.
Textual knowledge: sentence organization to create text. It requires knowledge of coherence, cohesion and retoric organization.
Liliana María MaturanaGlobalizing construct that encompasses abilities, skills and knowledge with which user interacts effectivelly in diverse social contexts with specific intentions.
Steven PinkerLanguage is: distinctive, essential, miterious, practical and central to human life, words, rules, sintax, morphology,phonology, interfaces.
Humans want speak but nor a will to write.
linguistics studies: grammar, phonology, semantics, and pragmatics.
How L is processed and how it is acquired or computed.
Language is not: written L, proper grammar (descriptive and prescriptive grammar).
we don´t remember words, just meaning.
Language is not thought, but a way of expressing t.