Artificial Inteligence

Timeline created by redlands210316
  • Konrad Zuse

    Konrad Zuse
    Konrad Zuse built the first working program-controlled computers
  • Period: to

    Artificial Intelligence

  • Warren Sturgis McCulloch and Walter Pitts

    Warren Sturgis McCulloch and Walter Pitts
    Warren Sturgis McCulloch and Walter Pitts publish "A Logical Calculus of the Ideas Immanent in Nervous Activity" (1943), laying foundations for artificial neural networks.
  • Allan Turing

    Allan Turing
    Alan Turing proposes the Turing Test as a measure of machine intelligence
  • Isaac Asimov

    Isaac Asimov
    Isaac Asimov published his Three Laws of Robotics.
  • Ferranti Mark 1

    Ferranti Mark 1
    The first working AI programs were written in 1951 to run on the Ferranti Mark 1 machine of the University of Manchester: a checkers-playing program written by Christopher Strachey and a chess-playing program written by Dietrich Prinz.
  • John McCarthy

    John McCarthy
    The name artificial intelligence is used for the first time as the topic of the second Dartmouth Conference, organized by John McCarthy[30]
  • Allen Newell, J.C. Shaw and Herbert Simon

    Allen Newell, J.C. Shaw and Herbert Simon
    The first demonstration of the Logic Theorist (LT) written by Allen Newell, J.C. Shaw and Herbert Simon (Carnegie Institute of Technology, now Carnegie Mellon University). This is often called the first AI program, though Samuel's checkers program also has a strong claim.
  • Massachusetts Institute of Technology or MIT

    Massachusetts Institute of Technology or MIT
    John McCarthy (Massachusetts Institute of Technology or MIT) invented the Lisp programming language.
  • John McCarthy's Programs with Common Sense, Oliver Selfridge's Pandemonium, and Marvin Minsky's Some Methods of Heuristic Programming and Artificial Intelligence.

     John McCarthy's Programs with Common Sense, Oliver Selfridge's Pandemonium, and Marvin Minsky's Some Methods of Heuristic Programming and Artificial Intelligence.
    Teddington Conference on the Mechanization of Thought Processes was held in the UK and among the papers presented were John McCarthy's Programs with Common Sense, Oliver Selfridge's Pandemonium, and Marvin Minsky's Some Methods of Heuristic Programming and Artificial Intelligence.
  • John McCarthy and Marvin Minsky

    John McCarthy and Marvin Minsky
    John McCarthy and Marvin Minsky founded the MIT AI Lab.
  • First industrial robot company, Unimation, founded.

    First industrial robot company, Unimation, founded.
  • Edward Feigenbaum and Julian Feldman

    Edward Feigenbaum and Julian Feldman published Computers and Thought, the first collection of articles about artificial intelligence.
  • Leonard Uhr and Charles Vossler

    Leonard Uhr and Charles Vossler
    Leonard Uhr and Charles Vossler published "A Pattern Recognition Program That Generates, Evaluates, and Adjusts Its Own Operators", which described one of the first machine learning programs that could adaptively acquire and modify features and thereby overcome the limitations of simple perceptrons of Rosenblatt
  • Danny Bobrow

    Danny Bobrow's dissertation at MIT (technical report #1 from MIT's AI group, Project MAC), shows that computers can understand natural language well enough to solve algebra word problems correctly.
  • Bertram Raphael

    Bertram Raphael's MIT dissertation on the SIR program demonstrates the power of a logical representation of knowledge for question-answering systems.
  • Edward Feigenbaum

    Edward Feigenbaum initiated Dendral, a ten-year effort to develop software to deduce the molecular structure of organic compounds using scientific instrument data. It was the first expert system.
  • Donald Michie

    Machine Intelligence workshop at Edinburgh - the first of an influential annual series organized by Donald Michie and others.
  • Richard Greenblatt

    Richard Greenblatt
    Richard Greenblatt (programmer) at MIT built a knowledge-based chess-playing program, MacHack, that was good enough to achieve a class-C rating in tournament play
  • Stanford Research Institute (SRI)

    Stanford Research Institute (SRI): Shakey the Robot, demonstrated combining animal locomotion, perception and problem solving.
  • Roger Schank

    Roger Schank (Stanford) defined conceptual dependency model for natural language understanding. Later developed (in PhD dissertations at Yale University) for use in story understanding by Robert Wilensky and Wendy Lehnert, and for use in understanding memory by Janet Kolodner.
  • Marvin Minsky and Seymour Papert

    Marvin Minsky and Seymour Papert publish Perceptrons, demonstrating previously unrecognized limits of this feed-forward two-layered structure. This book is considered by some to mark the beginning of the AI winter of the 1970s, a failure of confidence and funding for AI. Nevertheless significant progress in the field continued
  • McCarthy and Hayes

    McCarthy and Hayes started the discussion about the frame problem with their essay, "Some Philosophical Problems from the Standpoint of Artificial Intelligence".
  • Jaime Carbonell- SCHOLAR

    Jaime Carbonell (Sr.) developed SCHOLAR, an interactive program for computer assisted instruction based on semantic nets as the representation of knowledge.
  • Terry Winograd

    Terry Winograd's PhD thesis (MIT) demonstrated the ability of computers to understand English sentences in a restricted world of children's blocks, in a coupling of his language understanding program, SHRDLU, with a robot arm that carried out instructions typed in English.
  • Jane Robinson and Don Walker

    Jane Robinson and Don Walker established an influential Natural Language Processing group at SRI.
  • The Lighthill report gives a largely negative verdict on AI research in Great Britain and forms the basis for the decision by the British government to discontinue support for AI research in all but two universities.

    The Lighthill report gives a largely negative verdict on AI research in Great Britain and forms the basis for the decision by the British government to discontinue support for AI research in all but two universities.
  • Mark Stefik and Peter Friedland

    The MOLGEN program, written at Stanford by Mark Stefik and Peter Friedland, demonstrated that an object-oriented programming representation of knowledge can be used to plan gene-cloning experiments.
  • Hans Moravec

    The Stanford Cart, built by Hans Moravec, becomes the first computer-controlled, autonomous vehicle when it successfully traverses a chair-filled room and circumnavigates the Stanford AI Lab.
  • Ernst Dickmanns at Bundeswehr University of Munich

    Ernst Dickmanns at Bundeswehr University of Munich
    The team of Ernst Dickmanns at Bundeswehr University of Munich builds the first robot cars, driving up to 55 mph on empty streets.
  • Lisp machines

    Lisp machines
    Lisp machines developed and marketed. First expert system shells and commercial applications.
  • Neural Networks

    Neural Networks become widely used with the Backpropagation algorithm (first described by Paul Werbos in 1974).
  • Ian Horswill

    Ian Horswill extended behavior-based robotics by creating Polly, the first robot to navigate using vision and operate at animal-like speeds (1 meter/second).
  • Rodney Brooks, Lynn Andrea Stein and Cynthia Breazeal

    Rodney Brooks, Lynn Andrea Stein and Cynthia Breazeal
    Rodney Brooks, Lynn Andrea Stein and Cynthia Breazeal started the widely-publicized MIT Cog project with numerous collaborators, in an attempt to build a humanoid robot child in just five years.
  • the twin robot cars VaMP and VITA

    With passengers onboard, the twin robot cars VaMP and VITA-2 of Ernst Dickmanns and Daimler-Benz drive more than one thousand kilometers on a Paris three-lane highway in standard heavy traffic at speeds up to 130 km/h. They demonstrate autonomous driving in free lanes, convoy driving, and lane changes left and right with autonomous passing of other cars.
  • smart toys

    Interactive robopets ("smart toys") become commercially available, realizing the vision of the 18th century novelty toy makers.
  • Cynthia Breazeal at MIT

    Cynthia Breazeal at MIT publishes her dissertation on Sociable machines, describing Kismet (robot), with a face that expresses emotions.
  • The Nomad robot

    The Nomad robot explores remote regions of Antarctica looking for meteorite samples.
  • Honda's ASIMO robot

    Honda's ASIMO robot
    Honda's ASIMO robot, an artificially intelligent humanoid robot, is able to walk as fast as a human, delivering trays to customers in restaurant settings.
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