Communicative Competence: a historical journey

Timeline created by Wilber Rojas
In History
  • Noam Chomsky

    Noam Chomsky
    Competence: Use of L yo produce and understand utterances out of rules.
    Performance: Applying the knowledge to the actual language use. Transformational Grammar
    -grammar system of rules
    -combination of words
    -combination of sentences Transformation
    -Acurrate structure to express human meaning
  • Michael A. Kirkwood Halliday

    Michael A. Kirkwood Halliday
    Interaction
    -functions that imply meaning interchange.
  • William Labov

    William Labov
    Affirms that the competence co-varies with speaker and his context.
  • Dell H. Hymes

    Dell H. Hymes
    Social life affects outward performance and inner competence.
    Rules of use, dominant over grammar rules. LINGUISTIC COMPETENCE: producing and understanding grammatically correct sentences.
    COMUNICATIVE COMPETENCE: knowledge of rules for understanding and producing referencial and social meaning of Language.
  • Henry G. Widdowson

    Henry G. Widdowson
    Adquired competence does not guarantee normal language communication.
  • Wilga M. Rivers

    Wilga M. Rivers
    The Educational Framework SKILL-GETTING -COGNITION: perception and abstraction
    -PRODUCTION (pseudo-communication): articulation and construction SKILL-USING -INTERACTION: reception and expression lead to motivation to communicate. -Importance of "skill-using" activities.
    -Learner's independent work (no teacher's direction)
    -Pair and group work
  • Widdowson

    Widdowson
    Communicative abilities and linguistic skills must develop at the same time. Knowledge of grammar.
    knowledge of appropriateness.
  • Chrstina Bratt Paulston

    Chrstina Bratt Paulston
    COMMUNICATIVE DRILLS -Mechanical drills
    -Meaningful drills
    -Communicative drills
  • Widdowson

    Widdowson
    Suggests that we need to teach communicative competence along with linguistic competence by providing linguistic and communicative contexts.
    Linguistic context: usage
    Communicative context: use ASPECTS OF PERFORMANCE:
    USAGE: knowledge of linguistic rules.
    USE: use of learned linguistic rules for effective communication ASPECTS OF MEANING:
    SIGNIFICANCE: meaning that sentences have in isolation from situation.
    VALUE: meaning that sentences take on when communicating.
  • Halliday

    Halliday
    MODEL OF LANGUAGE FUNCTIONS
  • Stephen Krashen

    Stephen Krashen
    Proposed: unconscious absortion of language in real use.
    Langauge acquisition does not require extensive use of conscious grammatical rules, and does not require tedious drill. -Meaningful interaction in the target language-natural communication. -No concern on the form but the conveying and understanding of messages.
  • Michael Canale and Merril Swain

    Michael Canale and Merril Swain
    Interaction of social context, grammar, and social meaning.
    The study of grammatical competence and communicative competence are both essential. THREE MAIN COMPETENCIES -Grammatical: lexical items and rules of morfology, syntax, sentence-grammar semantics, and phonology. -Sociolinguistic: sociolinguistic rules of use and rules of discourse. -Strategic: verbal and non-verbal communication strategies.
  • H. H. Stern

    H. H. Stern
    Live the language as a personal experience through direct contact with the target language community. Development of coping techniques when learners are alone in the new language environment. ASPECTS OF LANGUAGE STUDY AND PRACTICE USE IN AUTHENTIC CONTEXT
  • Stern and Rivers

    Stern and Rivers
    "skill-getting" and "skill-using" should not be taught as strict sequencing of activities.
  • Bachman y Palmer

    Bachman y Palmer
    Language ability:
    Ability to get involved in different types of interaction.
  • Perez Abril

    Perez Abril
    Coherence
    Cohesion
    Rhetoric organization
  • Mauricio Pilleux

    Mauricio Pilleux
    Pragmatic Knowledge Ability to understand and use appropriatelly the social meaning of linguistic varieties out of any circumstance, in relation to the functions and language varieties and with cultural assumptions in the communication situation.
  • Pawlikowska-Smith

    Pawlikowska-Smith
    Strategic competence: Knowledge of knowing how
    Solving communication problems
    Ways to learn
    General manager: general ability that allows an individual to use effectivelly the available abilities to carry out an specific task.
  • Ormrod

    Ormrod
    Theory of learning: Previous knowledge that allows an individual to establish relationships with new information
    and develop learning, thus generating meaningful learning.
  • Estévez Singh

    Estévez Singh
    Organizational knowledge. Grammatical knowledge: sintax, vocabulary, fonology, graphology and writing.
    Textual knowledge: sentence organization to create text. It requires knowledge of coherence, cohesion and retoric organization.
  • Liliana María Maturana

    Liliana María Maturana
    Globalizing construct that encompasses abilities, skills and knowledge with which user interacts effectivelly in diverse social contexts with specific intentions.
  • Steven Pinker

    Steven Pinker
    Language is: distinctive, essential, miterious, practical and central to human life, words, rules, sintax, morphology,phonology, interfaces.
    Humans want speak but nor a will to write.
    linguistics studies: grammar, phonology, semantics, and pragmatics.
    How L is processed and how it is acquired or computed.
    Language is not: written L, proper grammar (descriptive and prescriptive grammar).
    we don´t remember words, just meaning.
    Language is not thought, but a way of expressing t.