1301 timeline project

Timeline created by rafaelmtz
  • 1347

    Black Plague

    Black Plague
    The Black Death or Black Plague was a disease that ultimately consumed the lives of 20 million people. The disease birthed in China and passed to European sailors who had gone to do trade around Asia. When ships pulled to the Port of Messina, they discovered dead and ill sailors covered in black boils and puss. This highly contagious disease could be spread even by touching another person's clothes.
  • 1492

    Columbian Exchange

    Columbian Exchange
    The Columbian Exchange was commercial trade circuit between the Old World and New World. The term was first introduced when explorer Christoper Columbus made a trip to the Americas and brought back animals and plants, as well as diseases. More explorers began to voyage to the New World, settled, and began new businesses of trade, boosting the economy on both sides of the Hemispheres. New ideas and beliefs were shared as Europeans and American peoples interacted with each other.
  • Aug 3, 1492


    Exploration to the Americas began with the series of voyages made by Christopher Columbus in 1492.He explored the coasts of present day North America and parts of Central America. He was succeeded by another waves of explorers seeking to colonize new lands to gain more power. Countries such as Spain and Portugal dominated the exploration movement in this time period, gaining the best land out of the American continents.
  • 1517


    The Protestant Reformation Era was a time period where political and religious change occurred to break away from the Catholic Church. It started with Martin Luther and his disdain for the pope's practice of indulgences with his book "95 Theses". More Protestant movements began to occur in England, Switzerland, France and Germany against the Church for they believed they had too much power and believed themselves to be more powerful than God. This resulted in the new belief of Protestantism.
  • 1532

    Conquest of the New World

    Conquest of the New World
    Francisco Pizarro was a Spanish conquistador who sought to explore the New World after hearing about the Columbus voyages. He explored along the coasts of Nicaragua and Panama before conquering northern Peru. He came to Peru with hopes of gaining wealth after hearing the riches the Incas had to offer. He also murdered several Indians to take their land, killing over 6,000. Pizarro also introduced Christianity to the New World. He was one of the most, if not, the most successful conquistador.
  • 1535

    New Spain

    New Spain
    New Spain is the conquered lands that the Spanish colonized in the New World. This empire was initially ran by four viceroyalties, the most prominent one being the viceroyalty of Peru. The territroy as a whole consisted of lands that are modern day Panama, Mexico, Florida, and Central America. The capital of New Spain would be Mexico City. Not long after, a plethora of countries in New Spain declare independence from Spain, disuniting the empire.
  • New England Establishment

    New England Establishment
    New England was initially established by Protestants who sought to practice their religion freely and by workers who wanted better economic opportunities. They came to set out for the New World in a ship called the Mayflower, first settling in Plymouth. They began to establish colonies that are now modern day Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, Maine, and New Hampshire. The region was named New England in honor of the mother country by settler John Smith.
  • English Colonization

    English Colonization
    English settlements occurred all over North America, with the settlements in Canada and modern day United States. English and Scottish peoples made their difficult voyage to the New World to colonize land and find better economic opportunities. Colonization initiated in Jamestown, Virginia. Ultimately, more settlements, like Plymouth, Chesapeake, and Rhode Island colonies, were established throughout the region.
  • Slavery Trade

    Slavery Trade
    The first African Americans were brought to the Jamestown, Virginia as part of the slave trade or Atlantic Slave Trade. Seized from Spanish ships, the Dutch brought them over to get natural resources and raw goods from the Virginians to bring home. Over 18 slaves were brought over as part of this exchange. Most of the Africans went to Southern colonies to work on their plantations and farms. In this time period alone, over 6 million Africans were imported and put to slavery.
  • Navigation Act

    Navigation Act
    This act was aimed at foreign traders that, if desiring to trade, they had to do so through English vessels, as well as colonial vessels. This served as a trade protection so no foreign traders would interfere with English trading, thus increasing English superiority. Southern colonies experienced reductions in trade since they were limited to foreign exports. This angered Dutch forces resulting in them declaring war on the English, known as the Anglo-Dutch War.
  • Charter Colonization

    Charter Colonization
    Charter Colonies are the colonies that have established a contract with the King of England that would indicate the share each party would had in governing the colonies. The first charter colonies were Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and Connecticut. Maine, New Hampshire, and Plymouth later made charters with the King. These colonies usually had more rights than the other colonies, which is the right of self-government.
  • Glorious Revolution

    Glorious Revolution
    The Glorious Revolution was a prosperous revolution that resulted in no lives lost and no lives ruined. This event changed the way England ran it's government. Previously, it was ran by King James II, who was Catholic. He was overthrown and replaced by his daughter Mary, who was a Protestant. This made the monarch inferior to the Parliament, paving a way for a more democratic government. As a result this, Parliament passed the English Bill of Rights.
  • Salem Witch Trials

    Salem Witch Trials
    The Salem Witch Trials were serious of trials that involved women being tried and condemned of off witch accusations. It started when a group of young girls began to experience odd behavior. The girls went on to claim that they were possessed by the devil and accused witches for being responsible. Over 150 people were accused and tried of witchcraft. Some were either hanged or jailed. Villagers soon started to realize that these accusations maybe exaggerated, due to the amount of accusations.
  • Colonial Economies

    Colonial Economies
    The economy in the colonial era majorly consisted of trade, fishing, farming, and manufacturing. The Northern colonies were predominant in the manufacturing and fishing industries due to the lack of fertile land in the area. Middle colonies were exporters of furs and crops, making money off of what they traded with the mother country. Southern colonies highly dominated the agriculture industry with high demand of tobacco, rice, and indigo from English cities.
  • Act of Union

    Act of Union
    After many of failed attempts, the Act of Union passed, uniting English and Scottish countries into one kingdom known as Great Britain. The nations had disagreements on unifying with each other, wondering who would have more power over the other. The Scottish Parliament was renovated to better correlate with the English Parliament, causing the two to find a middle ground. Both nations are still united as Great Britain to this day
  • Chesapeake Settlement

    Chesapeake Settlement
    The Chesapeake colonization was the settlement of Virginia and Maryland. The political issue in the Chesapeake was the differentiation between church and government, with Anglicans and non-Anglicans paying a tax to the church of England, and Protestant and Catholic feuds in Maryland. Despite the religious differences, both colonies prospered in the selling of tobacco, their most highly demanded crop. Slaves and servants were brought to work the lands to keep the cultivation of tobacco going.
  • The Great Awakening

    The Great Awakening
    The Great Awakening was the revival of a new faith and a new approach to Christianity. Rationalism began to be used in Christianity, parting itself from religious reasoning. In other words, a less enthusiastic approach was taken in the spread of Christianity. A renewal of faith came when a new belief called Calvinism emerged. This faith stressed the importance of scripture, study,and meditation on the grace of God. Preachers also stressed the importance of fearing God and seeking his guidance.
  • Triangular Trade

    Triangular Trade
    The Triangular Trade was a trade circuit among Europe, America, and Africa. Raw materials were exported from the colonies to Europe. Europeans gave Africans manufactured goods in return for slaves. Those slaves were then traded to the Americas. This cycle continued until the Navigation Acts came into play, only limiting trade through English vessels.
  • American Enlightenment

    American Enlightenment
    The Enlightenment era was an event in which the rising of new ideologies and a new sense of reason becomes present in the colonies.Colonist gained a sense of individualism and realized that they wanted to part from the tyranny of the English monarch. Many came to the realization that the taxes and tariffs being imposed wasn't it anymore. This lead to creation of the modern republic and ultimately the American Revolution.
  • Seven Years War

    Seven Years War
    The Seven Years War, or The French and Indian War, was a war fought between France and Britain over disputed North American territories. They over lands that are now considered Canada and parts of the United States. French persuaded Native Americans to join their side by promising them that they'd continue to own their land if they fought with them against the British. The result was a victory for the British, acquiring all of Canada with the acceptance of Quebec, as it continued to be French.
  • Virtual Representation

    Virtual Representation
    Virtual Representation was the idea that all people could speak their mind freely, not only those in charge. This was a British response to the Colonists for attempting to start a free government of their own. Infuriated with their efforts to self-govern, they would clap back with similar colonist ideas of their own as a way of advertising people to stay under the crown. Parliament claimed to wish best for colonists, but colonists didn't have mutual feelings, for they soon declared independence.
  • Boston Massacre

    Boston Massacre
    The Boston Massacre was an event that resulted in the death of five colonists. A riot broke out in Boston between colonist and British forces because colonists were angry at the taxes and tariffs being imposed on them. Snowballs were thrown, people were clubbed with bayonets, and all out brawls occurred. A soldier mistook a command and proceeded to shoot the crowd. Patriots were infuriated at this and it filled them up with more hatred towards the British. This lead to the American Revolution.
  • Boston Tea Party

    Boston Tea Party
    The Boston Tea Party was protest that apart of the "no taxation without representation" movement. Colonist were angered that they were taxed on tea. One day, a few colonist got drunk and decided that they should do something to show Britain that they weren't going tolerate their tyranny. They dressed up as Indians and raided a docked British ship. 342 chests of tea were tossed overboard and into the water.
  • Olive Branch Petition

    Olive Branch Petition
    The Olive Branch Petition was a last chance effort to get Britain to realize that their taxes and abuse of power was getting out of hand. Both parties wanted to avoid war as much as possible. Colonist pledged to the crown and be known as British citizens if lifted from the imposed acts and taxes. Britain sought no intentions of reconciliation, resulting in the colonist declaring independence from England.
  • Watt Steam Engine

    Watt Steam Engine
    The Watt Steam Engine was a innovated version of the Newcomen Steam Engine invented in 1764. James Watt wanted to improve the steam engine to wear it didn't waste as much steam. He input a chamber in the engine that allowed it to condensate so that the heat wouldn't melt the latent. Watt's invention of the modern steam engines greatly impacted the world, making transportation easier for people.
  • The Declaration of Independence

    The Declaration of Independence
    The Declaration of Independence was document written to Britain declaring its independence from the crown due to its abuse of power and unfair taxation. The document, written by Thomas Jefferson, stated that all men were entitled to saying anything they wanted and had the rights that no man can ever take away. This united all 13 colonies under one nation to fight for their independence and to be recognized as a sovereign state. This breakup letter initiated the start of Revolutionary War.
  • Battle of New York City

    Battle of New York City
    The Battle of New York City was a battle in the American Revolution. Washington, commander of the patriots, was still working on strengthening the army in the beginning of the war. The British were still almighty and powerful. British drastically outnumbered the Colonists by a lot. Washington withdrew his troops and decided to further work on building the patriotic army. The result was a British victory and they ceased control over New York City, one of the colonists most important cities.
  • Battle of Saratoga

    Battle of Saratoga
    The Battle of Saratoga is known as the turning point of the American Revolution. British forces have been dominating for the entirety of the war by this time, and it seemed to be that they would end up being the victors of this Revolution. An overly confident British general decide to invade the Americans, but they over came the red coat raid and it resulted in a victory for the Americans. The French the success of the colonial army and decided to enter the war to help the patriots win the war.
  • Massachusetts Constitution

    The Massachusetts Constitution was a written document that secured the personal rights of the people and how the government should be like. The document was divided into three parts going into detail about each proposed policy. This document was seen to be as one of the first state governments and preservation of state rights. Some of the ideas and words were adopted into the composition of the American Constitution.
  • Problems With British

    The war has ended, and the Americans came out victorious, but problems with the British didn't cease. British promised to vacate lands that they had inhabited around American borders, but were reluctant and weren't in a hurry to leave. Americans also promised to give back conquered land to the British Loyalists, but no further steps were taken. Tensions between the countries would continue as years advance.
  • Articles of Confederation

    The Articles of Confederations was the first constitution of the newly formed United States of America. This constitution made the government really lenient and lacked central authority. States had the right to disobey the federal government if desired. Basically, there was no person in charge to turn to if there was an issue needed to be resolved. People protested this lack of authority and rebellions started opposing the Articles.
  • Treaty of Paris 1783

    Treaty of Paris 1783
    The Treaty of Paris is what officially ended the American Revolution with the United States reigning victorious. The document was signed in France by both American and British representatives. British gave Americans the land they had owned east of the Mississippi River, doubling the young nation in size. Although there loyalists present in the colonies, they weren't treated badly for being a loyalist even after the Revolution.
  • Shay's Rebellion

    Shay's Rebellion was a rebellion caused by Daniel Shay to attempt to overthrow the Articles of Confederation. Shay believed the Articles were too weak and gave too many the right to do whatever they pleased. The federal government gave state legislatures too much leniency, and people weren't having it. Farmers mainly protested against the Articles thinking that it was the main reason why poverty rates were going up. Courthouses and government properties were attacked until the Articles died.
  • American Virtue

    The idea of American virtue became a principle that people used to conduct an efficient government and ensue liberty for the people. It was a belief needed to have a pure spirit, so a government can properly run. Virtue was also a guiding principle for writers in literature and journalism to write their articles. As Americans were bringing about republicanism, virtue was a needed principle for political people to be able maintain a fair and stabilized government.
  • Constitutional Convention

    The US Constitutional Convention was held in Philadelphia to address the weakness of the Articles of Confederation and its lack of central authority. The US Constitution came about and it proposed a government with federal power, but nothing like the monarch they were under. Many people disagreed with powers going to the government for fear of abuse of power. The Constitution was eventually ratified and went into affect not long after its ratification. It became the supreme law of the land.
  • Northwest Ordinance

    The Northwest Ordinance was document that gave Northwestern territories methods on how to be admitted into the United States. This was a first attempt of western expansion. The territories had to have a certain amount of people and sufficient economy to be admitted into the Union. Over three states were initially allowed to go through the admission process since the government feared about the states gaining too much power. A constitution was drafted for each state who were fully admitted.
  • Second Great Awakening

    Second Great Awakening
    The Second Great Awakening was religious revival in the United States, predominantly the Northeast and Midwestern regions. Religion was the decline at this time because people felt like God was working in their lives or they simply just lost time to attend church. The revivals came as people gathering to spread the word of God and trying to convert others to Christianity. As a result of this event, a large number of people converted as well as the birth of new religions.
  • Whiskey Rebellion

    The Whiskey Rebellion was uprising of whiskey manufacturers and farmers because they were angry at a tax imposed on whiskey. The US continued to be in immense debt due to the American Revolution and they needed a way to pay off this debt, therefore making the tax. Farmers were limited purchase of whiskey and producers got paid less, causing them to refuse to pay the tax. After constant violent riots and raids, Washington ceased this rebellion and eventually the tax would be lifted.
  • First Bank of the United States

    The Bank of the United States was started to serve as federal storage place to put all of their funds. Many people didn't see a benefit to having a Bank of the US, for they believed that it stopped economical advancement. The Bank would conduct commercial businesses for the federal government and deal with payments. A lot opposing parties protested the renewal of a charter to the Bank, eventually shutting it down.
  • Bill of Rights

    The Bill of Rights was adopted from the England as a way to preserve the rights of the people following the American Revolution. They make up the first ten amendments of the US Constitution strategically, so it would be ratified. These rights protected a citizens freedom of speech, right to remain silent, and right to express themselves however they pleased.
  • Cotton Gin

    Cotton Gin
    The cotton gin was invented by Eli Whitey to make removing the seeds from cotton fiber easier. The cotton was put the a wooden drum, squished, and dragged the cotton fibers to quickly remove the seeds. Though Eli Whitney created the cotton gin as an attempt to end slavery, Southerners saw this as a reason to expand slavery, since now cotton was easier to store since all slaves had to do was pick them.
  • Election of 1796

    The Election of 1796 was the presidential debate between the Federalist and Republican parties. The running candidates were John Adams and Thomas Jefferson. Even after an attempt of sabotage by Alexander Hamilton, Adams won the election by 3 votes. Thomas Jefferson was made vice president since he was the runner-up.
  • XYZ Affair

    The XYZ Affair was the name given to three French agents who tried to bribe the United States so seizing of American ships would stop. French felt betrayed that British and American squashed any issues they may have had with Jay's Treaty. Because of this, they invaded American ships and took ship men captive. Three US representatives met with three French agents who tried to bribe them but the Americans denied it. When news got back to the main land, this angered them and they declared war.
  • Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions

    The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions were two respected resolutions proposed by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison. Virginia's countered back to the Alien and Sedition Acts declaring it to be unconstitutional for the government to mistreat immigrants. Kentucky's fed off the same claim and adding that states were able to nullify federal laws if desired.
  • Alien and Sedition Acts

    Alien and Sedition Acts
    The Alien and Sedition Acts was an act passed by Congress that limited immigrants from saying anything and made it difficult for them to vote. It also gave them new power to be able to deport immigrants if desired. If a foreign enemy, you were deported. Whoever spoke against the President, jailed or deported. People saw this as a violation of the first Constitutional amendment.
  • Election of 1800

    The Election of 1800 was the rematch between John Adams and Thomas Jefferson. This was known as of the most back and forth campaigns ever. People opposed John Adams and the Federalist for the support of strong government and many people opposed Jefferson because of his alliance with the French. Though the votes were awfully close, it resulted in a loss for Adam, but a tie between Jefferson and VP candidate Aaron Burr. Jefferson eventually secured the presidency spot.
  • Louisiana Purchase

    The Louisiana Purchase was the acquiring of land from the Mississippi River into the Gulf of Mexico, east of the Rocky Mountains. This became known as President Jefferson's greatest achievements. The land was sold by Napoleon after failing to put down a slave revolution in Haiti. This purchase doubled the nation in size, at the same time sinking them in debt. People questioned if this was unconstitutional or not believing that Jefferson may have been exceeding his powers.
  • Lewis and Clark Expedition

    Lewis and Clark Expedition
    Meriwether Lewis and William Clark were sent by President Jefferson to explore west of the Mississippi River to see if any land could be found. At this time, lands west of the Mississippi River were never touched by Americans prior to the expedition. They explored lands that are now modern day Iowa, Oregon, Montana, and the Dakotas. They were aided in the expedition by a Native woman named Sacagawea who knew her way around the terrains. This expedition was a highly successful event.
  • Hamilton vs Burr Duel

    Alexander Hamilton and Aaron Burr had long standing issue and had great disdain for each other. After his term as VP, Burr opted to run as a governor for another party. Hamilton would proceed to sabotage Burr's campaign causing him to lose. Burr challenged Hamilton to a duel because he felt as if Hamilton dishonored his name. Burr shot Hamilton resulting in the arrest of Burr and the death of Hamilton.
  • Steamboats

    Steamboats came to rise around vessels and rivers and it became a new method of shipping and transportation in the United States. Robert Fulton built the modern steamboat deriving a design from John Fitch. He gave the steamboat an engine with a paddle attached to it that turned, helping the boats go upstream. Steamboats ran at 5 miles an hour at this time.
  • Embargo Act

    The Embargo Act was an attempt by Americans to get British and French to respect their neutrality to avoid war. British and French tried to get the US to choose sides between the two when it came to shipping goods to them. The US didn't want to pick a side so they passed this act that prevented US ships from going to foreign ports. This was deemed a failure due to the declination of overseas commerce and foreign trade.
  • War of 1812

    The War of 1812 was second war between US and Great Britain. The Americans were angry at the trade restrictions placed on them by the British. Britain would constantly interfere with US interaction with other foreign powers to trade with them, causing them to block and shoot down American ships. Americans decided to take this war to the sea and face Britain's powerful navy. This resulted in a victory for the Americans, cementing themselves to be contenders in world domination.
  • Battle of New Orleans

    The Battle of New Orleans was the final battle between British and US forces during the War of 1812. The treaty was signed between the countries to conclude the war, but the news hadn't reach the soldiers in Louisiana, so they thought the war was still going on. General Andrew Jackson led the Union in the battle with a highly diverse militia attacking British forces at night. His performance in this battle gained him notoriety around the country and was a nicknamed "Old Hickory" for toughness.
  • Temperance Movement

    Temperance Movement
    Temperance was a movement in which people stopped participating in the consumption of alcohol. Alcohol consumption was believed to be the main reason why crime rates skyrocketed and why health issues, like liver problems or alcohol poisoning, were occurring very frequently. Pastors would encourage people to take an oath of abstinence to ensure the decrease of alcohol consumption. Later on, laws were past that prohibited the use of alcohol.
  • Transcendentalism

    Transcendentalism was movement that rose up the appreciation of nature and developed more romanticized views. Groups were made for writers that experience this same kind of a thinking and further progressed their creativeness through literature. New philosophies also rose up during this moment of enlightened thinking. Writers like Samuel Taylor, Edgar Allan Poe, and Ralph Emerson were heavy participants in Transcendentalism. Essays, poems, and memoirs were written to show their love for nature.
  • Greek Revival

    Greek Revival
    The Greek Revival happened in the United States with the reviving of Greek architecture and renaming of cities named after Greek cities. Americans went in depth with the study of Greek culture and grew a fascination for it. Thought of as the birthplace of democracy, Americans payed homage to Greece by designing an building houses and buildings like those of Greek architecture. Cities like Syracuse and Troy were derived from Greek cities.
  • Adams-Onis Treaty

    The Adams-Onis Treaty was a treaty that settle disputes between the Americans and the Spanish to see who would get possession of Florida. Spain also renounced all claims to Oregon Country and sold it to the United States as well. The cost for acquiring Florida was $5 million. Then on, Florida became a US territory until 1845 when it fully admitted as a state. A controversial issue with Florida was whether or not it'd be slave state. Florida was eventually admitted as a slave state.
  • Monroe Doctrine

    The Monroe Doctrine indicated that European powers are prohibited from conquering anymore lands in the Western Hemisphere. Europeans continued to gain territory and conquer new lands even after previously ruled territories gained there independence. Some even tried to take back the land they previously own. President Monroe wouldn't allow that to happen. This gave the young country a sense of power and dominance over the supposed superpowers.
  • Election of 1824

    Election of 1824
    The 1824 Presidential election was ran between candidates William Crawford, Henry Clay, John Quincy Adams, and Andrew Jackson. This was a highly controversial presidential election due to the fact no candidate had the majority of the votes. As a result, Congress turned the decision over to the House of Representatives. After Clay backed out, he endorsed Adams and it eventually resulted in him getting the House votes, making him the winner of the election.
  • Corrupt Bargain

    Corrupt Bargain
    There was believed to be a "corrupt bargain" resulting in the 1824 election. Andrew Jackson had the majority of the popular and House votes. Surprisingly, John Quincy Adams won the election with the endorsement of Henry Clay, a dropped candidate. When elected, Adams appointed Clay as secretary of state. This enraged Jackson supporters and believed the system didn't care about who had better leadership qualities. They believed the system only cared about themselves and their image.
  • Election of 1828

    Election of 1828
    The bitter sequel of the election four years prior, John Quincy Adams and Andrew Jackson were back to running against for each other for president. This was the first presidential election that didn't focus on political issues, but focused on the accusations and insults being hurdled. Jackson was accused of cruel execution and infidelity, Adams was accused of gambling and misusing funds in the White House. Following the death of Jackson's wife, he won the election by a land slide.
  • Trail of Tears

    Trail of Tears
    The Trail of Tears was the name given to the sad journey Native Americans had to take as they were being kicked off their land by white settlers. People failed to recognize Natives as citizens and felt as if they didn't have the right to live on American soil. They attempted to civilize the Natives and turn them "white" to better adapt to their environment. Jackson approved the Indian removal act for he supported the cause and transferred all native tribes in the south to Oklahoma.
  • Nat Turner's Rebellion

    Nat Turner's Rebellion
    Nat Turner was a educated slave and pastor who formed a slave rebellion, a notable one at that. He felt as if he was chosen by the Lord to lead his people out of slavery, claiming to have heard the voice of God and being showed signs. His rebellion consumed the lives of 51 white people, including women and children. His rebellion was mostly successful until he was ratted out by one of his own followers. He was tried and hanged as punishment for starting the rebellion, along with other slaves.
  • Nullification Crisis

    Nullification Crisis
    A nullification law was passed for states that desired to disobey the federal government. This law was passed by South Carolina and if not recognized by the federal government, they would secede from the Union. The federal government wanted to stay as united as they could so they approved of the law. This was the beginning of state governments in which states made their own decisions regarding laws of their land. It was seen as a crisis because they felt that the states were taking over.
  • Worcester vs Georgia

    Worcester vs Georgia
    Worcester vs Georgia was a case taken to the Supreme Court because Samuel Worcester was living within Cherokee land without permission and without vowing to obey the laws of Georgia. He argued his case by stating that what Georgia was doing to him was unconstitutional because he had the right to interact with Native American peoples. Georgia officials sentenced him to four years but The Supreme Court overruled that order.
  • American Anti Slavery Society

    American Anti Slavery Society
    The Anti-Slavery Society was the first abolitionist group to be activated in the US. It was made up of white abolitionist who disagreed with the idea of people owning other people. The group was founded by William Garrison. They believed the Constitution supported slavery and denounced it as law of the land. They organized propaganda and published articles proclaiming their opposing views on slavery. Freed black men would share testimonies speaking out against slavery as well.
  • Texas Revolution

    Texas Revolution
    The Texas Revolution was the war that Texans fought to gain Mexican independence. It started when Mexicans gave Americans permission to settle in Texas if they abide by their customs, which Americans did not. Enraged, Mexico began to raid Texas igniting the war. Texas gained its independence with their victory at San Jacinto becoming their own sovereign state. They wanted to be admitted to the Union but US was afraid it would disrupt the free-slave state balance.
  • First Police Forces in America

    First Police Forces in America
    As the cities became more urbanized and overcrowding began to occur, crime activity started becoming an issue. Americans installed their first police forces to provide justice and social order in society. The earliest form of police force was the watchmen established in Boston and New York. Vigilantes, constables, and night watchers slowly began to emerge. Police brought order and justice in the streets and did their best to serve and protect their community, even if they got paid low.
  • Lowell Mills

    Lowell Mills
    Lowell Mills was the first manufacturing plant that offered employment to girls and women. Over 8,000 females worked at the factories making clothing, blankets, and quilts with the use of the power loom. Americans didn't like this because they saw the harsh working conditions females had and the low pay they received. It was highly compared to as a form of slavery.
  • Election of 1840

    Election of 1840
    The Election of 1840 was the presidential running between the Democratic and Whig party. The runners were Martin Van Buren and William Harrison. Nobody was really fond of Van Buren, supposedly because he wasn't fit to run anything and was accused of being a pedophile. People called him "Van Ruin". With the already bad reputation he had, Harrison used this to gain more supporters and gain more electoral votes, winning the presidency. He won 234-60.
  • Telegraph

    The telegraph as the most revolutionary machine created during the Industrial era. Created by Samuel Morse, he invented a machine that allowed you to communicate with people a lot quicker. He put up wires and sent electrical signals through it to communicate with someone else. Dots and signals were used to represent letters by the sound of the taps. By this time, messages that took weeks to deliver now were sent and received in minutes.
  • Bear Flag Revolt

    Bear Flag Revolt
    The Bear Flag Revolt was where California settlers rebelled against Mexican rule. Mexicans were in control of California, but it was mostly populated by American settlers. They feared they'd try to overrule Mexico and take their land away. Californians declared themselves to be an independent republic with the symbol of a bear and a red stripe and star as their flag. Shortly, they were annexed by the US and admitted as a state.
  • Wilmot Proviso

    Wilmot Proviso
    The Wilmot Proviso was the document that prohibited western territories from becoming slave states once being admitted to the Union. If Americans beat the Mexicans in war, they didn't want the land conquered to be slave states, fearing they'd disrupt the free state and slave state balance. Sadly, the government denied this document and further planned to expand slavery as they acquired more territory.
  • Mexican American War

    Mexican American War
    The Mexican-American War began over disputes as to where the Mexico and US border would be drawn. US wanted the border to be the Rio Grande River, Mexico wanted it to be the Nueces River. Mexicans weren't fond of Americans taking their land and Americans thought it to be apart of their manifest destiny. War was declared and fought, resulting in US victory. Mexico drastically decreased in size by 30 percent.
  • Battle of Palo Alto

    Battle of Palo Alto
    Before the Americans and Mexicans went to war, they initiated their battle at Palo Alto, Texas. American forces moved into the Rio Grande because Mexico failed to recognize as territorial border. Mexicans saw this as a threat and attacked upon meeting the Americans at the border. Americans defeated the Mexicans despite being greatly outnumbered. General Zach Taylor led this army to success during this battle and was recognized as a war hero.
  • Mormon Migration

    Mormon Migration
    Mormons made their long voyage west due to being heavily persecuted in the MIdwest. They were abused and beaten because of the faith they believed in. John Smith, founder of the Mormon faith, was murdered and Mormon homes were invaded. They became fed up and traveled west to Utah. There they found sanctuary and peace to practice their faith without fear of being judged or persecuted.
  • California Gold Rush

    California Gold Rush
    Gold was first discovered in California by a carpenter who happened to come across gold flakes at a river near the Sierras. As news spread about this phenomena, over 100,000 people rushed to California to find fortunes in the gold rocks, flakes, and nuggets being discovered along river banks. Over $80 million of gold was found throughout the Gold Rush.
  • Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

    Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
    The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo is the treaty that officially ended the Mexican-American War. The war ended with Americans taking down Mexico's almighty capital, Mexico City. They were forced to give up more than 500,000 acres worth of land, and had to recognize the Rio Grande as the international border. Mexico also renounced any claims left to Texas and US paid 15 million dollars in compensation.
  • Seneca Falls Convention

    Seneca Falls Convention
    The first women's rights movement took place in New York with the Seneca Falls Convention. It was the beginning of the suffrage movement for women. They fought for civil rights for women, stating that they could do just as much as males do. At least 300 people attended the convention for this movement. Notable people like Fredrick Douglas supported the movement, and spoke about the rights of women voting along with the organizer herself, Elizabeth Stanton.
  • Election of 1848

    Election of 1848
    The 1848 presidential election was ran by Zachary Taylor and Lewis Cass and Maritn Van Buren. The fate of slavery was the main issue for this election. Cass proposed that slavery should be left up to the states to decide on whether or not they wanted to be a slave or free state. Even with no political experience, Zach Taylor gained support from the people and the popular and electoral vote due to his heroic acts in the Mexican American War. He became the 12th president.
  • Underground Railroad

    Underground Railroad
    The Underground Railroad was routing network with conductors and safe houses that assisted slaves into finding the freedom their seeking for. Most people that assisted the escaped slaves were abolitionists. They protected them from their angry masters and bounty hunters trying to bring them back into slavery. Many slaves escaped north but due to the fugitive slave act, many escaped slaves went as far north as Canada.
  • Kansas-Nebraska Act

    Kansas-Nebraska Act
    Kansas-Nebraska Act is the law that officially gave states the ultimatum of whether or not they wanted to become a slave or free state. It overturned the Missouri Compromise, which created the slave-free state balance. Because of this, abolitionists in Kansas started riots and attacked slave supporters in a bloody conflict known as "Bleeding Kansas". This event ignited the start of the Civil War.
  • Dred Scott vs Sandford

    Dred Scott vs Sandford
    This court case was one of the most dramatic and controversial issue of this time. Slave Dred Scott was suing for his freedom which was denied to him. He lived the majority of his life with his master in a free state and was brought back by upon returning to Missouri. Scott believed he was a free man and wanted his rights. The judge ruled that people of color were not considered to be citizens, therefore he did not have the right to be free or claim citizenship.
  • John Brown's Raid

    John Brown's Raid
    Radical abolitionist John Brown led a raid in Harper's Ferry in hopes of igniting a slave revolt. John Brown had a heavy hate for slavery and wanted to put a definite end to the practice. He recruited fellow abolitionists, slaves, and even his own sons to participate in this raid. Over 8 of his men were killed, including his sons. After the failure of the raid, Brown was convicted and hung for organizing a slave revolt.
  • Crittenden Compromise

    Crittenden Compromise
    The Crittenden Compromise was a last effort to avoid the Civil War. The Union didn't want the South to secede from the Union, so they restored the policies from the Missouri Compromise, bringing back the free-slave state balance. This compromise also overturned the Kansas-Nebraska Act. Congress failed to enact this compromise with the election of Abraham Lincoln.
  • Confederate States of America

    Confederate States of America
    The Confederates States of America are a group of 11 states that broke away from the Union. They began a new economy, developed a new currency, and considered themselves to be a sovereign state. The first state to secede was South Carolina, Mississippi followed. They basically had the same government as the US, but with the support of slavery and their own president, Jefferson Davis. If recognized, they would've been regard as one of the richest countries of the time.
  • Battle of Shiloh

    Battle of Shiloh
    Battle of Shiloh was one of the earliest battles of the Civil War. It began when Confederates decided to launch a surprise invasion on the Union. With more company, the Union launched a attack right back with the leadership of Ulysses S. Grant. Confederates were unable to secure the victory, resulting in the Union winning.
  • Battle of Antietam

    Battle of Antietam
    The Battle of Antietam was one of the deadliest battles of Civil War. Confederate General Robert E. Lee tried to launch an attack on the Union with an unorganized army after losing his special order on how face the Union. Lee's overconfidence cost him a victory, with Union forces executing each assault with precision. Over 3,000 lives were lost, mostly civilians. This was the first war to ever include the murdering of civilians.
  • Emancipation Proclamation

    Emancipation Proclamation
    The Emancipation Proclamation was passed by Abraham Lincoln to free slaves from their masters. Lincoln initially wanted to avoid having abolition being the initial war cause.When Lincoln saw that an abundance of freed slaves opted to fight for the Union, he used the Proclamation as military strategy to recruit more soldiers. This document transformed the war from being about states rights to being about human freedom.
  • Battle of Vicksburg

    Battle of Vicksburg
    The Battle of Vicksburg was the battle that gave the Union control of the Mississippi River. After a previously failed attempt, the Union were dead set on gaining control over the Mississippi River. The Union had to go through six battles as well as 180 mile journey for this battle to even happen. He received news that Confederates created trenches so he did the same. He ambushed the Confederates and ended up gaining control of Vicksburg, winning the battle for the Mississippi River.
  • Gettysburg Address

    Gettysburg Address
    Abraham Lincoln was invited to speak at the cite of where one of the most bloodiest battles of the Civil War occurred, Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. To honor the lost lives buried at the cemetery Lincoln gave 270 worded speech to the people, known as the Gettysburg Address. He expressed his desire to reunite the country and the rebirth of the true definition freedom.
  • Wade Davis Bill

    Wade Davis Bill
    Wade Davis Bill was a proposed plan for Reconstruction of the Union. It stated the seceded states would be governed by the US army to ensure they wouldn't go back to their old southern lifestyle. It allowed seceded states to be compensated and forgiven if plead an oath to not bring back slavery and pretend as if they never seceded. Lincoln didn't like this bill therefore vetoing the bill.
  • Black Codes

    Black Codes
    Black Codes were laws created to limit the rights of freed black men. They were also given jobs with low wage and were often sent back to the fields if found jobless. This also brought up the practice of apprenticeships. Some people disagreed with the practice because it was basically old plantation owners trying to revive slavery. Despite being freed, black people were still suppressed and mistreated in the South for many years to follow.
  • Assassination of Abraham Lincoln

    Assassination of Abraham Lincoln
    Days after the Union won the civil war, President Lincoln to go see a play with his wife. Because of the Confederate loss, southerners hated Lincoln and were humiliated at the fact that they lost. Actor John Wilkes Booth was a supporter of the South. He was able to use his notoriety to slip into the theater Lincoln was at and shot him in the head. Lincoln died from the effects of his wound the next day.
  • Election of 1868

    Election of 1868
    The Election of 1868 was the presidential running of Ulysses S. Grant vs Horatio Seymour. People were eager to gain a new president after the impeachment of Andrew Johnson. People didn't want Seymour to be elected because he would plummet the countries economy. Grant didn't go without accusations, but people preferred him to be president because of his heroic achievements in the Civil War. He eventually won the election.
  • Black Friday Scandal

    Black Friday Scandal
    The Black Friday scandal happened as a result of plummeting prices on gold.This happened due to a plethora of reasons. One being the frequent corrupt rewarding activity known as the spoils system. Another being the issue of too much paper money being printed with credit value, not gold value. Two financers tried to raise the price of gold to where hardly anybody could afford it. A panic went around and people were left to wonder about the political corruption and how this problem would be gone.
  • Enforcement Acts

    Enforcement Acts
    Southerners still suppressed blacks even after the Civil War. Despite the ratification of the 13, 14, 15 Amendments, the Southerners continually murdered blacks and state governments did nothing to address it. Congress couldn't directly interfere, thus passing the Enforcement Acts. These series of laws helped protect the rights of black people allowing them to vote, hold office, and enjoy the same privileges a US citizen would.
  • Creations of Parks

    Creations of Parks
    National parks were created as method to conserve nature and the beautiful scenery and relaxation that it had to offer. They designated spacious land and saw the value it had and rangers would get a permit to protect the land from any mistreatment. Montana and Wyoming were the first states to open a national park. The first national park to opened is Yellowstone National Park. The park is filled with beautiful forestry, geysers, and mountains. More parks were built as years followed.
  • Panic of 1873

    Panic of 1873
    The panic of 1873 was an economic depression that occurred as the failure to handle funds and bankruptcy of the bank who funded the building of the Transcontinental Railroad. The bank became a federal financer in the creation of the railroad, which meant they also handle the government funds. After they declared bankruptcy, other banks began to collapse in credit and funds, causing them to do the same. Too worried about addressing this issue, Congress ignored the racism issue in the South.
  • Compromise of 1877

    Compromise of 1877
    The Compromise of 1877 was the compromise that ended the Reconstruction era and ended the protection black rights. Following the Presidential election of 1876, Hayes and Tilden had a controversial disputes over who would win the presidency. Accusations were made back and forth of rigging the elections. To solve the matter, Tilden agreed to give Hayes the victory if he withdrew troops from the South. Hayes agreed, giving him the win. Though Republicans won the election, Democrats got their way.
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    English Colonial Societies

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    Colonial America

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    New Republic

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    Civil War

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