Official Power and Countervailing Power

Timeline created by Aimee Roloff
In History
  • 1500

    Native Leadership Roles

    Native Leadership Roles
    Iroquians- Matriarchy: the leadership and decision making was left to the women Algonquian- Patriarchy: The man played the leadership role
  • Power relations between Amerindians and the colonial administrators

    Power relations between Amerindians and the colonial administrators
    Military alliances to protect economic interests in fur trade
    -French-Hurons (Primary group to trade with French. Fought against Iroquois over control of fur trade territory–LOST)
    -English-Iroquois (Allies with British and fought against French for control over fur trade)
    -Native allies of French were destroyed by Iroquois, French had to collect furs deeper in the forest
    -Coureurs des bois: French settlers who travel into the forest, lived with natives much of the year, and traded with natives
  • Royal Government

    Royal Government
    -King & Minister of Marine stayed in France, Sovereign Council ran New France
    -Governor:highest rank, commander of professional army, defense, external affairs
    -Intendant:influential, chief administrator, controlled budget, collect taxes, justice, seigneurial system, built roads, set up industries, business & money affairs
    -Bishop:chosen by Pope, in charge of priests, hospitals, schools, charities, religion
    -Captain of Militia(not on council):policed seigneuries
  • Power relations between the Church and the State

    Power relations between the Church and the State
    -Church is involved in political decisions because of its role in the Sovereign Council The Church's roles:
    -Priests in charge of parishes
    -Priests working as missionaries
    -Nuns working in hospitals
  • Power relations between the colony and the mothercountry

    Power relations between the colony and the mothercountry
    -The influence of decisions made by the mother country on the power in the colony
    -Absolute monarchy: The king names administrators of the colony and can still reverse any decisions they make
    -The people who moved to New France from France are happier because in New France, everyone had to be very independent therefore they became their own distinct set of people called Canadians
  • Peace Treaty (Great Peace of Montreal)

    Peace Treaty (Great Peace of Montreal)
    -Peace treaty between New France and 40 First Nations of North America
    -Signed on August 4, 1701, by Louis-Hector de Callière, governor of New France, and 1300 representatives of 40 aboriginal nations
    -The French, allied to the Hurons and the Algonquians, provided 16 years of peace and trade before war started again
    -Part of the Iroquois confederacy, the Huron peoples, and the Algonquian peoples were all present during the signing.
    -Sometimes called the "Grand Settlement of 1701"
  • Articles of capitulation

    Articles of capitulation
    The document stated:
    -The French Militia could return home, no one would lose their property
    -The French Regular military would lay down their arms and leave
    -The people could practice the Roman Catholic religion, but the Bishop had to leave
    -The people who stayed would become British Subjects -Only the elite left because they could afford it
    -English merchants arrived trying to take over businesses abandoned by French elite
  • Life in New France

    Life in New France
    -Settlers had happy lives but worked hard (caring for crops, making clothes, fixing tools, preparing for winter)
    -Settlers were self-dependent
    -New France was different from France where there were very rich and many poor
    -Distance from France, the king had less control
    -People were independent in New France and became Canadian, 13 colonies became American
    -People who remained after British Conquest:
    Nobility/Elite (Governor)
    Middle Class/Bourgeoisie (Seigneurs)
    Peasants/Habitant (censitaries)
  • Royal Proclamation

    Royal Proclamation
    -The King’s new colony name: The Province of Quebec
    -It decreases the borders to just around the St-Lawrence river valley
    -Put in place a civilian Government to run the new colony: The King appointed a Governor who chose members of an Executive Council to advise him
    -English Criminal and Civil laws were applied
    -Unused land would be divided by the Township System (squares)
    -No new Bishop would be allowed
    -Roman Catholics could hold public office (Test Act)
    -Goal to control and assimilate French
  • James Murray

    James Murray
    -He found that the Royal Proclamation wouldn't work because only 1% of the population was English and Protestant
    -Bent the rules to make the French who were Roman Catholic content
    -The changes he made were allowing a new Bishop, changing the laws to French civil, English criminal
    -Did not call an elected assembly because it favored English Merchants
    -English Merchants were opposed to his policies and demanded a new Governor from the King
  • Treaty of Paris

    Treaty of Paris
    -After the 7 years war ended
    -France and Britain signed the Treaty of Paris which gave all of the territory of New France to Britain except for St-Pierre and Miquelon
  • Quebec Act

    Quebec Act
    -Guarantees French Canadian loyalty
    -Enlarges the area of Quebec
    -Denied an elected assembly
    -Appointed council (min.17 members)
    -French civil laws were instated, tithe and seigneurial system are back
    -Test Act Oath→ Test Oath of Allegiance (swear to king you’re loyal, and could hold office)
    -Americans are upset about all this
  • Guy Carleton

    Guy Carleton
    -Replaced James Murray as governor
    -Kept the same tolerant policies as Murray
    -He wanted the loyalty of the French as the Americans were starting to gain independence
  • Constitutional Act

    Constitutional Act
    Province of Quebec was split up into two parts;
    -Upper Canada, that was entirely English (20 000 people), would be all protestants and would use the township system with English civil laws
    -Lower Canada, that was mostly French (160 000 people), would keep the French religion (Catholicism), people could work in administration
  • Representative Government

    Representative Government
    -Governor: appointed by the parliament, commanded forces, in charge of administration, has veto power, calls assemblies into session
    -Lieutenant Governor: acted as deputy governor
    -Executive Council: appointed and advised by the Governor
    -Legislative Council: appointed, approved or rejected laws from the assembly
    -Legislative Assembly:people elected every 4 years, could approve or disapprove taxes, and could create laws
    -Ordinary people, for the first time, had a say in the government
  • Faults in Representative Government

    Faults in Representative Government
    -Legislative Assembly had the power to make laws, but when they tried to do so they were shut down by the Governor and his Council's veto power
    The two sides had different interests:
    - Wealthy governors & council members wanted to invest money in big business and tax property (canals and railways)
    - The legislative assembly wanted to tax goods instead of property and didn’t want to invest in such large projects that wouldn’t benefit them
    -Worse in Lower Canada because of language issues
  • 92 Resolutions

    92 Resolutions
    -The leader of the Patriotes: Louis Joseph Papineau
    -He wrote 92 Resolutions (a list of the assemblies demands)
    -Main demand was for Responsible Government (for the members of the councils to be selected from the elected assembly) and the government made up by the people would be responsible for its decisions
    -He sent these resolutions to London
  • Rebellions of 1837-38

    Rebellions of 1837-38
    -In reaction to Russell's refusal of the 92 resolutions
    -Upper Canada’s Rebellion: lead by William Lyon Mackenzie and quickly put down
    -Lower Canada’s Rebellion: lead by Louis Joseph Papineau and after several battles St-Charles, St-Denis, St-Eustache the rebellion was put down
    -Patriotes were poorly organised and equipped and even though they were supported by the clergy, they didn't have enough support outside Montreal
    -12 Patriotes hanged outside Montreal’s prison
    -58 exiled to Australia
  • Russell's 10 Resolutions

    Russell's 10 Resolutions
    -Lord Russell's response to the 92 resolutions
    -10 Resolutions (solutions which didn’t solve any of the Patriotes main demands, in fact it gave more power to councils)
    -Response was taken as an insult and rebellions broke out in both Upper and Lower Canada
  • Lord Durham's Recommendations

    Lord Durham's Recommendations
    -Durham's purpose was to make sure nothing like the rebellions would ever happen again His recommendations were:
    -Britain should increase immigration in order to assimilate the French. So that they become the minority.
    -The two Canada’s should be united (english now have majority)
    -Responsible Government should be granted to eliminate veto power. -These ideas were first rejected by the British Parliament until the Act of Union in 1840
  • Act of Union

    Act of Union
    -Creates the Province of Canada consisting of Canada East and West (former upper and lower Canada).
    -Canada East and West both had 42 members to its assembly
    -Governor still had control and veto power
    -Both Canadas would equally pay for Canada’s debts (Canada West owed 10 times more)
  • Responsible Government

    Responsible Government
    Responsible Government was adopted slowly:
    -1842:The Prime minister selects members of the executive council from the assembly
    -1848:Lord Elgin was the first to not use his veto power and allow the Prime minister executive power
    The structure of Responsible Government:
    -Legislative Assembly is elected
    -Prime minister would Form the Cabinet (Executive Council) who would propose laws that were approved through the assembly
    -Governor and Legislative council were still chosen but didn't intervene
  • The Charlottetown Conference

    The Charlottetown Conference
    -The political system was responsible but no one could agree on who should be in charge, no party could win a majority government
    -The party leaders agreed a merger was necessary, meetings were needed to discuss such things
    -Charlottetown Conference was first:
    -Leaders of Canada East/West (Quebec and Ontario) meet with the leaders of New Brunswick,Nova Scotia,Prince Edward Island
    -They left the meetings agreeing to consider a merger
  • The Quebec Conference

    The Quebec Conference
    Same members plus Nfld
    Agreed on 72 resolutions that would make the merger possible:
    -Federal system
    -24 seats to each colony
    -Assembly elected by “rep by pop”
    -Railway between colonies -The conferences went well but the people weren’t accepting of what their politicians were moving towards
    -Nfld, and PEI withdrew (railroad won’t benefit them because they’re islands)
    -Dorion’s Parti Rouge opposed the federation
    -Assembly of the Canada’s passed confederation
    -Still need Britain's approval
  • The London Conference

    The London Conference
    -Leaders of the 4 colonies meet to make arrangement to release from the British Empire to become a new “self-governing” colony
    -The Dominion of Canada with its capital of Ottawa was created under the British North America Act
    -Passed in March, came into existence in Canada on July 1st 1867 containing 4 provinces: Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia
    -The other provinces would join between 1870 and 1949 (Newfoundland and Labrador were the last to join)
  • Influence of the Roman Catholic Church

    Influence of the Roman Catholic Church
    -After 1837 the bishops became more and more powerful
    -Church was still in charge of registering births, marriages, deaths.
    -Controlling education (Laval University 1852)
    -Orphanages, Shelters, Charities, Religious festivals
    -Roman Catholic Church attendance was very high
    -Protestants were divided (Anglicans, Presbyterians, Methodists, Baptists etc)
    -Ministers still influential but not as powerful as R.C.
    -Protestant Universities: McGill(1821), Bishops(1843)
  • Section 91 and 92

    Section 91 and 92
    -The Federal Government had certain responsibilities as did the provinces
    Section 91 (Federal) responsibilities:
    -Defense, banking and money, postal service, and criminal law
    Section 92 (provincial) responsibilities:
    -Municipal institutions, hospitals, and property and civil rights
    -Immigration and agriculture were shared responsibilities between the Federal and Provincial governments
    -The Federal Government could also disallow any provincial law
  • Period:

    Official Power and Countervailing Power