Trade development on the Indian Ocean

Timeline created by Kfoster015
  • 3,000 BCE

    Monsoon wind pattern used to navigate the Arabian Sea

    Monsoon wind pattern combined with the ability to navigate using the stars enables mariners to freely navigate the Arabian Sea.
  • 1,000 BCE

    Iron in Western Asia, South Eastern Europe and North Africa

    Iron metallurgy is known in Western Asia, South eastern Europe and North Africa. Iron is stronger and harder material than metals used previously.
  • 1,000 BCE

    Camels domesticated to transport goods

    The domestication of camels leads to trade routes over land called caravans, which linked India with the Mediterranean. This also leads to the exchange of coastal trade goods such as silk, porcelain, spices, slaves, incense, and ivory.
  • -900 BCE

    Kamal used to navigate the seas

    The Kamal is a navigation device that is used to guide Arab ships to ports. It "determines the latitude at sea by observing the distance between the horizon and a particular star at the same time each night". Later, this will contribute to the development of newer tools such as the cross-staff.
  • -600 BCE

    Iron in China

    Iron is metallurgy known in China.
  • -507 BCE

    The Roman Republic Begins

    A system led by wealthy male aristocrates who are voted in by worthy male citizens of the Roman Republic. They are often at war with neighboring cities.
  • -326 BCE

    Alexander the Great sent Nearchus to the Arabian Gulf

    Alexander the Great sent Nearchus from the Indus to the Arabian Gulf in 326 BCE. Nearchus serves as admiral over a fleet that sailed from the coast of the Indian subcontinent to the Euphrates river in distant Mesopotamia.This path leads way to Greek and Roman trade with India.
  • Period:
    2,800 BCE
    to
    300

    The Incense Trade

    The incense trade route stretches from southern Arabia to the Mediterranean port city of Gaza and ships across the Roman Empire and into Asia. The fragrant incense is made from the dry sap of frankincense trees that exclusively grow in Southern Arabia, Ethiopia, and Somalia.The incense produced are widely used for religious uses, medicine and perfume. Along this route, spices, gold, ivory, pearls, precious stones and textiles are also transported by way of camel caravans.
  • Period:
    -712 BCE
    to
    -660 BCE

    Nubia dominates Egypt

    Nubia holds valuable resources that are exchanged on the trade routes, such as wood, ivory, and gold.
  • Period:
    -600 BCE
    to
    -300 BCE

    Spread of Religions

    "Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism spread across the Bay of Bengal to Southeast Asia." Travelers spread their stories about their explorations in search of knowledge. Merchant communites spread religion more widely prompting the spread of various religions and even migration of people.
  • Period:
    -563 BCE
    to
    -483 BCE

    Life of Buddha in India

    Siddhartha Gautama, better known as Buddha, prompted the development of Buddhism as a religion in India. Merchants traveling various trade routes greatly influenced the spread of Buddhism
  • Period:
    -551 BCE
    to
    -479 BCE

    Life of Confucius in China

    Confucius prompted the beginning of Confucianism in China. His ethically based philosophy was spread through the trade networks, with a goal of establishing the norms for Chinese life.
  • Period:
    -550 BCE
    to
    -330 BCE

    Achaemenid Empire in Persia

    Persian jewels were found in Mauryan settings. Persian King Darius the Great, introduced a single monetary system, based on a two-tier gold and silver coinage
  • Period:
    -528 BCE
    to
    -468 BCE

    King Darius of Persia

    After 500 BCE Persian ruler Darius I sent Greek and Roman sailor and traders to the Indian Ocean. He heard of the riches of India and longed to discover the mouth of the Indus river.
  • Period:
    -510 BCE
    to
    -515 BCE

    Scylax of Caryanda

    Scylax of Caryanda set out on his voyage under the order of the Persian ruler Darius. He sailed downstream to the mouth of the Indus River and into the Arabian Sea stopping to explore various ports. His voyage lead him to fame and he wrote about his travels in a handbook for mariners.
  • Period:
    -400 BCE
    to
    -300 BCE

    Kingdom of Meroe in Nubia

  • Period:
    -334 BCE
    to
    -323 BCE

    Alexander the Great Conquers Western Asia

    Alexander the Great Conquers Western Asia and begins the Hellenistic Period. The conquests of Alexander Great resulted in a Greek empire from Egypt and Anatolia in the west to Afghanistan and India in the
    east.
  • Period:
    -324 BCE
    to
    -185 BCE

    Mauryan Empire in India

    Chandragupta Maurya unified the many kingdoms under the Mauryan empire enabling trade to flourish.
  • Period:
    -264 BCE
    to
    -146 BCE

    Punic Wars

    Three grueling wars between people of Carthage and the Romans over the control of trade in the western Mediterranean Sea.
  • Period:
    -206 BCE
    to
    220

    Han Dynasty in China

    The Han lasted longer than any other Chinese empire, adopting Confucianism ideals. During this time silk was a primary good traded by land as well as sea. Silk from China was worn by Roman aristocrats. Goods from China were found in records of trade in India.
  • Period:
    -33 BCE
    to
    476

    Roman Empire

    The Roman Empire supported a higher standard of living. The Indian Ocean allowed them to receive luxurious goods such as silk from China. Roman coins were also found in Indian treasuries.