Ch 17

Timeline created by Vinirex007
In History
  • 1453

    Ottoman Seizure of Constantinople

    Ottoman Seizure of Constantinople
    Increased Ottoman power status and helped them further expand into southeastern Europe (The Ottomans had the most success compared to other Turkic-speaking peoples who had migrated westward).
  • 1492

    Christian reconquest of Iberia

    Christian reconquest of Iberia
    The people shared common public spaces, but the population was segregated. Communities managed their own affairs, yet people shared common public spaces such as markets, gardens and public baths. However, state was full of grief as Muslims and Jews had been driven out and exiled, leaving it weak.
  • 1492

    Jewish Exile from Spain

    Jewish Exile from Spain
    Iberian Jews were known as Sephardim, who were driven into exile by Catholic Spain, and found refuge in the Ottoman empire throughout North Africa and Constantinople. There, they faced prejudice, although they were given autonomy from Islamic law and the right to adjudicate their own affairs, since they were referred to as "People of the Book" in the Koran. Furthermore, they made significant contributions to intellectual and commercial life. Sephardic Jews also found in Arab cities.
  • 1500

    Janissaries

    Janissaries
    They were slaves that were trained to be professional soldiers in the Ottoman military. They were generally Christian youths from Balkans who were force to convert to Islam. (Mamluks) Reliance on slaves was common throughout the empire, as the loyalty of a salve general was absolute. By this time Janissaries had an important role in administration, as they were skilled and trained. Empire controlled Arabia, Palestine, Mecca, Medina, and Jerusalem, which were the three holiest cities for Muslims.
  • Period:
    1500
    to

    Russian Empire

    Slavic-speaking Russia had been influenced by Greek-speaking Byzantium by the sixteenth century, specifically by Constantinople. Princes and merchants interacted with them, and Orthodox Christianity took root within Russia. As a result, rulers were called tsar, like the Greek "Caesar", continuing the Byzantine emperors.
  • Period:
    1500
    to

    Sufi

    Sufism was a mystical form of Islam where people would follow specific practices to have communion with God. Celebi referred to himself as a dervish, in his Book of Travels. A dervish was a wandering holy man (ascetic) who gave up all material possessions to be devoted to God. During the reign of the Ottomans, Sufi communities used the this term. With rotational dances, they wanted to become vessels into which God may enter. Sufism had a huge role in spreading Islam beyond its Arab heartland.
  • Period:
    1501
    to

    Safavid dynasty

    A group of invaders founded the Safavid dynasty and challenged the Ottoman empire. The Safavid invaders (known as kizilbash) were part of an unorthodox Islamic sect led by Ismail. They conquered Persian-speaking regions and captured Baghdad and Basra. They made Shi'ite Islam the state religion of Iran. The Safavids lost public support and later was ruined by Afghan invaders. Their legacy was the predominance of Shi'ite Islam in Iran and surrounding lands.
  • Period:
    1501
    to
    1524

    Ismail

    Ismail led an unorthodox Islamic sect, which included the Safavid invaders. He led this group, which conquered Persian-speaking lands as well as Baghdad and Basra. Ismael also adopted mainstream Shi'ite beliefs and forced them onto his conquered subjects (Sunni Muslims, followers of Zoroastrian faith, etc.).
  • Period:
    1509
    to
    1564

    John Calvin

    John was a protestant and he believed in the central power of God over humanity. He emphasized individual scriptural Study and the absolute sovereignty of God. Calvin was hated by the catholic church and was considered a Heretic by Philip II. This lead to many Dutch revolts
  • Period:
    1520
    to
    1566

    Suleyman

    Suleyman was a strong military leader who extended the Ottoman empire, while maintaining economic and political stability. He was responsible for devising an administrative system which made central authority harmonious with local autonomy. He was credited with the development of literature, art, architecture, and law and for inclusive policies toward religious minorities. His empire was ethnically diverse with the use of Turkish, Arabic, and Persian languages.
  • Period:
    1533
    to

    Tsar Ivan IV

    He used the strategy of having a territorial buffer around Russian land to protect them from invasion which became an element of Russian policy, through which he centralized power in his own hands while extending the frontiers. However, he earned the name "Ivan the Terrible" for his cruelty. After his death, no clear successor was given the title of tsar, causing chaos and troubling times.
  • 1534

    Suleyman captures Baghdad

    Suleyman captures Baghdad
    Suleyman's armies took the city from Safavid rivals, through which they restored Sunni authority over Arab society resulting in the clashing of Sunni and Shiite people/communities.
  • 1555

    Charles V

    Charles V
    He was made Holy roman emperor during the time of the protestant reformation. Charles declared Luther an outlaw after he refused to come back to the catholic church. In the year of 1555 Chales V agrees to have peace between Lutherans and Catholics. Later he abdicated and his son Philip II got controlled Spain.
  • 1556

    Habsburg Family

    Habsburg Family
    The most powerful family in Europe in the 16th and 17th century. The family had great power over most of Europe and they created a pan-European catholic empire. Their rule expanded from Austria to Spain, as well as the German speaking world.
  • 1556

    Phillip II

    Phillip II
    He was Charle V's son and king of Spain because his father abdicated. Phillip II caused many divisions in religion by imposing Catholic Orthodoxy. He considered himself as defender of Catholicism and launched many attacks to protestants in England and the Netherlands.
  • 1572

    Huguenots

    Huguenots
    Huguenots were French Calvinists that fought against Catholicism in France. They were persecuted and many were killed in the Saint Bartholomew's Day massacre. Their movement was disabled by catholic persecution.
  • Period: to

    Shah Abbas I

    Abbas I was the greatest Safavid ruler, who established the capital at Isfahan. The economy prospered under his reign, having new irrigation systems, markets for handicrafts, and a pilgrim trade servicing visitors (to holy sites of Shi'ite Islam). Shah Abbas invited European merchants and diplomatic representatives to Isfahan. Abbas was apprehensive with getting guns, cannons, and training for professional soldiers. After Shah Abbas's death in 1629, the quality of Iranian leadership worsened.
  • Period: to

    Oliver Cromwell

    He was the leader of the Puritan, he organized opposition to the king's forces during the civil war, through which the people kept their horses in the Anglican church, broke windows, and smashed statues. He took over once Charles I was murdered. Once he died, Charles' son was invited back from exile by Parliament, but looked down on the Anglicans for being too tolerant of Catholicism, just like his father.
  • Puritans

    Puritans
    They were reformers of the Church of England who attempted to purge the church of all Catholic influences. They were Calvinists who emphasized reading the Bible, simplicity and modesty, and the rejection of priestly authority and elaborate rituals.
  • Period: to

    Romanov Dynasty

    A while after Ivan's death, 1613 to be exact, Mikhail Romanov was given royal power by Russian nobles, through which the Romanov dynasty continued Russia's expansion. Traders were lured to the east, looking for fur in Siberia, which Russia traded substantial amounts, including to England and Iran. Furthermore, they gained revenue from agriculture, through which serfdom was still intact.
  • Period: to

    30 Years' War

    Catholics and Lutherans continued fighting and the peace treaty from 1555 was broken, and thus, was the beginning of the 30 years war. Because of the war almost 30% of the rural population died of starvation and disease. The war was ended in 1648 with a peace treaty. The war marked the downfall of the Habsburg rule.
  • Period: to

    Charles I

    King of England that pursued war with Spain and supported rebels in France. In 1628, Parliament presented a petition against him, since he wanted to raise taxes to finance the war yet they did not approve. He disbanded Parliament for 11 years, during which he was so desperate he brought it back, which reformers used to compel the abolition of Anglican clergy hierarchy.
  • Period: to

    English Civil War

    King Charles arrested many parliamentary leaders accused of treason, to which London reacted violently. Resulting in him fleeing and the Civil War beginning.
  • Louis XIV

    Louis XIV
    Louis became known as "Sun King" and achieved good control over France. During his reign he used military power to control his reign, and He also Patronized artists. He helped France by increasing royal officials to increase loyalty to the king and center the government. Louis also emphasized Catholicism and his government became a royal absolutism.
  • Peace of Westphalia

    Peace of Westphalia
    The peace of Westphalia was a peace treaty that enabled a division of Catholic and protestant Germany. The treaty marked the end of the 30 Years war and was important to the Protestant reformation, for it also marked the end of both Catholic and Protestant Reformation.
  • Charles I Beheaded

    Charles I Beheaded
    The king was captured by Cromwell, and then killed. Cromwell then took control as Lord Protector of the English Commonwealth, instituting many radical reforms. However, his level of strictness was unpopular and resented by many people of London.
  • Period: to

    Ottoman Persistence

    The Ottomans continued to be a significant power, consisting much of southeastern Europe and a consistent political order. In 1648, the Ottoman court and people of Constantinople became dissatisfied with a sultan, who purchased many luxuries. Instead of disorder, the Ottomans improved their leadership. In 1683, the Ottomans laid siege on Vienna and in 1739, they conquered the Austrians. The Ottomans had difficulties with funding the military, but still remained powerful in the 18th century.
  • Period: to

    Peter the Great

    He was a powerful Romanov tsar who built a new Russian capital at St. Petersburg, emulated Western advances in military technology, and extended the Russian empire further into Asia. Peter visited western Europe, then returned aware that his country needed to advance in technology in science, and was determined to put it on par with rising states to the west. He then increased his power by restricting the nobles through strict rules, and advanced the military technology. However, serfs suffered
  • Glorious Revolution

    Glorious Revolution
    Parliament took over the monarch, driving out the last Stuart king, inviting a Protestant Princess and her Dutch husband in order to make sure that the head of the Church of England would be strictly Protestant.
  • Bill of Rights

    Bill of Rights
    King William and Queen Mary of England recognized a Bill of Rights that protected their subjects against arbitrary seizure of person or property and that required annual meetings of Parliament. This established important precedents such as freedom of speech in Parliament and the right to trial by jury, through which the people were given a voice in governance.
  • The Founding of the Bank of England

    The Founding of the Bank of England
    Facilitated government raising funds at modest interest rates for infrastructure (ex. naval expansion). Trade was essential for Britain's survival and its navy for success in global trade. By 1750, Britain became the world's greatest naval power but had global competition with colonial + trade interests from North America, the West Indies, and South Asia.
  • Stable Foundation of England

    Stable Foundation of England
    A balance between the king and Parliament was created, which stabilized England and the people, as well as the union with Scotland in 1707. Furthermore, the country's commerce developed both domestically and internationally, as their navy took control of the waters. Not only that, but a contest arose between them and the French, despite their differing political cultures and religious foundations.
  • Ashkenazim

    Ashkenazim
    Jews began settling in central and eastern Europe during the 18th century, known as Ashkenazim. They were the largest group in the Jewish diaspora, speaking in the German-derived language of Yiddish. They were scattered across Europe, many in Russian villages or cities, who engaged in commerce. They became a separate community, following their own traditions and intermarrying, being culturally distinctive in music, cuisine, and folktale. Despite contributing and borrowing from major communities.
  • Period: to

    Prussia

    Prussia rose in power after the Thirty Years' War, becoming the strongest German state. King Frederick William I ruled Prussia in the early 18th century. Prussia had the latest military technology and well-organized troops. Traditional rural aristocracy was the basis for royal absolutism. Taxes and control of peasants funded military expansion. When Habsburg Austria allied with France, the Prussians allied with Britain, which would lead to international conflicts (similar situation led to WWI).
  • The Collapse of the Safavid Empire

    The Collapse of the Safavid Empire
    The Safavids were Turkic nomads and later on, they blended with Persian culture when they established their capital in Isfahan, which was a center of trade and culture. People started to dislike the several enforcements made by the last Safavid shah, leading to less public support for the Safavids. The Afghan invaders who took over Isfahan in 1722 made the Safavid empire come to an end. However, the Safavids' legacy was the dominance of Shi'ite Islam in Iran and its bordering regions.