19th century revolutions

Timeline created by alejandraiglesias
In History
  • French Revolution

    French Revolution
    The French Revolution was a period of major social upheaval that began in 1787 and ended in 1799. It sought to completely change the relationship between the rulers and those they governed and to redefine the nature of political power.
  • Constitutional monarchy

    Constitutional monarchy
    Constitutional monarchy, system of government in which a monarch (see monarchy) shares power with a constitutionally organized government. The monarch may be the de facto head of state or a purely ceremonial leader. The constitution allocates the rest of the government's power to the legislature and judiciary.
  • Social Republic

    Social Republic
    The radical bourgeoisie encouraged by the work classes proclamated a Republic and they start a transformation to a democratic and equal society. They introduced the universal suffrage and social laws.
  • Girondin Convention

    Girondin Convention
    The Girondins, that are the more moderate bourgeoisie, controlled the Republic in 1792 to 1793. A new assembly, the National Convention, was elected by universal male suffrage. Louis XVI and Queen Marie Antoinette were convicted of treason and executed. In response to the king's death, monarchies in Europe formed an absolutist coalition against France. Inside the country, counter-revolutionary revolts broke out and the former privileged classes organised royalist plots.
  • Jacobin Convention

    Jacobin Convention
    Are the most radical sector of the bourgeoisie and they endorsed the demands of the popular sectors and seized power. A new constitution that recognised popular sovereignty and the right to social equality was enacted. The executive was led by a Committee of Public Safety and the lider is Robespierre. Citizens are forced to join the army to reject the Austrian invasion and the Reign of Terror was imposed. Prices and salaries were controlled and other things. It finished in 1794.
  • Reign of Teror

    Reign of Teror
    Was a period of the French Revolution when, following the creation of the First French Republic, a series of massacres and numerous public executions took place in response to revolutionary fervour, anticlerical sentiment, and spurious accusations of treason by Maximilien Robespierre and the Committee of Public Safety.
  • Conservative Republic

    Conservative Republic
    The moderate bourgeoise retakes the control of the Republic and this enter in his third and last phase. The jacobin laws were cancell and the exiles were encouraged of the Reign of Terror to return. A new Constitution granted the ejecutive power to a collegiate government, call the Directory adn the census suffrage was introduced.
  • The Consulate

    The Consulate
    In 1799, Napelon was named consul and started the Consulate government. It was a period of autocratic and absolutist government. Napolen aspired to end with the political inestability of the Revolution, consolidated some revolucionary principles and promoved the economic recuperation through a government that represent the bourgeoisie interests.
  • The Napoleonic Empire

    The Napoleonic Empire
    Napoleon started his conquest of Europe in 1803 and was crowned emperor by the Papa in 1804. His great army adn the use of new military tactics allowed him to defeat the european monarchies. After the victory of France over Austria and Russia the franch troops seemed unstoppable. In 1808, they invaded Spain and José Bonaparte is named king. In 1811, the napoleonic empire stretched from Germany to Spain. France controlled the maiority og Europe now.
  • The Restoration of absolutism

    The Restoration of absolutism
    The powers that defeated Napoleon met at the Congress of Vienna. Metternich wanted to stop the spread of liberal ideas and restore absolutism in Europe. After rinstating monarchs they reshaped the European map and Napoleonic Empire was divided up among the victors. They stablished the legitimacy of the absolute monarchs and the denial of national sovereighty. In 1815 the Holly Alliance Treaty was signed.
  • Greek War of Independence

    Greek War of Independence
    Greeks had to pay taxes and they felt dominated by a group of people with a different religion and culture. So in 1822, they declared independence in Epidaurus but the Turks not recognised it. In 1827 with the help of French and British military intervention, the Greeks defeated the Ottoman Empire. Greece gained its independence in 1830.
  • The Age of the Revolutions

    The Age of the Revolutions
    Absolutism was replaced by liberal political systems governed by a constitution. The movement began in France when Charles X was overthrown in July 1830. Louis Philippe I became the new constitutional monarch. In 1831 a revolt also broke out in Poland and the revolutions of 1848 showed how countries under the control of empires wanted to pursue the idea of nationalism and the creation of new liberal goverments.
  • The Belgian Revolution

    The Belgian Revolution
    Belgium was made part of the Kingdom of Holland by the Congress of Vienna in 1815, which then became the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Belgium became a liberal monarchy ruled by Leopold I and an armed conflict followed Belgium's declaration of independece. It finally ended when the Netherlands recognised Belgium's independence in 1839.
  • German Unification process

    German Unification process
    In 1834 Prussia created a customs union and in 1848, Germany's first freely elected parliament met and offered the crown of Germany to the king of Prussia, who refused it. In 1861, the first moves towards a united Germany were made as Wilhelm I became king of Prussia and made Otto von Bismarck chancellor. Prussia declared war on Denmark, Austria and France. They won the three wars, making the unification of Germany possible. n 1871 Wilhelm I was proclaimed Kaiser of the Second German Empire.
  • French Second Republic

    French Second Republic
    It adopted a number of democratic measures, such as universal male suffrage, press freedom, abolition of the death penalty and recognition of certain rights for workers.
  • Modern History

    Modern History
    Modern history is the history of the world beginning after the Middle Ages. Generally the term "modern history" refers to the history of the world since the advent of the Age of Reason and the Age of Enlightenment in the 17th and 18th centuries and the beginning of the Industrial Revolution.
  • Italian Unification process

    Italian Unification process
    The liberal monarchy of Piedmont-Sardinia governed by Prime Minister Cavour, started a unification process. They declared war on Austria and annexed Lombardy. In 1861, Victor Manuel II Savoy was proclaimed king of Italy. In 1866, Austria left Venetia and in 1870 the Papal States were annexed by Italy. The newly unifited state established its capital in Rome.
  • Contemporary History

    Contemporary History
    Is a subset of modern history that describes the historical period from approximately 1945 to the present. Contemporary history is either a subset of the late modern period, or it is one of the three major subsets of modern history, alongside the early modern period and the late modern period. The term contemporary history has been in use at least since the early 19th century.