Timeline created by gracecow
In History
  • 30,000 BCE

    Bering Land Bridge

    Bering Land Bridge
    The Bering Land Bridge is a 1,000-mile old long bridge that connected North America and Asia. This land bridge was used by native ancestors to migrate to America and create settlements all over America. The first wave occurred when Natives was following the herds of primary food across to North America. The Natives also began to advance and create the Clovis points that used stone tools to hunt their prey. There was three different waves of those that cross the Bering Land Bridge.
  • 2,000 BCE

    Mesoamerica - Maya

    Mesoamerica - Maya
    The Maya civilizations located in ancient Central America/Mexico and was considered the most advanced. They continued the tradition of bloodletting from the Olmec and were known for their knowledge, customs, and art. They invented ancient hieroglyphs, symbolic art, architecture, math, and the 365-day calendar. In this civilization, the Mayans heavily based their social rank on the caste system, which was based on their status in hierarchy, occupation, exclusion, and everyday social interaction.
  • 1,200 BCE

    Mesoamerica - Olmecs

    Mesoamerica - Olmecs
    The Olmec civilizations located in ancient Mexico, Mesoamerica started from 1,200 BCE and lasted till 400 BC. The first and earliest advanced civilization to be found and had much influence on later cultures such as the Maya & Aztecs. They were identified for their bloodletting, ballgame, pyramids, and calendars. Bloodletting was known for a ritual sacrifice that shed human blood as an offering to their gods. The pyramids were first built by the Olmec to bury their kings and house their deities.
  • 476

    The Dark Ages

    The Dark Ages
    The Dark Ages occurred when the Roman Empire’s population was falling, and the economy was weak due to the pressure of mass migration from the Germanic tribes. During this time period, the feudal system was invented where one needed to provide their services to their landlord in exchange for a shelter/protection to stay at while living there. When the Catholic Church reigned since there was no Holy Roman or Roman emperor at that time, Catholic Church rose to their claim power.
  • 1300


    The Renaissance, a period after the Dark Ages and was considered the Golden Age of Europe. A rebirth introducing new culture, art, science, technology, and philosophies. The printing press was a significant invention that improved the literacy rates, spreading of religion, and a better chance at getting an education. During this time, classical realism of art and paintings from artists such as Michelangelo, and Leonardo da Vinci presented as honest and avoided fundamentals that were not real.
  • 1347

    The Black Death

    The Black Death
    The Black Death was a deadly epidemic of bubonic plague that spread widely across all of Europe. Due to the increasing rates of trade in Eastern & Central Asia, the disease came from fleas on rats that traveled onto cargo ships, made it to Europe, and started to spread the disease on the people. This transformed the society significantly, approximately 25 million people died from this event, development of a new merchant society, and peasants were able to move up socially due to labor shortages.
  • 1492

    The Columbian Exchange

    The Columbian Exchange
    The Columbian Exchange was a time when the discovery of the New World that led to the exchange of diseases, plants, ideas, cultures, human populations, food, animals, & technology between West Africa, the Americas, and the Old World. From the voyages of Christopher Columbus in 1492, Europeans began to travel to the Americas and bringing goods from the Old World in exchange for products in the New World. The three intentions for the Europeans coming to the New World was for God, Glory, and Gold.
  • Virginia Colony

    Virginia Colony
    When Jamestown, Virginia was the first colony that permanently settled in the New World. The colony was founded by John Smith and John Rolfe in 1607 and was named after Queen Elizabeth I of England the Virgin Queen. The pilgrims were not prepared for the harsh winter condition, and they did not know how to farm. The Indians taught the pilgrims how to grow their food to start their farming system to survive. When John Rolfe brought back tobacco in 1612, it became a cash crop and saved the colony.
  • Tobacco

    Tobacco was an important cash crop in the colonies when John Rolfe first brought it back to Jamestown. There were many plantations for tobacco and vast land of tobacco because it was on such high demand. The farmers relied heavily on slaves or indentured servants to take care of the farming for them. The slaves' labor condition was harsh due to the extreme labor-intensive process. In the 1700s when tobacco spread to Africans and Europeans, farm owners were able to make lots of profit from it.
  • Indentured Servitude

    Indentured Servitude
    People wanted to get to the New World but could not afford the price. Indentured servants were immigrants who did labors to pay their debt to come to the New World. The idea of indentured servant started when the first settlers needed people to take care of the farming land. A crop such as tobacco was a vital item to the colonial economy, and it was high on demand. Being an indentured servant typically worked 4 - 7 years to pay off their debt, and the condition was restrictive & harsh on them.
  • New England Colonies

    New England Colonies
    The New England colonies had the first colonial settlement in 1620, the Plymouth Colony. They sailed on the Mayflower and established the Mayflower Compact. The Plymouth colonists met Squanto and were able to communicate with the people because he was able to speak English fluently. Squanto help allowed Puritans to hunt and farm. Due to the Mayflower Compact, it also let the colonists decide their laws and leaders. This lead to 1691, when the Plymouth Colony joined the Massachusetts Bay Colony.
  • Mayflower Compact

    Mayflower Compact
    The Mayflower Compact was the first legal and formal agreement of self-governing system in the Plymouth colony. It was created by the Puritans who were fleeing from the religious persecution by King James of England. Puritans left the Church of England to explore new things, practice and spread their religion freely. While waiting for a patent that permits them to settle in New England, 41 men created a social agreement for the Plymouth colony that it would become a self-governing colony.
  • Navigation Acts

    Navigation Acts
    The Navigation Act restricted the colonies so they cannot trade with other countries; they were also forced to only trade with Britain, their mother country. This act aimed mainly at the Dutch, which limited the trade between the Dutch and colonies. Colonies were angry especially merchant because this upset them due to the restriction of exports and imports. Soon, colonies would start to boycott against England, and this would be a significant event leading up to the American Revolution.
  • Salem Witch Trials

    Salem Witch Trials
    The Salem Witch Trials, held in Salem, Massachusetts. It all started when the minister’s daughter was acting strangely, and then people began to be charged with practicing witchcraft which got them to be arrested or executed. There were many trials, investigation, and prosecutions of people who got accused of being witches — around 200 people indicted and approximately 20 people killed. The colony admitted that the trials were a mistake and compensated families of those that was convicted.
  • Triangular Trade

    Triangular Trade
    A trade route between the Americas, Africa, and Europe. It was a system that transported manufactured goods, slaves, & raw goods. The Indies & British colonies sent raw materials to Europe to produce manufactured goods. From Europe, traded with Africans finished products such as rum, clothing, weapons; things that were inaccessible in Africa. Which slaves in Africa is sent to the Americas as a workforce, slaves are transported across the Atlantic Ocean through a route called the Middle Passage.
  • The Atlantic Slave Trade

    The Atlantic Slave Trade
    The Atlantic Slave Trade, a brutal trading system where slaves are being transported across the Atlantic Ocean to places such as Europe, North America, or South America. Slaves were usually shipped in ships, and this brought over 12 million people from Africa to other continents, it all began because the European’s needed a source of labor. They believed that Africans are active and could withstand the sun. Most slaves are required on plantations, cotton farms, mining, and harsh work.
  • Colonial Economies

    Colonial Economies
    New England colonies have rough & rocky soil, so farming was not suited. Instead, economies are based on fishing, manufacture, and ship-building. The Middle colonies had small manufacturing industry & agriculture. Mostly focused on trading goods with Europeans. Upper South colonies had tobacco as their main cash crop. Low South climate & soil was perfect for agriculture, & main cash crop was rice. Both South colonies dependent heavily on slave labor which was the majority of the population.
  • Act of Union

    Act of Union
    The tension between the two Parliaments of Scotland & England created an opportunity for legislative warfare. The Act of Union was unifying Scotland & England together, building the new United Kingdom of Great Britain. New Britain is now an empire with Parliament being the head. Despite the British empire rising, the colonies were able to have local control. Although Britain had the federal system with a central authority and local governments, it paved the way for the U.S. system of government.
  • The Great Awakening

    The Great Awakening
    The first religious movement started due to the Enlightenment secularism, a belief that religion & government should not be involved when ruling. There was a religious revival, John Edwards & George Whitfield helped the formation and creation of the Great Awakening. They addressed people spiritual needs, gave people a voice, and end the lack of belief. This movement focused on showing human nature values of religious beliefs, purification, and restoring one’s faith in God by preaching & sermons.
  • The Enlightenment

    The Enlightenment
    The Enlightenment, an era when scientists & philosophers used scientific facts to prove human nature by thinking logically. Promoted science & reasoning rather than superstition. John Locke, Benjamin Franklin, and Sir Isaac Newton were some Enlightenment thinkers. The idea of John Locke that all humans are equal & should be allowed life, liberty, & pursuit of happiness. The concept of deism became popular because people started to believe God created the world & allowed humans to have free will.
  • Seven-Years War

    Seven-Years War
    The Seven Years War was also known as the French & Indian War. This war was fought between France, England, and Indians for territory. Britain and colonies wanted more western land, while France wanted more south land. It all started when George Washington decided to attack at Fort Duquesne. The French was defeated at Fort Henry, and the war ended with the Treaty of Paris 1763. British became massive indebt after the war, but they gained North American territory, and French threats were removed.
  • Treaty of Paris 1763

    Treaty of Paris 1763
    After the French and Indian War, it was ended by the Treaty of Paris 1763. France gave all their territory in North America to Britain, and this ended the French’s rule in the North American continent. This left Britain with power over North America. With only St. Pierre, Miquelon (small islands of Canada), and Haiti left for France. Britain and the Native Americans had a tense relationship due to the French handing the Louisiana Territory to Britain.
  • Stamp Act

    Stamp Act
    The Stamp Act was the British Parliament placing a tax on all paper goods such as newspaper, legal papers, cards, or any printed materials. This act was enforced to help recover Britain’s financial account and to pay off the debts after the French and Indian War. People such as lawyers, and printers who used paper on a daily basis. 9 out of 13 colonies sent their representatives for the Stamp Act Congress, and nonviolent protest broke out because colonists were unhappy.
  • Boston Massacre

    Boston Massacre
    The Boston Massacre occurred because of new taxes that Britain enforced on the colonists. A crowd of Bostonians began throwing snowballs that have rocks inside at stationed British soldiers. These British soldiers panicked and started shooting at the group, with a total of five colonists were killed and six injured. News spread like fire, and many colonists were outraged. This event led to colonists turning against Britain’s coercion and became a significant factor in the path to independence.
  • Boston Tea Party

    Boston Tea Party
    The Boston Tea Party was a protest against the Tea Act. Britain decided to tax on the remaining tea to collect income for Britain’s financial account. The colonists were angry at the British Parliament so they began to boycott the tea and protest. Sons of Liberty disguise as Native Americans and attack the ship full of tea by dumping 340 chests of tea into the water. The result of this closed the port of Boston, and the Parliament placed the Coercive Act.
  • Paul Revere

    Paul Revere
    Paul Revere first created fictitious drawings about the Boston Massacre, that turned into America’s first propaganda & angered many people. He was working as an express rider which delivers messages, essential documents, or news by a horse. One night, he was ordered to travel to Lexington, Massachusetts to warn everyone that the regular troops are marching in the northwest side of Boston. Paul rode through each town warning that the British are coming. It is known as Paul Revere's Midnight Ride.
  • Olive Branch Petition

    Olive Branch Petition
    The Olive Branch Petition was a letter sent from the colonists to King George III in an attempt to make peace because they did not want to go to war with Britain. The King rejected the letter and refused to read the message that was sent. The letter was written at the Second Continental Congress by Thomas Jefferson and John Dickinson. This was their last attempt to prevent the war since the King denied reading the letter, colonists wanted independence even if they have to risk everything.
  • Declaration of Independence

    Declaration of Independence
    Thomas Jefferson composed a draft of the Declaration of Independence compiling all of the colonist’s grievances against the British. Creating the Declaration of Independence was the only chance they had of from gaining freedom from Great Britain. The idea of this document was the equality of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness and the call for allies to help them fight. The draft was finished on July 2nd but was signed and adopted by the Continental Congress on July 4th, 1776.
  • Battle of Saratoga

    Battle of Saratoga
    The Battle of Saratoga was the turning point during the American Revolution and a major victory to the colonists. Both British army and Hessians army surrendered resulting a win to the colonists. The colonists wanted to prove that they can win against the mighty British army. This battle convinced the French the colonist’s effort to win this war and became allied with the colonists supporting them with their marine and armed forces. Because they won this battle, colonists started to have hope.
  • Articles of Confederation

    Articles of Confederation
    The Articles of Confederation was the 1st constitution after they gained independence. The document had no central government authority which made them look weak. Because of this, Congress could not handle taxes or commerce, short on money and was in big debts. The state was technically their own nations because there was no leader. Without a leader, there was no one to enforce rules and help the citizens, this angered the veterans. This was the weakest point after gaining their independence.
  • Treaty of Paris 1783

    Treaty of Paris 1783
    The Treaty of Paris 1783 was signed and officially ending the Revolution that the United States had a victory. The United States is now recognized as an independent and free nation by Great Britain. The treaty involved the northern border between the United States, Britain's teritory east of Mississippi River, and British territories, Canada. Also, it was promised that the loyalist properties would be restored, but that never occurred due to colonist’s hatred toward Loyalists.
  • Shay's Rebellion

    Shay's Rebellion
    Daniel Shay led Shay's Rebellion due to the post-war recession. High taxation placed upon the colonist to pay for the debts and damage of the war. Farmers who were seized of farms for the unpaid debts was angered. Daniel Shay who was leading the rebelling marched toward Springfield with his men’s and closed down all the courts also attacking a federal arsenal. This proves that the government was not strong enough to stop the rebellion and would need a stronger government to follow through.
  • Three Branches

    Three Branches
    The three branches include legislative, executive, and judicial branch. The legislative branch holds the House of Representatives and the Senate; they are creating the law. The executive contains the president, vice president, and the cabinet system. It is essential as the executive branch because they are the one finalizing and carrying out the law. The judicial branch includes the 3-tier system of courts of district, circuit, and supreme; they are the one that interprets the laws.
  • Northwest Ordinance

    Northwest Ordinance
    The Northwest Ordinance was a new system for the admission process of getting into the Union. The territories that were admitted are Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota. This was made during the Second Continental Congress because the Congress needed a system. The requirement to become a state was to have at least 60,000 people living there. The Northwest Ordinance did not allowed slavery in the new states, which would be a problem in the Civil War.
  • Connecticut Compromise

    Connecticut Compromise
    The Connecticut Plan or Connecticut Compromise was a comprise between the Virginia Plan and the New Jersey Plan. Consisted of a bicameral legislature with a Senate and House of Representatives. This compromise has become the modern-day Congress and would be based on population. This plan resolved to solve the matter of the representation of larger and smaller states.
  • Whiskey Rebellion

    Whiskey Rebellion
    The Whiskey Rebellion was the first tax on a domestic product, Hamilton place tax on Whiskey to earn profit to continue paying off the debt. Putting 25% tax on whiskey upset many farmers because they loved whiskey, and the majority of the earnings came from the homemade whiskey. George Washington stopped the rebellion by leading an army to prove that the government was stable. It showed if the government would be strong and capable enough.
  • Bank of the United States

    Bank of the United States
    The Bank of the United States was the 1st bank in the United States, established by Alexander Hamilton. A place for a storehouse for federal funds, the bank was created to stabilize the country’s economy & stabilize the currency. People were able to go to the bank to deposit money, make loans, and have private investors. Jackson ended up not liking the bank because it was only beneficial to the upper class. Thomas Jefferson did not want the bank because it was not stated in the Constitution.
  • Federalist

    The Federalists supported the ratification of the Constitution, as opposed to the Bill of Rights and believed in a powerful central government. They were the first political party, started by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison; they know that the United States needs a stable central government to withstand the country. They also wrote the Federalist Papers which they tried to persuade more people to support the Constitution.
  • Bill of Rights

    Bill of Rights
    The Bill of Rights was written because Anti-Federalist was determined to have amendments to protect their freedom. Since the Constitution helped the Federalist and not the Anti-Federalist. It was written by James Madison to received protection and specific bans for people against the government. The American Bill of Rights was inspired by the English Bill of Rights. It was also the first 10 amendments in the United State Constitutions later on.
  • Anti-Federalist

    Opposed to the ratification of the Constitution & promise to protect the states' rights. The anti-federalists wanted a limited, weak government like the AOC and the Bill of Rights. Wrote an Anti-Federalist paper to argue about not having the ratification of the Constitution, they believed in the natural rights, life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. Feared Constitution will be too much power given to the president. The main anti-federalist were George Mason, Patrick Henry, and Samuel Adam.
  • Jay's Treaty

    Jay's Treaty
    The Jay’s Treaty was written by John Jay in 1794 to try and settle some disputes between the United States and Great Britain. They needed the British to vacate their forts and to stop trading with the Native because it can cause a problem. This treaty prevented another war occurring and resolving the issues between Great Britain and the United States since the Treaty of Paris 1783. The British ended up giving up their forts and fix the relationship.
  • Washington's Farewell Address

    Washington's Farewell Address
    Washington’s Farewell Address was the last speech George Washington gave as a president before the end of his term. George Washington was done after his two terms of serving as a president. He only asked the future leaders for no permanent alliances because it can drag the county to war with allies, and it is important to remain neutral in any case of foreign conflicts or a division of political parties. Also, he stated that they should keep the state united no matter what.
  • XYZ Affair

    XYZ Affair
    During Adam’s Presidency, the French were angry over Jay’s Treaty; it limited the trading with the Natives. This led to the XYZ affair in which the United States sent three diplomats to negotiate with three unknown French diplomats. They demanded money to speak at first, then 10-million-dollar loan. Afterward, they required a public apology from John Adam himself; this caused people to get angry at the French, Adam ended up negotiating again and prevented the war.
  • Alien and Sedition Acts

    Alien and Sedition Acts
    The Alien and Sedition Acts that was unconstitutional because it went against the people’s rights. The Act restricted power to the states and gave too much power to the Congress. This act increased the residency requirement for American citizenship from five to fourteen years. It also authorized the president to imprison or deport immigrants who were unsafe to the United States and restricted the speech of the government to silence the Democrat-Republican Party.
  • Election of 1800

    Election of 1800
    The election of 1800 was against John Adams vs. Thomas Jefferson even though Thomas Jefferson was tied with Aaron Burr in the electoral college. Alexander Hamilton hated Aaron Burr so much he made a deal with Thomas Jefferson and persuaded the House of Representatives to vote for Thomas Jefferson. Thomas Jefferson won with help from Alexander Hamilton and become the third president of the United States, in return he had to keep the Federalist Legislation.
  • Louisiana Purchase

    Louisiana Purchase
    The Louisiana Purchase was Thomas Jefferson’s greatest achievement throughout his whole presidency. It was the most important transaction that was made between Jefferson and Napoleon. Thomas Jefferson’s representatives received a deal from Napoleon selling the Louisiana Territory for $15 million. Since Napoleon has given up his own vision of expanding his empire westward. The United States doubled the size after the Louisiana Territory was purchased.
  • Lewis and Clark

    Lewis and Clark
    After the Louisiana Purchase, Thomas Jefferson sent Lewis and Clark to explore the new land and tell all the people that are currently living in that land that the United States owns it. Through their journey, they met Sacagawea, and she was a native that can translate and became their translator, she showed peaceful purposes to other natives. Also, they were told to explore and collect information about the new unknown land.
  • Hamilton vs Burr

    Hamilton vs Burr
    The hatred towards each other was so strong. They were longtime enemies and problems occurred during the Election of 1800 when Jefferson asked for a favor to help him win. Aaron Burr was angry knowing about the agreement that made him lose against Thomas Jefferson. Burr demanded a duel against Hamilton. They had a duel, Hamilton & Burr were attacking each other, trash talking about each other. Hamilton did not want to tarnish his name, so he purposely missed, but Burr shot and killed Hamilton.
  • Francis Scott Key

    Francis Scott Key
    During a battle at Fort McHenry, Francis Scott Key, a lawyer that was sent to make a treaty with the British to release some hostages that were captured. Since he knew where the British were, he became a hostage and saw the British bombed Fort Mc Henry. During this time, he wrote a poem about what happened and how he saw the American flag waving as America won. The poem was released later on and afterward, became the national anthem of today.
  • Changes in Agriculture - Cotton Gin

    Changes in Agriculture - Cotton Gin
    Eli Whitney was the inventor of the cotton gin, was originally from New England. He learned that the South had problems with how fast when it came to pick the seeds out of cotton. At the time, slavery was in decline. But with the invention of the cotton gin, cotton production became much faster, and slavery was in need of demand. With this was good and bad, a better output of cotton but more slavery has to be working for slave owners.
  • Changes in Transportation

    Changes in Transportation
    The invention of railroads has made trade, travel, and moving way easier and faster for the product to transfer. It used to take weeks and months to get things to transfer to other place & people to where they needed to be. With the invention of roads, steamboats, canals, and railroads, transportation and such certainly progressive. The invention of railroads made products cheaper since is easier to transport more goods at a faster rate, it also decreases the time from months into 2-3 days.
  • Changes in Communication - Telegraph

    Changes in Communication - Telegraph
    The new communication way of a telegraph, which was created by Samuel Morse. This communication dramatically changes in the ways people communicated. Long distance communication before took many days or month to send and received took a long time, while with telegraph, it was quick. This was called Morse Code, and it was a unique way to communicate with this code. It is based on dots and dashes that resembles a letter or number in the alphabet and can be solved.
  • Battle of New Orleans

    Battle of New Orleans
    The Battle of New Orleans was not supposed to occur due to the fact that the War of 1812 was already over. The Treaty of Ghent was already signed on December 12, 1814, ending the war. Because of the slow news from across the ocean that needed to be spread to alert people that this war was over. However, the news was not received, & the battle ends up occurring. Andrew Jackson was the leader of this battle and his biracial army that was made up of town regulars successfully defeated the British.
  • Adams-Onis Treaty

    Adams-Onis Treaty
    The Adams-Onis Treaty, or the Transcontinental Treaty, was the agreement between the United States and Spain. Spain wanted to make sure the United States can recognize them after making the purchasing. This was to buy new land to expand the nation. The United States ended up purchasing the Florida territory from Spain and settled down boundaries between Spain and the United States, the total cost of that land was $5 million.
  • Lowell Mills

    Lowell Mills
    Francis Cabot Lowell established the Lowell Mills. With the increase in factories, more workers were needed, this system hired women and young children as workers in the factory, the majority of the workers came from farming backgrounds. There was a large labor force in the mills from all the women and children working in the factory. The Waltham System used the big machine to manufacture and do textile work, and this can be completed in a single factory.
  • Immigration - Foreign

    Immigration - Foreign
    European immigration & rural migration happened in 1820. From rural areas, the Industrial Revolution attracted people because of the idea of more job opportunity, a better pay, better work & economic opportunities. Different ethnic groups from Europe came to the United States for various reasons. Due to the potato famine the Irish came over, Germans immigrate to the United States due to poor harvests & political chaos, and the British & Scandinavians immigrated for a better economic opportunity.
  • Temperance Movement

    Temperance Movement
    The Temperance Movement revolved around limiting the alcohol consumption level, to abstain entirely from it. People had a problem with drinking; alcohol consumption was very high, people drink alcohol on daily. It results in toxic relationship/family or even lost jobs. American citizens form a reform movement, the American Temperance Movement. Especially women, who were abused by their drunken husbands, they were very passionate. This movement manages to spread and reduce alcohol consumption.
  • Second Great Awakening

    Second Great Awakening
    During the Second Great Awakening, it was the time of the revival of educations and developments of prisons. Sing Sing is a penitentiary housed that kept prisoners at night and made them work during the day — this improvement which kept prisoners isolated, with no contact outside. Education became crucial in where attending was required, grading systems, textbooks, instructions were given; going to colleges/universities was encouraged.
  • Monroe Doctrine

    Monroe Doctrine
    The Monroe Doctrine was a message from James Monroe, the president during that time, to tell the European nations to get out of the way of their affairs and territory. It was stated that no European interference could be allowed in Latin America, Monroe feared that Europeans wanted the new land back. This policy was to keep the United States in a neutral state if a conflict appears. The United States sought control over the new areas in Western America.
  • Election of 1824

    Election of 1824
    An election between four candidates, Andrew Jackson, William Crawford, John Quincy Adams, and Henry Clay. It was mostly between Andrew Jackson and John Quincy Adams to get the position. The House of Representatives had to decide due to a tie in the electoral college votes. Henry Clay ends up leaving the election, and he told his supporter to support Adams instead. Andrew Jackson was accused of the corrupt bargain which made him lose the election; John Quincy Adams won the election of 1824.
  • Election of 1828

    Election of 1828
    The election of 1828 was once again another fight against John Quincy Adams and Andrew Jackson. Jackson was furious at Adams due to his loss in the Election of 1824. Andrew Jackson wanted to win this time, so he came up with the Common Man plan. This showed his values, military career, and his modesty so the citizens would vote for him. He started the Democratic Party which is now used in modern day. Jackson finally won the election due to a popular vote because of his plan as a common man.
  • Southern Society

    Southern Society
    The southern society has different social classes; farmers were classified into three different groups. Planters were known to be the higher class, the majority of the planters did not own slaves, they mostly own plantations. Yeoman were farmers, and they are considered middle classes. Their crops are usually just enough for their families. Tenants are considered the lower level; they do most of the labor. As slaves, they were also poor and shared crops.
  • Slavery - Abolitionist

    Slavery - Abolitionist
    The abolitionist movement of slavery was a movement that was ending slavery. There were two types of abolitionist; immediatism in which slavery need to be abolished immediately. The other type is gradualism in which slavery is gradually abolishing. The Second Great Awakening influenced this because of the religious revivals. An example is Uncle Tom’s Cabin in the book leaks the harsh conditions of slavery.
  • Mormons

    Joseph Smith, the founder of the Mormons or the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints. Because of the Second Great Awakening, the Mormon was able to revive the movement. The Mormons is a religious group that was mistreated by many groups due to their belief of polygamy and their practices — mostly farmers and traders that are interested in this. He believed that God and Jesus were two different human beings.
  • Nat Turner's Rebellion

    Nat Turner's Rebellion
    The Nat Turner’s Rebellion was a rebellion coming from slaves in Virginia. This was led by Nat Turner, and the rebellion purpose was trying to free slaves by going door to door killing white slave owners, and takeover planters. This event was unsuccessful and the slaves that participated got executed, Nat Turner was hanged. This was a moment where it was panic in the South, and later on, the slave’s code was created because of the rebellion.
  • Nullification Crisis

    Nullification Crisis
    The Nullification Crisis was a conflict between the government and South Carolina. This event was a major event leading up to the civil war. When Congress raised import taxes, South Carolina was furious because this hurt their southern agriculture economy. The state fought over former’s attempt to declare null and avoid within the federal state. This was in favor of the government because they came up with a doctrine in make the tariff less extreme.
  • Election of 1832

    Election of 1832
    The election of 1832, problems from the Second Bank of The United States arise. Andrew Jackson hated the existence of the Bank because the bank only benefitted the upper class and not the lower level. Henry Clay attempted to use this problem against Jackson, but his plan backfired. Jackson wrote a speech in which tells the common people that the bank is also wrong, and he won the election.
  • American Anti-Slavery Society

    American Anti-Slavery Society
    The AASS or to be called the American Anti-Slavery Society was an advocate with its state and local support of immediate abolition of slavery in the United States. This society was founded in 1833 by William Lloyd Garrison. The primary goal is to abolish slavery through the Abolition Movement. Also, they signed an antislavery petition and sent it to the Congress, and published journals to show their hatred for slavery.
  • Frederick Douglas

    Frederick Douglas
    Frederick Douglas was a remarkable man. He was an African American activist that fought for women’s rights, and he was against slavery. He knew how to read and write during his young age because he taught himself. He escaped slavery, became a public speaker to talk about freedom for the slaves and women's rights. His life as a slave and escape became an autobiography.
  • Battle of San Jacinto

    Battle of San Jacinto
    The Battle of San Jacinto was the last battle from the Texas Revolution to win against Mexico. Santa Anna troops were taking a short nap in San Jacinto when General Sam Houston had a surprise attack on Santa Anna forces. This was the quickest battle in history in which only 20 minutes, many of Santa Anna troops died. Santa Anna was also captured since he tried to sneak away and end up surrendering with the Treaty of Velasco. This ended the war, and Texas gained independence from Mexico.
  • Election of 1836

    Election of 1836
    In the Election of 1836, Martin Van Buren who was handpicked by Andrew Jackson barely won against the Whig Party. He became president, and his nickname was Old Kinderhook. While his presidency, he had a lot of hardship economically, including the recession from former President Andrew Jackson, and Panic of 1837. Jackson left the second bank of the united states no funded which caused trouble upon Buren. The weak and bad economy during his time and his new nickname became Martin Van Ruin.
  • Trail of Tears

    Trail of Tears
    The Trail of Tears was which occur because of the Indian Removal Act. This previous act that was created by Andrew Jackson force Cherokee to move out of their land which was Florida and go to Oklahoma. Oklahoma became the Indian Territory. Many natives died along the trail to Oklahoma, due to starvation, exhaustion, and diseases. 25% (4000 natives) of the population of Cherokee died when the event ended.
  • Election of 1840

    Election of 1840
    Martin Van Buren runs for president once again for re-election, and General William Henry Harrison ran against him from the Whig Party. The Whigs spread rumors about Buren being an aristocrat to make him look bad and unpopular. Also, Harrison got women to influence their husband to vote for him. He won this election, but later died due to phenomena, and became the shortest-lived president.
  • Manifest Destiny

    Manifest Destiny
    The Manifest Destiny was a belief that the United States can be expand westward from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean. Many people want to seek a better opportunity and migrated to Oregon on an overland trail which lasted about five to six months. The Mormon Migration were victims and was harassed and discriminated. Brigham Young helped the Mormons to get away and led the Mormons to Salt Lake City.
  • Annexation of Texas

    Annexation of Texas
    The annexation of Texas occurred after Texas Revolution. They were an independent country but was in heavy debt from past war. Due to the heavy debt, Texas was prevented from becoming a state in the United States, Americans had hoped that they can achieve this territory as official state so that they can further expand. Soon the Election of 1844 came and the next president, James K. Polk was able to seize Texas.
  • Bear Flag Revolt

    Bear Flag Revolt
    The Bear Flag Revolt revolves around Californians who wanted California to be an independent republic from Mexico. This was a rebellion against Mexican’s government. John C. Fremont led the revolution which triggered the Mexican-American War. When California overthrow Mexican, they put the Bear Flag Republic in California. It proclaims the California Republic and till today still, have the bear on it.
  • Mexican American War

    Mexican American War
    In the Mexican and American War, they wanted to occupy all the lands from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean. During this time, Mexico owned most of the land in the West, so it became a problem that was stopping the United States. Polk started this war by sending Zachary Taylor to provoke the Mexican. At the end of this war, it was United States victory and took away most of Mexico’s land.
  • Wilmot Proviso

    Wilmot Proviso
    The Wilmot Proviso was a proposal created by David Wilmot in 1846 to ban slavery in the newly acquired land from Mexico after the Mexican American War. The plan became a political problem and had failed in Congress, so the proposal was approved into an act. The South was not too happy about this ban on slavery, but the north was. This later increased tensions in future debates and could divide the South and North further.
  • California Gold Rush

    California Gold Rush
    The California Gold Rush appeared when gold was found near Sacramento Valley, California by James W. Marshall. It spurred the mass migration, and California became a state in 1850 due to all the people migrating here for gold. In 1852, mines got built to make it easier to dig for gold. People had hope that they can become rich because gold was very easy to be discovered. Soon Chinese immigrants traveled to California and were put to work in mines with dangerous conditions and racism.
  • Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

    Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
    The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was signed on February 2, 1848. This treaty was for Mexico and the United States after the end of the Mexican American War. The agreement favored the United States in which they pay $15 million to Mexico to acquired new land from Mexico. The states Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, California, Utah, Wyoming, and New Mexico was added. Also, they recognized the Rio Grande as the southern border and have given up on keeping Texas.
  • Seneca Falls Convention

    Seneca Falls Convention
    The Seneca Falls Convention was the first step for women’s rights to be heard by the people. Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott held this convention; the Second Great Awakening influenced it. A two-day meeting in which both men and women attended. They discussed the women’s rights and their suffering. Later drafted the Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions to address their concerns. This was prompt to women getting rights in the economy and being able to vote.
  • Underground Railroad

    Underground Railroad
    The Underground Railroad in which was a safe house for the runaway slaves escapes from the South. Because the North hated slavery and banned slavery. Harriet Tubman and abolitionist helped slaves escape through a route, without getting caught, around 100,000 slaves were able to survive. Harriet Tubman is an essential figure to her helping approximately 5,000 slaves fleeing even after she was free.
  • Nativism

    Nativism was a concept that people followed believed that white people are superior to any other race. They also thought that the native population requirements were more important than immigrants. Immigrants such as German, Irish Catholics, were blamed for all of their problems, they believed that job opportunities were taken away from them, and they brought over disease. A secret organization called the Know-Nothing took place against immigration; the primary purpose is to restrict immigrants.
  • Fugitive Slave Act

    Fugitive Slave Act
    The Fugitive Slave Act became an act passed by Congress that demanded the runaway slaves return to the South. Northerners were afraid to go against this act because they can be fined or put into jail for refusing to follow the law and help return the slaves. Caused many in the free black community in the North to be mistaken as a fugitive and is forcing to be sent to the South as slaves. They were not able to have a say in this and has caused a controversy in the North free black community.
  • Kansas-Nebraska Act

    Kansas-Nebraska Act
    The Kansas Nebraska Act was an act that was passed in 1854 and allows people in the territory to of Nebraska and Kansas to decide if they want to be a free or slave state. Southerners appealed the Missouri Compromise where restricted slavery to states below the 36 30 line. They also wanted the transcontinental railroad to run through the south, not in the north. Later the Congress repealed the 36 30 line and made popular sovereignty the way to decide either slave or free state.
  • Election of 1860

    Election of 1860
    In the election of 1860, it was a race between the three candidates John Breckinridge an official candidate of Democrats, John Bell unofficial, and Abraham Lincoln official candidate of the Republicans. John Bell was part of the former Know-Nothings, and the Constitutional Union Party. All three-candidate appealed in different regions of the country. Lincoln had a few political enemies and the Democrats were more divided than Republican. Abraham won and became president.
  • Women at Work

    Women at Work
    During the Civil War, many women participated as nurses, teachers, civil services jobs, farmers, planters, and managers in the south because men are busy fighting the war. Women were also disguised as men to help out fighting the war. Clara Barton started the American Red Cross service which nurses help aid the soldiers on both sides of the war. Roles of women began to change during this period and were able to take in political positions.
  • The North

    The North
    The North/Union Side of the Civil War was way more advanced & industrialized compared to the Confederate/Southside. Their population was also much bigger than the South due to more free African Americans, and people that had a purpose to fight in the war. The North had plenty of supplies, and food, so they did not suffer due to the loss of materials. The only disadvantage was the military leadership; lacked good generals with experience. Also, they had a strong navy army to blockade the South.
  • The South

    The South
    The South/ Confederate Army, and they were at a disadvantage. Due to their population, their army was much smaller than the Union, and they did not have experience. The South did not have enough supplies, food, or weapons to support them because it was not industrialized like the North. Also, with the blockage from the North, this stopped them from getting exports from outside and put them in disadvantage. The only great thing was they have a tremendous military leadership that kept them alive.
  • Ulysses S. Grant

    Ulysses S. Grant
    Ulysses S. Grant was the Union Leader during the Civil War. During the last battle in Palmito Ranch, he defeated Robert E. Lee and later Lee would surrender to him at the Appomattox Court House. He was a Radical Republican, and because of his great military accomplishments, he got promoted to become the Union Leader by Abraham Lincoln in 1864. This helped him later on in the Election of 1868 which made him became a president.
  • Robert E. Lee

    Robert E. Lee
    Robert E. Lee was known as one of the best military generals during the civil war. He is known for being a Confederate military general the best one because his strategies helped the Confederate Army in some victory. He was offered to join the Union Army, but he remained loyal and stayed with his Army. He also led men to the Harper Ferry to arrest John Brown. He is essential for his surrender to Ulysses S. Grant at the Appomattox Courthouse and his skills in leading the Confederate Army.
  • Fort Sumter

    Fort Sumter
    The South side had formed a recession of Southern states from the Union in which they would not come back, Abraham Lincoln considered keeping the Union and tried to get them back. Fort Sumter was a place where Abraham Lincoln sent the ships to the South, but the land was considered the Union landmark. This was the beginning of the Civil War when first shots of the Civil War, Abraham Lincoln declared the South bombarded the fort, as an act of rebellion.
  • Gettysburg Address

    Gettysburg Address
    The Gettysburg Address was known as one of the most famous speeches in American History. Lincoln wrote it in giving respect to the dedication of the soldiers that were killed during the Battle of Gettysburg. This was to remind soldiers to fight for freedom and showed the soldiers purpose and commitment to their nation. Because of this speech, it gave courage to soldiers.
  • Freedom Admendments

    Freedom Admendments
    The Freedom Amendments was the new amendments that were added to the Constitution regarding rights to free African Americans. This happened after the Civil War in which gave rights to former slaves. The thirteen amendments were the abolishing of slavery and involuntary servitude in all of the states. The fourteenth amendments gave equal rights and protection to the citizenship for people born in the United States. The fifteen amendments gave African American males rights to vote.
  • Life for whites Reconstruction South

    Life for whites Reconstruction South
    After the Civil War, the South was left and became an overwhelmed state. Economically and financially, they were not doing well, and the North took advantage of this situation. People such as carpetbaggers were northerners that traveled to the South for economic opportunities and benefitted themselves. There was also Scalawags from poorer regions of the south and considered traitors due to the manipulating African American voters, which made them rich. The remaining were relief workers.
  • Freedman's Bureau

    Freedman's Bureau
    The Freedmen’s Bureau was created in 1865 by the United States government. It was an agency in the South for African American after the amendment and declaration abolishing slavery and freeing slaves. Freedmen were giving food, schools, and emergency services. The land was taken away from the white for agriculture to give back to the freedmen to start planting their crops, which was the 40 acres and a mule. This gave former slaves a better life
  • Assassination of Abraham Lincoln

    Assassination of Abraham Lincoln
    President Abraham Lincoln and his wife attended a play at Ford’s Theater in Washington D.C. on the night of April 4, 1885. This occurred five days after the Appomattox Courthouse, the end of the Civil War. The man in the name of John Wilkes Booth was an actor and also an outspoken supporter of the Confederates. He held a grudge against Abraham Lincoln after the victory on the union. John sneaked into Lincoln’s booth where he was watching the play and shot him in the head.
  • Ku Klux Klan

    Ku Klux Klan
    A famous white resistance group known as the Ku Klux Klan (KKK), wanted to punish white people that supported black rights and blacks for having rights. The resistance has reached all across southern states attacking against Republican Party’s Reconstruction-era rules to establish economic and political equality for black people. They had an underground campaign of violence and terrorization, also attacked, kill, and burn churches with blacks to kill them all.
  • Sharecroppers

    Sharecroppers is a way of agriculture that started after the Civil War due to the need for labor by white farmers. They agreed with former slaves to trade land for crops. Former slaves would rent out a part of their farmland in exchange they get a portion of the crops that are harvested on their property. This would pay their rent, but this resulted that sharecroppers owe more to the landowner than they could spend with crops.
  • Jim Crow

    Jim Crow
    Jim Crow was a fictional character that imposed social and legal system of racial segregation across the South between blacks and whites. It was enforced near the end of the Reconstruction era when white dominance ideas began to rise across the South. Jim Crow came from a white actor that played a black-faced character in a play to portray the way the free blacks act. This system was an essential contribution to history since it started the segregation and discrimination.
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    English Colonial Societies

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    The New Republic

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    Civil War

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