A Chart of America’s Black Holocaust

Timeline created by Cleeze
In History
  • 1492

    First Indigenous Enslavement

    First Indigenous Enslavement
    Africans first came to the New World with Christopher Columbus in 1492. Juan Las Canaries was a crewman on Columbus's flagship, the Santa Maria. Not much long after, the first enslavement occurred in what would later be the United States. Columbus makes the first of four voyages to the “New World.” Black men arrive with Columbus as sailors, and other Africans come as soldiers with the Spanish explorers who later conquer and colonize the Ca rib bean islands and the Americas.
  • 1505

    Sugar Cane Grown by Slaves

    Sugar Cane Grown by Slaves
    1st record of sugar cane being grown in the New World, in Santo Domingo (modern Dominican Republic).
  • Jan 22, 1510

    Start of the Slave Trade

    Start of the Slave Trade
    The start of the systematic transportation of African slaves to the New World: King Ferdinand of Spain authorises a shipment of 50 African slaves to be sent to Santo Domingo.
  • Apr 1, 1513

    Juan Ponce de Leon Arrives in Florida

    Juan Ponce de Leon Arrives in Florida
    Spanish explorer Juan Ponce de Leon becomes the first European to reach the coast of what is now the United States of America (southeastern coast of modern Florida). Claiming the territory for the Spanish crown and forever changing life for Florida tribes.
  • 1516

    The Governor of Cuba

    The Governor of Cuba
    The governor of Cuba and "the richest Spaniard in the Americas", Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar, authorises slave-raiding expeditions to Central America. One group of slaves aboard a Spanish caravel rebel and kill the Spanish crew before sailing home - the first successful slave rebellion recorded in the New World. Velázquez lost his governorship of Cuba in 1521, for his misuse of indigenous labor but he was restored to office in 1523.
  • 1st European Colony established in America, Jamestown, Va

    1st European Colony established in America, Jamestown, Va
    European nations came to the Americas to increase their wealth and broaden their influence over world affairs. The Spanish were among the first Europeans to explore the New World and the first to settle in what is now the United States.
  • 1st African Slaves brought to America by Dutch Traders, Jamestown

    1st African Slaves brought to America by Dutch Traders, Jamestown
    The first documented arrival of Africans to the colony of Virginia was recorded by John Rolfe: "About the latter end of August, a Dutch man of Warr of the burden of a 160 tunes arrived at Point-Comfort, the Comandors name Capt Jope, his Pilott for the West Indies one Mr Marmaduke an Englishman. … He brought not any thing but 20. and odd Negroes, w[hich] the Governo[r] and Cape Merchant bought for victuall."
  • Plymouth, Mass Pilgrims Founded Plymouth

    Plymouth, Mass Pilgrims Founded Plymouth
    Plymouth Colony. Plymouth Colony First colonial settlement in New England (founded 1620). The settlers were a group of about 100 Puritan Separatist Pilgrims, who sailed on the Mayflower and settled on what is now Cape Cod bay, Massachusetts. They named the first town after their port of departure.
  • Slaves in New York

    The Dutch colony of New Amsterdam ( later New York) is founded by approximately 100 settlers; within a year, as many as eleven black African male slaves arrive from Angola.
  • Night Watch

    Night Watch
    The City of Boston established the first system of law enforcement in the 13 colonies. The towns people formed a "night watch" made up of six watchmen, one constable, and several volunteers who patrolled at night, walking the rounds. This ran for over 200 years. The local court ordered that "Watches be set at sunset, and if any person fire off a piece after the watch is set, he shall be fined forty shillings, or be whipped".
  • Africans from the Caribbean island of Barbados

    The first American ship carrying enslaved Africans from the Caribbean island of Barbados, the Desire, sails into Boston Harbor; its cargo also includes salt, cotton, and tobacco.
  • Act X: Taking up Arms

    Act X: Taking up Arms
    All persons except Negroes are to be with Arms and Ammunition. Due to the passing of Act X in 1639/40, all persons except negroes are to be provided with arms and ammunition. Therefore, blacks are deprived the rights to use firearms, and shall be fined or arrested if caught in the possession of a firearm or ammunition. Prior to this law's passing, all men English and Negro alike, were permitted to own a firearm.
  • The Casual Killing of Slaves

    The Casual Killing of Slaves
    Since Act I has been passed, masters have the right to "correct" there disobedient slave since there service couldn't be extended. Masters can brutally beat or kill a slave for being unfaithful, stripping a slave from humanity and being treated now better then livestock. This adds to diminishing progress because slaves are now deprived of guns, land rights, and a single mistake, almost to the point where slaves are objects.
  • Slave Patrol

    Slave Patrol
    Black slavery coming to dominate southern society, the colonies made slave codes provided for the creation of brutal slave patrols, protecting the plantations and punishing those responsible for serious crimes.
  • American Independence

    American Independence
    The Congress had voted in favour of independence from Great Britain on July 2 but did not actually complete the process of revising the Declaration of Independence, originally drafted by Thomas Jefferson in consultation with fellow committee members John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Roger Sherman, and William Livingston, until two days later .
  • Three-Fifths Compromise

    Three-Fifths Compromise
    How slaves would be counted when determining a state's total population for legislative representation and taxing purposes and this population number would then be used to determine the number of seats that the state would have in the House of Representatives for 10 yrs. Solution was to count 3 out of every 5 slaves as people. This gave The South a 3rd more seats in Congress and 3rd more electoral votes.
    Proposed by James Wilson and 2nd by Charles Pinckney
  • Fugitive Slave Act

    Fugitive Slave Act
    The Fugitive Slave Act of 1793 was an Act of the United States Congress to give effect to the Fugitive Slave Clause of the US Constitution (Article 4, Section 2, Clause 3), which was later superseded by the Thirteenth Amendment. The former guaranteed a right for a slaveholder to recover an escaped slave. The Act, "An Act respecting fugitives from justice, and persons escaping from the service of their masters," created the legal mechanism by which that could be accomplished.
  • The Star-Spangled Banner

    The Star-Spangled Banner
    Poem written by Francis Scott Key later set to music in 1931 and becomes America’s national anthem, Originally titled The Defence of Fort McHenry, was witnessed the Maryland fort being bombarded by the British during the War of 1812. Key was inspired by the sight of a lone US flag still flying over Fort McHenry at daybreak,
  • Revolt of Nat Turner in South Hampton, Va

    Revolt of Nat Turner in South Hampton, Va
    Nat Turner led the deadliest slave rebellion in American history. Over the course of 48 hours, Turner and a group of rebel slaves killed more than 50 whites. Fifty-six black people accused of participating in Nat Turner's rebellion were executed, and more than 200 others were beaten by angry mobs or white militias.Turner was skinned to supply such souvenirs as purses, his flesh made into grease, and his bones divided as trophies to be handed down as heirlooms.
  • Harriet Tudman Freed

    Harriet Tudman Freed
    After escaping slavery on her own in 1849, Harriet Tubman helped others journey on the Underground Railroad. From 1850 to 1860 she made an estimated 13 trips and rescued around 70 enslaved people, including many members of her family. She also provided information so that others could find their way north to freedom. Tubman aided so many in escaping slavery that she was called "Moses."
  • Fugitive Slave Act

    Fugitive Slave Act
    Federal laws that allowed for the capture and return of runaway enslaved people within the territory of the US. Enacted by Congress in 1793, the first Fugitive Slave Act authorized local governments to seize and return escapees to their owners and imposed penalties on anyone who aided in their flight. Widespread resistance to the 1793 law led to the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850. It added more provisions regarding runaways and levied harsher punishments for interfering in their capture.
  • Jingle Bells" originally performed in 1857 as “blackface”

    Jingle Bells" originally performed in 1857 as “blackface”
    Everything has an origin and in most cases, a racial undertone. In commemoration of this christ-MESS, most should be aware that the song "Jingle Bells" was actually a racist song.
    .
    “Jingle Bells" originally performed in 1857 as “blackface” (white people painted their faces black) in a minstrel show as “One Horse Open Sleigh” in Boston. Slavery wasn’t abolished in the US until 8yrs later. This song mocked enslaved Afrikanz who were still in slavery!”
  • Dred Scott v. Sandford

    Dred Scott v. Sandford
    Dred Scott v. Sandford, 60 U.S. (19 How.) 393 (1857), was a landmark decision of the US Supreme Court in which the Court held that the US Constitution was not meant to include American citizenship for black people, regardless of whether they were enslaved or free, and so the rights and privileges that the Constitution confers upon American citizens could not apply to them
  • U.S.A. The Homestead Act

    U.S.A. The Homestead Act
    President Abraham Lincoln signs into law the original Homestead Act on May 20th, 1862. The Homestead Act gave an applicant freehold title to up to 160 acres (1/4 section, 65 hectares) of undeveloped federal land outside the original 13 colonies.
  • The Emancipation Proclamation

    The Emancipation Proclamation
    President Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation on January 1, 1863, as the nation approached its third year of bloody civil war. The proclamation declared "that all persons held as slaves" within the rebellious states "are, and henceforward shall be free."
  • Devil's Punchbowl Held Black Union Soldiers in camps

    Devil's Punchbowl Held Black Union Soldiers in camps
    When the slaves were released from the plantations during the occupation they overran Natchez, Mississippi. And the population went from about 10,000 to 120,000 overnight. They decided to build an encampment for 'em at Devil's Punchbowl which they walled off and wouldn't let 'em out.
  • New York City Race & Draft Riots

    New York City Race & Draft Riots
    The New York City draft riots (July 13–16, 1863), known at the time as Draft Week, were violent disturbances in Lower Manhattan, widely regarded as the culmination of white working-class discontent with new laws passed by Congress that year to draft men to fight in the ongoing American Civil War. The riots remain the largest civil and most racially-charged urban disturbance in American history.
  • 13th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution: Abolition of Slavery

    13th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution: Abolition of Slavery
    Passed by Congress on January 31, 1865, and ratified on December 6, 1865, the 13th amendment abolished slavery in the United States and provides that "Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.".
  • Slaves recieved their actual freedom

    Slaves recieved their actual freedom
    An unofficial US holiday, official Texas state holiday, celebrated annually to commemorate Union army general Gordon Granger announcing federal orders in Galveston, TX that all slaves in Texas were now free. The Emancipation Proclamation had freed them but Texas was the most remote of the slave states, with a low presence of Union troops, so enforcement of the proclamation had been slow and inconsistent.
  • Ku Klux Klan Founded in Pulaski, TN

    Ku Klux Klan Founded in Pulaski, TN
    6 Confederate veterans, meeting in Pulaski, Tennessee, formed a secret society that they called the Ku Klux Klan. The name combines the Greek word for circle (kyklos) with the Gaelic word clan. In the aftermath of the Civil War, the KKK quickly morphed from a social fraternity to a violent group that sought to push back against key Reconstruction policies championed by Radical Republicans in Congress — policies that for the first time enfranchised former African-American slaves.
  • National Labor Union (NLU) Founded

    National Labor Union (NLU) Founded
    Organized in 1866 as one of the first official labor unions; led by William H. Sylvis; goal was to unify workers to challenge their powerful bosses; gained 600,000 members in six years (skilled/unskilled farmers/excluded Chinese/little effort to accept women and blacks); promoted arbitration of industrial disputes/successfully enforced the eight hour work day for government workers; hit hard by the depression in 1870s and lost majority of its members to Knights of Labor; dissolved 1874
  • National Association of Amateur Baseball Players reject black membership

    National Association of Amateur Baseball Players reject black membership
    The National Association of Amateur Base Ball Players rejected African American membership in 1867, and in 1876, owners of the professional National League adopted a “gentleman's agreement” to keep blacks out.
  • Colored National Labor Union (CNLU)

    Colored National Labor Union (CNLU)
    Stemmed from National Labor Union as a result of discrimination; organized in 1869 with Isaac Myers as president; egalitarian (accepted skilled/unskilled workers/women/industrial and agricultural workers); in 1872 headed by Frederick Douglass and identified more with the republican party
  • The Enforcement Acts

    The Enforcement Acts
    3 bills passed by the US Congress 1870-1871. They were criminal codes that protected blacks right to vote, to hold office, to serve on juries, and receive equal protection of laws. The acts passed following the ratification of the 14th Amendment to the US Constitution, which gave full citizenship to anyone born in the United States or freed slaves, and the 15th Amendment, which banned racial discrimination in voting.
  • Civil Rights Act of 1871, Ku Klux Klan Act, Third Enforcement Act

    Civil Rights Act of 1871, Ku Klux Klan Act, Third Enforcement Act
    Third Ku Klux Klan Act, is an Act of the United States Congress which empowered the President to suspend the writ of habeas corpus to combat the Ku Klux Klan (KKK) and other white supremacy organizations. The act was passed by the 42nd United States Congress and signed into law by United States President Ulysses S. Grant on April 20, 1871. The statute has been subject to only minor changes since then, but has been the subject of voluminous interpretation by courts.
  • Gentleman’s agreement to keep black players out of baseball

    Gentleman’s agreement to keep black players out of baseball
  • Sir Francis Galton coined the term "Eugenics"

    Sir Francis Galton coined the term "Eugenics"
    Sir Francis Galton first coined the term “eugenics” in 1883. Put simply, eugenics means “well-born.” Initially Galton focused on positive eugenics, encouraging healthy, capable people of above-average intelligence to bear more children, with the idea of building an “improved” human race.
  • Louisiana Law: Separated But Equal

    Louisiana Law: Separated But Equal
    Ferguson. In 1890 a new Louisiana law required railroads to provide “equal but separate accommodations for the white, and colored, races.” Outraged, the black community in New Orleans decided to test the rule. ... Ferguson upheld the law, and the case of Plessy v. Ferguson slowly moved up to the Supreme Court.
  • Segregation in America Ruled Constitutional

    Segregation in America Ruled Constitutional
    Judge John H. Ferguson upheld the law, and the case of Plessy v. Ferguson slowly moved up to the Supreme Court. On May 18, 1896, the U.S. Supreme Court, with only one dissenting vote, ruled that segregation in America was constitutional.
  • Wilmington Massacre

    Wilmington Massacre
    A coup d'état was a violent overthrow the elected government by white supremacists. Brought about more severe racial segregation, raising barriers to voter registration, and effective disenfranchisement of blacks throughout the South. White Southern Democrats conspired and led a mob of 2,000 white men to overthrow the government. They destroyed the property and businesses of black citizens built up since the Civil War, including the only black newspaper in the city. 60 - 300 est killed
  • Sigim Pi Phi Fraternity (The Boulé) founded

    Sigim Pi Phi Fraternity (The Boulé) founded
    Founded in Philadelphia, Pa by Edwin Howard, Algernon Jackson, Henry McKee Minton and Richard Warrick. First Greek-letter fraternity to be founded by black men. Membership was for men who have already achieved some degree of success in their profession. The founders included two doctors, a dentist and a pharmacist. Black professionals were not offered participation in the professional/cultural associations organized by whites. Over 5k members and 139 chapters in US, England & Bahamas
  • Atlanta Race Riots

    Atlanta Race Riots
    An attack by armed mobs of white against blacks in Atlanta, GA which began the evening of September 22 and lasted through September 24, 1906. The events were reported by newspapers around the world, including the French Le Petit Journal which described the "lynchings in the USA" and the "massacre of Negroes in Atlanta,"
  • Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity founded

    Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity founded
    1st historically African American intercollegiate Greek-lettered fraternity. It was initially a literary and social studies club organized at Cornell University but later evolved into a fraternity. It employs an icon from Ancient Egypt, the Great Sphinx of Giza, as its symbol. Its aims are "Manly Deeds, Scholarship, and Love For All Mankind," and its motto is "First of All, Servants of All, We Shall Transcend All." Its archives are preserved at the Moorland-Spingarn Research Center.
  • Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority founded

    Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority founded
    1st historically black Greek-lettered sorority for college-educated women. The sorority was founded at the historically black Howard University in Washington, D.C., by a group of sixteen students led by Ethel Hedgeman Lyle. Forming a sorority broke barriers for black women in areas where they had little power or authority due to a lack of opportunities for minorities and women in the early 20th century.
  • NYC NAACP founded

    NYC NAACP founded
    The NAACP or National Association for the Advancement of Colored People was established in 1909 and is America's oldest and largest civil rights organization. It was formed in New York City by white and black activists, partially in response to the ongoing violence against African Americans around the country.
  • Kappa Alpha Psi Fraternity founded

    Kappa Alpha Psi Fraternity founded
    A historically Black intercollegiate Greek-letter fraternity. Founded at Indiana University Bloomington, the fraternity has never limited membership based on color, creed or national origin. The fraternity has over 160,000 members with 721 undergraduate and alumni chapters in every state of the United States, and international chapters in the United Kingdom, Germany, South Korea, Japan, United States Virgin Islands, Nigeria, South Africa, and The Bahamas.
  • Omega Psi Phi founded

    Omega Psi Phi founded
    A intercollegiate, international historically black Greek-letter fraternity. The organization has over 750 undergraduate and graduate chapters. The fraternity was founded by three Howard University juniors, Edgar Amos Love, Oscar J. Cooper and Frank Coleman, and their faculty adviser, Dr. Ernest Everett Just. Omega Psi Phi is the first predominantly African-American fraternity to be founded at a historically black university
  • Delta Sigma Theta Sorority founded

    Delta Sigma Theta Sorority founded
    Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, Incorporated is a historically African American Greek-lettered sorority. The organization was founded by college-educated women dedicated to public service with an emphasis on programs that target the African American community.
  • Phi Beta Sigma founded

    Phi Beta Sigma founded
    A intercollegiate, international historically black Greek letter fraternity. It was founded at Howard University in Washington, D.C. by three young African-American male students with nine other Howard students as charter members.
  • Selective Service Act of 1917

    Selective Service Act of 1917
    The military was entirely segregated but the War Department included blacks in the draft. 2,290,527 blacks were registered for the draft. Draft board officials tore off the lower left-hand corner of the Selective Service form of a blacks, indicating his designation for segregated units. Majority of black soldiers were employed only in labor functions (road-building and freight-handling) Only 2 black combat units of were established (92nd and 93rd Infantry Divisions)
  • Houston riot of 1917 - The Camp Logan Mutiny

    Houston riot of 1917 - The Camp Logan Mutiny
    156 soldiers of the 3rd Battalion of the all-black 24th US Infantry Regiment rioted. Houston Police harassed the local black community and the black soldiers who attempted to intervene were also violently accosted. The soldiers mutinied and marched on Houston, shooting and killing numerous people. 11 deaths, 5 policemen, 4 soldiers killed from friendly fire. Sergeant Vida Henry led the mutineers committed suicide. Punishment: 3 courts-martial, 9 executed, 41 were sentenced to life imprisonment.
  • Red Summer of 1919: How Black WWI Vets Fought Back Against Racist Mobs

    Red Summer of 1919: How Black WWI Vets Fought Back Against Racist Mobs
    During the Red Summer, massive anxiety became mass violence. Between April and November of 1919 there would be roughly 25 riots (includes mob violence) 97 recorded lynchings & a 3 day long massacre in Elaine, Ak during which over 200 black men, women, & children were killed after black sharecroppers tried to organize for better working conditions. The KKK experienced a resurgence in popularity and began carrying out dozens of lynchings across the south.
  • Zeta Phi Beta Sorority founded

    Zeta Phi Beta Sorority founded
    A international, historically black Greek-lettered sorority. Five women from Howard University envisioned a sorority that would raise the consciousness of their people, encourage the highest standards of scholastic achievement, and foster a greater sense of unity among its members. These women believed that sorority elitism and socializing overshadowed the real mission for progressive organizations. Since its founding Zeta Phi Beta has historically focused on addressing social causes.
  • Negro National League founded by Rube Foster

    Negro National League founded by Rube Foster
    Led by Rube Foster, owner and manager of the Chicago American Giants, the NNL was established on February 13, 1920 by a coalition of team owners at a meeting in a Kansas City YMCA. The new league was the first African-American baseball circuit to achieve stability and last more than one season.
  • 19th Amendment Right to Vote

    19th Amendment Right to Vote
    The 19th amendment guarantees all American women the right to vote. Achieving this milestone required a lengthy and difficult struggle; victory took decades of agitation and protest. Beginning in the mid-19th century, several generations of woman suffrage supporters lectured, wrote, marched, lobbied, and practiced civil disobedience to achieve what many Americans considered a radical change of the Constitution. Few early supporters lived to see final victory in 1920.
  • Race Riot Tulsa Ok

    Race Riot Tulsa Ok
    The Tulsa race massacre of 1921 took place on May 31 and June 1, 1921, when mobs of white residents attacked black residents and businesses of the Greenwood District in Tulsa, Oklahoma. It has been called "the single worst incident of racial violence in American history. 800+; 183 serious injuries; exact number unknown
  • Sigma Gamma Rho Sorority founded

    Sigma Gamma Rho Sorority founded
    A historically black Greek lettered sorority. ΣΓΡ was founded at Butler University in Indianapolis, Indiana by seven young educators. The sorority is a non-profit whose aim is to enhance the quality of life within the community. Public service, leadership development and the education of youth are the hallmark of the organization's programs and activities.
  • Rosewood Massacre

    Rosewood Massacre
    The Rosewood massacre was a racially motivated massacre of black people and destruction of a black town that took place during the first week of January 1923 in rural Levy County, Florida. At least six black people and two white people were killed, though eyewitness accounts suggested a higher death toll of 27 to 150.
  • Scottsboro Boys

    The Scottsboro Boys were nine African American teenagers, ages 13 to 19, falsely accused in Alabama of raping two white women on a train in 1931. The landmark set of legal cases from this incident dealt with racism and the right to a fair trial. The cases included a lynch mob before the suspects had been indicted, all-white juries, rushed trials, and disruptive mobs. It is commonly cited as an example of a miscarriage of justice in the United States legal system.
  • Old Slave Day

    Old Slave Day
    Attendants at Old Slave Day, Southern Pines, North Carolina. EX-slaves from the U.S. WPA, Federal Writers’ Project slave narratives collection. Old Slave Day was a day set aside annually for former African American slaves. Participants spent the day in the Municipal Park sharing their experiences and recollections with the thousands of people, black and white, who came to see and hear them.
  • Columbia Race Riot

    Columbia Race Riot
    A fight started by William "Billy" Fleming (white repair apprentice) with James Stephenson (black Navy veteran and on the boxing team) fought with Billy and wounded him. James had accompanied his mother to the repair store to settle a dispute over the selling of her non-repaired radio. A white mob gathered during the altercation, and the senior Fleming convinced the sheriff to charge both Stephenson's (mother and son) with attempted murder.
  • Jackie Robinson integrates Major League Baseball

    Jackie Robinson integrates Major League Baseball
    Jackie Robinson signs with the Montreal Royals
  • McLaurin v. Oklahoma State Regents

    McLaurin v. Oklahoma State Regents
    The plaintiff, George W. McLaurin, who already had a master's degree in education, was first denied admission to the University of Oklahoma to pursue a Doctorate in Education degree. McLaurin successfully sued in the US District Court for the Western District of Oklahoma to gain admission to the institution basing his argument on the 14th Amendment. Read More
  • Henrietta Lacks cells cloned without her permission

    Henrietta Lacks cells cloned without her permission
    Henrietta Lacks' immortal cells are one of the most important and prolific tools in medicine, used in developing the polio vaccine, cloning and gene mapping. ... part and a cancerous part - without her permission or knowledge.
  • Brown v. the Board of Education

    Brown v. the Board of Education
    Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 347 U.S. 483, was a landmark decision of the U.S. Supreme Court in which the Court ruled that U.S. state laws establishing racial segregation in public schools are unconstitutional, even if the segregated schools are otherwise equal in quality.
  • Emmett Till murdered Money, MS

    Emmett Till murdered Money, MS
    Chicago, Illinois, U.S. Money, Mississippi, U.S. Emmett Louis Till (July 25, 1941 – August 28, 1955) was a 14-year-old African American who was lynched in Mississippi in 1955, after being accused of offending a white woman in her family's grocery store.
  • Rosa Parks

    Rosa Parks
    Seamstress by profession; she was also the secretary for the Montgomery chapter of the NAACP. Twelve years before her history-making arrest, Parks was stopped from boarding a city bus by driver James F. Blake, who ordered her to board at the back door and then drove off without her. Parks vowed never again to ride a bus driven by Blake. As a member of the NAACP, Parks was an investigator assigned to cases of sexual assault.
  • School Integrated - Central High School Little Rock, AK

    School Integrated - Central High School Little Rock, AK
    Background: The desegregation of Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas, gained national attention on September 3, 1957, when Governor Orval Faubus mobilized the Arkansas National Guard in an effort to prevent nine African American students from integrating the high school.
  • Civil Rights Act of 1957

    Civil Rights Act of 1957
    An act to provide means of further securing and protecting the civil rights of persons within the jurisdiction of the United States.
  • Civil Rights Act of 1960

    Civil Rights Act of 1960
    An act to enforce constitutional rights, and for other purposes.
  • Freedom Riders Attacked At Montgomery, Alabama

    Freedom Riders Attacked At Montgomery, Alabama
    A team of freedom fighters famously known as Freedom Riders, including both white and black civil rights activists had set a series of bus trips throughout the South to protest against the widespread racial segregation. The court ruled that the segregated public interstate passenger buses were unlawful and against the constitution.
  • Cambridge Riot

    Cambridge Riot
    The 1963 Cambridge Riot was the result of racial tensions between Black and white residents in Cambridge, Maryland. After a year of demonstrations led by Baltimore’s Civic Interest Group to desegregate Maryland’s Eastern shore, many African Americans in Cambridge became discontented with relying on non-violence to combat segregation. Their militant approach was met with more violations of their civil rights, which led to the beginning of the uprising that lasted from June 11 to June 14.
  • 16th Street Church Bombing Birmingham, AK

    16th Street Church Bombing Birmingham, AK
    The 16th Street Baptist Church bombing was an act of white supremacist terrorism which occurred at the African-American 16th Street Baptist Church in Birmingham, Alabama, on Sunday, 9/15/63. 4 members of a local KKK chapter planted at least 15 sticks of dynamite attached to a timing device beneath the steps located on the east side of the church. The four girls killed (clockwise from top left) Addie Mae Collins (14), Cynthia Wesley (14), Carole Robertson (14), & Carol Denise McNair (11)
  • Iota Phi Theta Fraternity founded

    Iota Phi Theta Fraternity founded
    A historically black, intercollegiate Greek letter fraternity. It was founded at Morgan State University in Baltimore, Maryland, and now has initiated over 30,000 members
  • Civil Rights Act

    Civil Rights Act
    The Civil Rights Act of 1964 was the nation's premier civil rights legislation. The Act outlawed discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, or national origin, required equal access to public places and employment, and enforced desegregation of schools and the right to vote.
  • Civil Rights Act of 1964

    Civil Rights Act of 1964
    An act to enforce the constitutional right to vote, to confer jurisdiction upon the district courts of the USA to provide injunctive relief against discrimination in public accommodations, to authorize the Attorney General to institute suits to protect constitutional rights in public facilities and public education, to extend the Commission on Civil Rights, to prevent discrimination in federally assisted programs, to establish a Commission on Equal Employment Opportunity, and for other purposes.
  • Voting Rights Act

    Voting Rights Act
    This “act to enforce the fifteenth amendment to the Constitution” was signed into law 95 years after the amendment was ratified. In those years, African Americans in the South faced tremendous obstacles to voting, including poll taxes, literacy tests, and other bureaucratic restrictions to deny them the right to vote. They also risked harassment, intimidation, economic reprisals, and physical violence when they tried to register or vote.
  • Malcolm X murdered

    Malcolm X murdered
    In New York City, Malcolm X, an African American nationalist and religious leader, is assassinated by rival Black Muslims while addressing his Organization of Afro-American Unity at the Audubon Ballroom in Washington Heights.
  • Voting Rights Act of 1965

    Voting Rights Act of 1965
    An act to enforce the fifteenth amendment of the Constitution of the United States, and for other purposes.
  • Legal Interracial Marriage

    Legal Interracial Marriage
    Interracial marriage in the United States has been fully legal in all U.S. states since the 1967 Supreme Court decision that deemed anti-miscegenation state laws unconstitutional, with many states choosing to legalize interracial marriage at much earlier dates.
    Richard and Mildred Loving. Loving v. Virginia was the landmark Supreme Court case that wiped away state laws banning interracial marriage in the United States.
  • Avondale Riots

    Avondale Riots
    Posteal Laskey Jr. (Black) was convicted as the Cincinnati Strangler. He was accused of raping/murdering 6 white women. Frakes (Laskey's cousin) picketed with sign-Cincinnati Guilty-Laskey Innocent! He was arrested by police for blocking the sidewalk. Black leaders held protest and the protest got out of hand. Rioters smashed, looted and attacked cars, buildings and stores. Governor Rhodes ordered 700 Ohio National Guardsmen into Cincinnati to stop the rioting. Dead 1
    Injured 63
    Arrest 404
  • Cambridge Riot

    Cambridge Riot
    An address by H. Rap Brown in Cambridge, Maryland on June 24, 1967, led to clashes with police. Brown was shot in the face with buckshot, and rioters burned down 17 buildings (a school & businesses) in the black side of the city. Activists had protests since 1961 and there was a riot in 1963 after the governor imposed martial law. The Treaty of Cambridge was negotiated among federal/state/local leaders initiating integration in the city prior to passage of federal civil rights laws.
  • Buffalo Riot

    Buffalo Riot
    The 1967 Buffalo riot was one of 159 race riots that swept cities in the United States during the "Long Hot Summer of 1967". This riot occurred on the East Side of Buffalo, New York, from June 26 to July 1, 1967. On the afternoon of June 27, 1967, small groups of African American teenagers cruised the neighborhood of William Street and Jefferson Avenue breaking car and store windows. By night nearly 200 riot-protected police were summoned, and a violent encounter ensued.
  • Newark Riots

    Newark Riots
    March was organized to protest Smith's beatings and police brutality in the city. During the rally, a woman smashed the windows of the 4th Precinct with a metal bar and looting began. In response, shotguns were issued to some police officers. Looting spread to other areas and police were told to "fire if necessary." Within hours, New Jersey Army National Guardsmen and New Jersey State Police troopers were dispatched to deal with the crowds. Ending 7/17/67 Dead 26
    Injured 727
    Arrest 1,465
  • Plainfield Riot

    Plainfield Riot
    2 days after blacks began protesting/rioting in Newark in 1967, the Plainfield riots began. A fight broke out at a local diner (The White Star) about 40 young black men left the diner and marched back to their housing project in the West End of Plainfield. They vented their anger along the way by smashing store windows and throwing rocks at police cars. When the local police showed up in force, the group dispersed. Rioting/looting continued till July 16th, 1967
  • Detroit Riot

    Detroit Riot
    Police raid of an unlicensed afterhours bar (blind pig) exploded into one of the deadliest and most destructive riots in US history Lasting five days and surpassing the violence and property destruction of Detroit's 1943 race riot 24 years earlier. Governor Romney ordered the Michigan Army National Guard to help end the riot. President Johnson sent the US Army (82nd & 101st Airborne Divisions). 2,000 buildings destroyed. Dead 43
    Injured 1,189
    Arrest 7,200
  • Saginaw Riot

    Saginaw Riot
    Saginaw mayor Henry G. Marsh chose to only meet privately with Civil Rights leaders in a conference closed to members of the public, the public started a protest. The protestors were met by riot police at City Hall and began getting out of hand, eventually turning into a riot that spread through downtown and into the neighborhoods of Saginaw. In all, 7 people were injured, 5 of whom were civilians and 2 were police. Injured 7
  • Milwaukee Race Riot

    Milwaukee Race Riot
    One of 159 race riots that swept cities in the US during the Long Hot Summer of 1967. In Milwaukee, Wisconsin, Black residents, outraged by the slow pace in ending housing discrimination and police brutality began to riot on the evening of 7/30/67. The inciting incident was a fight between teenagers, which escalated into full-fledged rioting with the arrival of police. Arson, looting, and sniping on the North Side of the city mostly the 3rd Street Corridor.
    Dead 4
    Injured 100
    Arrest 1,740
  • Albina Riot

    Albina Riot
    Cleaver did not appear and tensions increased; young people threw rocks and bottles at the police. The disturbance quickly escalated when the group moved to nearby Union Avenue and set fires, broke windows, and looted a stereo store. The next night saw similar unrest and damage, but the police responded immediately. Mayor Terry Schrunk and Governor Tom McCall alerted the National Guard and State Police and asked them to remain close enough to respond within 10 to 15 minutes if they were needed.
  • Fair Housing Act

    Fair Housing Act
    The Fair Housing Act is a law created to help limit discriminatory practices related to landlords, tenants, and housing. The act was created on the principle that every American should have an equal opportunity to seek a place to live, without being afraid of discrimination due to factors outside their control.
  • King Assassination Riots

    King Assassination Riots
    City by city
    Washington, D.C.
    Chicago
    Baltimore
    Kansas City
    Detroit
    New York City
    Pittsburgh
    Cincinnati
    Trenton, New Jersey
    Wilmington, Delaware
    Louisville Over 100 cities across the United States April–May 1968 Dead 40+
    Injured 2,500+
    Arrest 15,000+
  • Civil Rights Act of 1968

    Civil Rights Act of 1968
    An Act to prescribe penalties for certain acts of violence or intimidation, and for other purposes.
  • Housing and Urban Development Act of 1968

    Housing and Urban Development Act of 1968
    Housing and Urban Development Act of 1968
  • The day Philadelphia bombed its own people (MOVE organization)

    The day Philadelphia bombed its own people (MOVE organization)
    Longstanding tensions between MOVE-black liberation group, and the Philadelphia Police Department erupted horrifically. The city of Philadelphia dropped a satchel bomb, laced with Tovex and C-4 explosives on the MOVE organization, who were living in a West Philadelphia rowhome known to be occupied by men, women, and children. It went up in unextinguished flames. 11 people were killed, including 5 children and the founder of the organization. 61 homes destroyed, & 250+ citizens homeless.
  • Toledo Riot

    Toledo Riot
    Several weeks before the rally, members of the National Socialist Movement went door-to-door through a North Toledo neighborhood, and discussed with residents the possibility of addressing gang activity. The NSM claimed that a local resident invited the group, but the named individual refuted this, saying that the group misrepresented themselves and that he did not invite the NSM. The NSM planned to march through the North End of Toledo, Ohio. Injuries 12
    Arrested Dozens
  • Ferguson Unrest

    Ferguson Unrest
    The day after the fatal shooting of Michael Brown by police officer Darren Wilson protest began. First wave:
    August 9, 2014 – August 25, 2014
    Second wave:
    November 24, 2014 – December 2, 2014
    Third wave:
    August 9, 2015 – August 11, 2015 Dead 4
    Injured 10 (6 cops)
    Arrest 321
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    1492
    to

    Early Slavery in the Americas

    Native American slavery is a piece of the history of slavery that has been glossed overlooked. Between 2 - 5.5 million Native Americans were enslaved in the Americas in addition to 12.5 million African slaves.
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    Slavery

    Slavery, condition in which one human being (Blacks) was owned by another (whites). A slave was considered by law as property, or chattel, and was deprived of most of the rights ordinarily held by free persons.
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    Black Codes

    Laws governing the conduct of African Americans (free blacks). The best known of them were passed in 1865 and 1866 by Southern states, after the American Civil War, in order to restrict African Americans' freedom, and to compel them to work for low wages. Black Codes were part of a larger pattern of whites trying to maintain political dominance and suppress the freedmen, newly emancipated African-American slaves.
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    Slave patrol

    Slave patrols first began in South Carolina in 1704 and spread throughout the thirteen colonies, lasting well beyond the American Revolution. As the population of black slaves boomed, especially with the invention of the cotton gin, so did the fear of slave resistance and uprisings.
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    Underground Railroad

    The Underground Railroad was a network of secret routes and safe houses established in the United States during the early to mid-19th century, and used by enslaved African-Americans to escape into free states and Canada. The scheme was assisted by abolitionists and others sympathetic to the cause of the escapees.
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    Dr. J. Marion, Surgeon, Experimented on black slave women

    Vesicovaginal fistula was a catastrophic complication of childbirth among 19th century American women. The first consistently successful operation for this condition was developed by Dr J Marion Sims, an Alabama surgeon who carried out a series of experimental operations on black slave women between 1845 and 1849.
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    Civil War

    The War Between the States, as the Civil War was also known, ended in Confederate surrender in 1865. The conflict was the costliest and deadliest war ever fought on American soil, with some 620,000 of 2.4 million soldiers killed, millions more injured and much of the South left in ruin.
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    Anti - Miscegenation Laws

    Etymologically, the term means intermarriage of persons of different races; when used in this paper, how- ever, the word has reference to marriage between whites.
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    Black Union Soldiers Concentration Camps

    During the Civil War in Natchez, Mississippi forced tens of thousands of freed slaves into camps built in The Devil's Punchbowl. Untouched fruit falls to the ground near the banks of the Mississippi River around a bend in Adams County. A mass grave from the 1860's estimate that in one year following Union troops' arrivals in Natchez, up to 20,000 freed slaves died in "contraband camps" below steep bluffs.
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    Jim Crow Laws

    Jim Crow laws were a collection of state and local statutes that legalized racial segregation. Named after a black minstrel show character, the laws—which existed for about 100 years, from the post-Civil War era until 1968—were meant to marginalize African Americans by denying them the right to vote, hold jobs, get an education or other opportunities. Those who attempted to defy Jim Crow laws often faced arrest, fines, jail sentences, violence and death.
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    Reconstruction

    Followed the American Civil War and during which attempts were made to redress the inequities of slavery and its political, social, and economic legacy and to solve the problems arising from the readmission to the Union of the 11 states that had seceded at or before the outbreak of war.
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    First KKK

    The first Klan was founded in Pulaski, Tennessee 1865 by 6 former officers of the Confederate army: Frank McCord, Richard Reed, John Lester, John Kennedy, J. Calvin Jones and James Crowe. It started as a fraternal social club inspired at least in part by the then largely defunct Sons of Malta. It borrowed parts of the initiation ceremony from that group, with the same purpose: ludicrous initiations, the baffling of public curiosity, and the amusement for members were the only objects of the Klan
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    The Most Frequent time in American History for open Lynching

    Lynching was the practice of murder by a group of people by extrajudicial action. Most lynchings were of black men in the South, but women and non-blacks were also lynched. According to the Tuskegee Institute, 4,743 people were lynched between 1882 and 1968 in the United States, including 3,446 Blacks and 1,297 whites. More than 73 percent of lynchings in the post-Civil War period occurred in the Southern states.
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    Eugenics program

    It aims to reduce human suffering by “breeding out” disease, disabilities and so-called undesirable characteristics from the human population. Early supporters of eugenics believed people inherited mental illness, criminal tendencies and even poverty, and that these conditions could be bred out of the gene pool.
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    Open operations of the success "Black Wall Street"

    Oklahoma was set aside to be a Black and Indian state and Blacks had first migrated to Oklahoma around 1830 with the Five Civilized Tribes who settled there as a result of President Andrew Jackson’s Indian Removal Act. Freedmen, former slaves who gained tribal membership through marriage, and slaves owned by tribal members participated in the forced exodus from traditional Native American homelands to the new territory. This settlement resulted in Oklahoma having over 28 black townships.
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    World War I

    With US entry into WWI in 1917 Blacks wanted to show their patriotism in hopes of being recognized as full citizens. More than 20,000 blacks enlisted in the military, and the numbers increased with Selective Service Act in May 1917. July 5, 1917 over 700,000 Blacks registered for military service. They were barred from the Marines and served only in menial roles in the Navy. Blacks were able to serve in all branches of the Army except for the aviation units.
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    Second KKK

    In 1915, the second Klan was founded atop Stone Mountain, Georgia, by William Joseph Simmons. While Simmons relied on documents from the original Klan and memories of some surviving elders, the revived Klan was based significantly on the wildly popular film The Birth of a Nation.
    Members: 3,000,000–6,000,000
    peaked in 1924–1925
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    Tulsa Race Massacre

    The Tulsa race massacre of 1921 took place on May 31 and June 1, 1921, when mobs of white residents attacked black residents and businesses of the Greenwood District in Tulsa, Oklahoma. It has been called "the single worst incident of racial violence in American history." 800+; 183 serious injuries; exact number unknown
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    The Great Depression

    The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place mostly during the 1930s, beginning in the United States. The timing of the Great Depression varied across the world; in most countries, it started in 1929 and lasted until the late 1930s.
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    The Tuskegee Syphilis Experiments

    For 40 years, the U.S. government doctors behind the Tuskegee experiment tricked African-American men with syphilis into thinking they were getting free treatment — but gave them no treatment at all.
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    World War II

    Blacks served in every theater of World War II, while struggling for civil rights. US Armed Forces were officially segregated until 1948, WWII laid the foundation for post-war integration of the military. In 1941 fewer than 4,000 African Americans were serving in the military and only 12 Blacks had become officers. By 1945, more than 1.2M Blacks would be serving in uniform on the Home Front, in Europe, and the Pacific (including thousands of African American women in the Women’s auxiliaries).
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    Third KKK

    The "Ku Klux Klan" name was used by numerous independent local groups opposing the civil rights movement and desegregation, especially in the 1950s & 1960s. They often forged alliances with Southern police departments (Birmingham, Alabama) & governor's offices (George Wallace of Alabama). Members of Klan groups were convicted of murder in the deaths of civil rights workers in Mississippi in 1964 and in the bombing of the 16th Street Baptist Church in Birmingham in 1963.
    Members: 5,000–8,000
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    Civil Rights Movement

    The civil rights movement was a struggle for social justice that took place mainly during the 1950s and 1960s for blacks to gain equal rights under the law in the United States. The Civil War had officially abolished slavery, but it didn’t end discrimination against blacks—they continued to endure the devastating effects of racism, especially in the South. By the mid-20th century, African Americans had had more than enough of prejudice and violence against them.
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    Montgomery Bus Boycott

    Social protest campaign against the policy of racial segregation on the public transit system of Montgomery, Alabama. The campaign lasted from 12/05/55 — the Monday after Rosa Parks, an African-American woman, was arrested for refusing to surrender her seat to a white person — to 12/20/56, when the federal ruling Browder v. Gayle took effect, and led to a United States Supreme Court decision that declared the Alabama and Montgomery laws that segregated buses were unconstitutional.
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    Black Panther Party

    The Black Panther Party (BPP), originally the Black Panther Party for Self-Defense, was a revolutionary socialist political organization founded by Marxist college students Bobby Seale (Chairman) and Huey Newton (Minister of Defense) in October 1966 in Oakland, California.
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    Long Hot Summer of 1967

    Long, hot summer of 1967 refers to the 159 race riots that erupted across the United States in 1967. In June there were riots in Atlanta, Boston, Cincinnati, Buffalo, and Tampa. In July there were riots in Birmingham, Chicago, New York City, Milwaukee, Minneapolis, New Britain, Rochester, and Plainfield. Dead 85+
    Injured 2,100+
    Arrest 11,000+
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    Racial unrest in Cairo, Illinois

    An extended period of racial unrest occurred in the town of Cairo, Illinois. The city had long had racial tensions which boiled over after a black soldier was found hanged in his jail cell. Over the next several years, fire bombings, racially charged boycotts and shootouts were common place in Cairo, with 170 nights of gunfire reported in 1969 alone. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Racial_unrest_in_Cairo,_Illinois#1967_riot
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    Crack Epidemic

    Surge of crack cocaine use in major cities across the United States between the early 1980s and the early 1990s. This resulted in a number of social consequences, such as increasing crime and violence in American inner city neighborhoods, as well as a resulting backlash in the form of tough on crime policies.