Unit 2 Timeline (Enlightenment & Revolutions)

Timeline created by kkarenbruce
In History
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    Scientific Revolution

    The Scientific Revolution directly questioned the traditional authority of the Church by questioning the legitimacy of the geocentric theory that the Church pushed. After the Scientific Revolution, people learned that knowledge could be obtained through human reason alone, without religious or political authority. It gave more power to the individual, and lead to Enlightenment thought, which also focused on reason and logic.
  • Galileo Galilei supports the heliocentric theory

    Galileo's support of the heliocentric theory contributed to many other discoveries at the time during the Scientific Revolution. The heliocentric theory differed from the teachings of the Church, and contributed to the lessening of the credibility of the Church.
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    English Civil War

    The English Civil War ended the notion of the divine right of kings and established the strength of the English army.
  • Hobbes's Leviathan is published

    The Leviathan argues for a social contract in the Leviathan to ensure a strong central government would protect the people. This social contract theory would inspire many Enlightenment thinkers and serve as an inspiration to the U.S Constitution
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    Glorious Revolution

    The Glorious Revolution established the Parliament as the ruling power in England, and represented a shift from absolute monarchy to constitutional monarchy.
  • Locke’s Two Treatises on Government is published

    John Locke's Two Treatises on Government was an important book that tried to justify the Glorious Revolution and new English government, and supplied philosophical support for the Atlantic revolutions. John Locke, in this book, goes over the State of Nature, Social Contract, Popular Sovereignty, and many Enlightenment ideals that would later be key in the American and French Revolutions.
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    The Enlightenment was a time of enlightened thinking in which thinkers throughout Europe started questioning traditional authority. It was a revolution in ways of thinking about governmental authority, and many of its ideals would shape the modern nations throughout the world.
  • Diderot Publishes First Volumes of Encyclopedia

    Diderot's Encyclopedia was viewed as a principle work of the Enlightenment and emphasized the shift of the origin of political authority from the divine right to the people. This influenced the French Revolution-- but even before then, the Encyclopedia was banned by Louis XV and Pope Clement XIII.
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    Louis XVI's reign

    Louis XVI -- the last king of France -- brought the French monarchy to the absolute power of France. His reign was associated with both the greatest age of French culture and art, but also with the poverty and starvation of common French citizens and a growing debt. His weak leadership would lead to the French citizens' growing anger, and eventually, the revolution against him.
  • Lexington and Concord

    Lexington and Concord signified the start of the American Revolution. It was disastrous for the British, and inspired many Americans to join the fight for independence from Britain.
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    American Revolution

    The American Revolution secured the independence of the United States from Great Britain.
  • Declaration of Independence

    The Declaration of Independence is one of the most important documents to the history of the United States, which official declared independence from British rule. It included the goals for the nation, heavily influenced by Enlightenment thought. This declaration would serve as a model for later documents in the French Revolution such as the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen.
  • National Assembly is formed in France

    The formation of the National Assembly is seen as the first step of the revolution. At last the common people of France were represented in the government and the National Assembly later passed laws and created reforms which would equalize the people of France.
  • Tennis Court Oath

    The Tennis Court Oath is seen as the first act of the revolution. The delegates pledged to continue meeting until they have drafted a new constitution. This was the foundation for later events, including the creation of the DOROMAC and storming of the Bastille.
  • Declaration of Rights of Man

    The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen was a fundamental document in the French Revolution that granted natural and civil rights to "all commoners" in France (although it left out people of colour and women).
  • Legislative Assembly is formed in France

    The Legislative Assembly forms following the adoption of the DOROMAC and signifies the start to the limited monarchy, in which the monarchy would enforce the laws created by the Legislative Assembly.
  • Bill of Rights ratified

    The Ratification of the Bill of Rights was significant in the sense that it guaranteed citizens' rights and freedoms and therefore limited the power of the government-- the Bill of Rights stated what the government couldn't do to the people and what the people could do to the government.
  • Wollstonecraft’s A Vindication of the Rights of Woman is published

    A Vindication of the Rights of Woman was a revolutionary work supporting feminism. It called for betterment of women's education and status in society. To this day, it resonates with feminism and human rights movements.
  • Execution of Louis XVI

    The execution of Louis XVI marks the end of the monarchy in France-- both absolute and limited. It marks the turn of the French Revolution's motives. People now wanted a republic rather than a limited monarchy.
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    Reign of Terror

    The Reign of Terror was a time of widespread fear and mass executions among the French people. The end of the Reign of Terror marked a dramatic shift in public opinion, with many shifting their ideals to the right and wanting a government much more familiar. It caused the formation of the five-person Directory, which would later lead to Napoleon Bonaparte's rise to power.
  • Execution of Marie Antoinette

    Marie Antionette, a symbol of French debt and economic failure, was executed by guillotine. This marked the end of the French monarchy and the last of the aristocracy's luxurious lifestyle.
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    Napoleon's coup

    Napoleon's coup overthrew the Directory's system of government and was seen as the effective end of the French Revolution.