Culture and Currents of Thought

Timeline created by Jordan Kravitz
In History
  • Divine Rights of Kings

    Divine Rights of Kings
    The King was said to be God's representative on Earth and was said to be directly chosen by God. He was not to be challenged. The king and the Church have strong ties. This was part of the current of thought known as Absolutism.
  • Catholicism

    Catholicism is the belief and values of the Catholic Church. The loyalty of the followers gave the Church great authority. The Church had a lot of power. They were responsible for education, health care and hospitals, poor and orphans. Their goal was to convert the Amerindians to Catholicism.
  • Founding of the College des Jésuites

    Founding of the College des Jésuites
    College des Jésuites was founded in 1635 by the Jesuits. It was a school available to only elite Catholic boys. Since the Catholic Church was responsible for all education, the teachers and staff were all members of the clergy. Students learned to read, write, to do mathematics and a little bit of geography.
  • Founding of Ville-Marie

    Founding of Ville-Marie
    Ville-Marie was founded by Chomedey de Maisonneuve and the Societe de Notre-Dame de Montreal to convert Natives to the Catholic faith and the European way of life and thought. It was founded to evangelize the Amerindians. One of the missions of Ultramontanism is to evangelize the Amerindians. This mission was possible in Ville-Marie.
  • Founding of the Grand Séminaire du Quebec

    Founding of the Grand Séminaire du Quebec
    The Grand Seminaire was founded as a school to train priests. This promoted Cathlocism and Ultramonatism. It is an example of how the Catholic Church took charge of higher education in New France; Only elite boys could pursue higher education.
  • Publication of the Catechism

    Publication of the Catechism
    The Catholic Church published the "Catechisme du Diocese de Quebec". This was a book made to express the teachings of the Catholic faith and its practices. It was first printed in France then began to be printed in New France. It was designed for new converts or children to confirm their faith as it's layout was in the form of questions and anwsers.
  • British Imperialism

    British Imperialism
    With the conquest of the Province of Quebec, Great Britain added a new colony to their large empire. Since it was now a British colony, it was to be governed using the British way of life. There were changes in the laws of the land, the administration of the colony, in the government, the name of the colony, rules regarding the use of the French language and the Catholic Church. This affected the Canadians greatly as they felt they were losing their identity.
  • Creation of the Gazette

    Creation of the Gazette
    The Quebec Gazette was first created by William Brown and Thomas Gilmore in 1764. It was printed in both English and French to appeal to Anglophones and Francophones. Following, the Montreal Gazette was created in 1775 and was only printed in English. The Gazette expressed liberal ideas and criticized Catholicism and the clergy's teachings. This newspaper was the voice of Canadian liberal supporters.
  • Liberalism in Lower Canada

    Liberalism in Lower Canada
    The rise of liberalism, all individuals are equal and have fundamental rights, placed great importance on religious, economic, cultural and political freedom. Liberalism gave the populations the right to live and be safe, to freedom (expression) and to own private property; these rights were guaranteed by a constitution. These rights helped Canadians to start to regain their identity.
  • French Canadian Nationalism

    French Canadian Nationalism
    In 1826, the French citizens of Quebec wanted to preserve their French culture. They did not want to be dominated by the British, Parti Canadien proposed a democratic system to give everyone a voice, not just the British government. Through newspapers, art and politics they were able to express themselves and voice their ideas of French Canadian nationalism.
  • Ultramontanism

    The Church had spiritual power over the State. This greatly affected the population of Quebec. Their lives worked around the Catholic Religion since the Church controlled education, health and politics. They preached the "Old Ways" of life such as big families, rural lifestyles and french language.
  • Anticlericalism

    This was the opposite of Ultramontanism. Liberals were against the involvement of the Church in all aspects of life except the religious sphere. They wanted to modernize the culture of Quebec and get rid of the idea of traditionalism. The Institut Canadian allowed liberals to express themselves freely without the Catholic Churches influence. This was a big change in Canadian culture since the Church had always had great influence over the people.
  • Capitalism

    This ideology benefits only the wealthy and created an evident inequality in society. Since industrialization was taking place, a large amount of capital was needed and from this, the wealthy could invest and make profits. This changed the culture because the style of architecture took a change. The financial resources were avaiable to build intricatly built and decorated buidlings and houses which are still present today and are a great example of Quebec's culture.
  • Canadian and French Canadian Nationalism

    Canadian and French Canadian Nationalism
    Canadian and French Canadian Nationalism was not only limited to Quebec. In Manitoba, the French citizens wanted to preserve their French culture. They did not want to be dominated by the British. Louis Riel was a politician that represented the Metis (Aboriginal-European decent) population. He led two rebellions against the Government of Canada trying to protect the Metis homeland and culture. He was later hung for resisting against the Government.
  • Agriculturalism

    This current of thought was supported by nationalists and the clergy as they believed that urbanization and industrialization will ruin the foundation of Quebec (Catholic faith, French language, rural life, big families). The Church persuaded French Candians to move to underdeveloped regions to live on and farm the land. During the Great Depression, agriculturalism was used as a solution to lower the unemployment rate in the cities.
  • Feminism

    Women unions were formed to fight for the rights of women across Canada. They wanted political rights, a place in the workplace, equality to men and more control. After WWI women obtained the right to vote in federal elections. During WWII women entered the workforce and labour was needed to fulfill the needs in industry productions. After WWII feminism became more demanding as the women wanted change and they wanted it now.
  • Rise of the Cooperative Movement

    Rise of the Cooperative Movement
    Thanks to agriculturalism, farming increased. New farming machinery was developed but was too expensive. Farmers decided to pool their money together and buy machinery to share. This work under the fundamentals of cooperatism. The Caisses Desjardins is a financial cooperative that was founded for the farmers to obtain funds and invest in farming equipment. In cooperatism, everyone is equal and everyone has a fair share.
  • Fascism

    Fascism is an ideology that believes one ethnicity is superior to another and therefore only one political party should have control. It appeared in Europe during WWI and came to Canada around 1921. It promotes tradition, totalitarianism and extreme nationalism. An example of fascism is the attmept at the elimination of the Jewish in WWII by Hitler. In Quebec, an example is the Parti National Social Chretien who promoted anti-semitic ideas.
  • Socialism

    Socialism is the idea that everything belongs to society. It criticized capitalism and was against private ownership. Communism is an extreme version of socialism. The Cooperative Commonwealth Federation was founded by socialists. They wanted greater control of public services by the government and not by the wealthy.
  • Americanism

    With the successful economy of the 1950's, working-class families' ways of life improved and household tasks became easier thanks to Americanism. They adopted new habits of consumption because of the higher salaries it allowed them to purchase surplus goods. Influenced by the prchasing habits of the Americans, they could purchase goods such as televisions, radios and cars; they were living the American lifestyle.
  • Secularism

    Secularism was the idea that Church and State should be separated. Because of this, the Chruch experienced a rapid loss of power. They were now only responsible for all spiritual matter; no longer all education, social works, and health care. The Ministy of Education of Quebec was created and implemented new regulations within schools. Primary and secondary schooling was now free and compulsory as well as the creation of CEGEPS and a loan/bursuri system.
  • Quebec Nationalism

    Quebec Nationalism
    During the Duplessis Era, nationalists turned against capitalists and wanted to bring back traditional values such as; family, respect for the hierarchy, religious education, agriculture and the rural way of life. They wanted the inhabitants of Quebec to be proud of the Church and to come from this nation. Lionel Groulx and Henri Bourassa were supporters of this view. Bourassa believed Canada should be independent of GB and that the French and English should form one nation.
  • Aboriginalism

    Aboriginals began demanding respect and rights for their culture as they wanted the preserve it. Becuase of the colonization of Quebec's territory, a majority of their culture and identity had been lost; they wanted to preserve what was left for future generations. Their main objectives were to preserve their culture, maintain tradition, protect Aboriginal territories as well as their resources and language. It was their verison of nationalism; First Nations Nationalism.
  • Neoliberalism

    Neoliberalists wanted there to be a sharing of power; a middle group between State and Government. They did not want to state to intervene in economic matters and were against taxes and customs duties between countries. Their demands include: reduction in state intervention in areas of public life, free markets to encourage economic trade and to have individual responsability.
  • Period: to

    Patriotes rebellions

    The Patriotes rebelled because they feared the loss of their Canadian culture and they also wanted the establishment of a democratic system. Thus, they didn't want to get dominated by the British so they rebelled.