1301 Timeline Project

Timeline created by Keith Nguyen
In History
  • 1,200 BCE


    Mesoamerican civilizations began over 3000 years ago. Some civilizations in this region were the Olmecs, who were the first advanced civilization, practiced blood-letting, and created pyramids. Another civilization was the Maya who continued blood-letting, practiced human sacrifice, and created a caste system. Then there was the Aztecs who had the largest population, a materialistic culture, had practiced human sacrifice on a massive scale, and had their great capital city Tenochtitlan.
  • -600 BCE

    The Dark Ages

    The Dark Ages
    The Dark Ages are referred to as a period of time between the fall of the Roman Empire and the start of the Age of Discovery. It was a backward era of cultural degradation and a weak economy. Feudalism occurred during this time when the Catholic Church gained control of cultural and educational domination and became an elaborate hierarchy. Military technology was also transformed during this time with the cavalry and artillery.
  • 1300

    The Renaissance

    The Renaissance
    The Renaissance was a period of European art, culture, an economic, and political rebirth that took place after the Middle Ages. Many famous thinkers and artists were known during this time such as Leonardo Davinci and Michelangelo. They created realism art which was a popular form of art. Humanism also became popular during this time which was the idea that people should embrace science and education. New inventions like the printing press were invented for improved communication in Europe.
  • 1347

    The Black Death

    The Black Death
    It was one of the most devastating diseases in history killing many of the people in Eurasia. It was caused by wild rodents and fleas who also spread the disease killing 40-50% of Europe's population. The decrease in population turned the economy upside down because there were nearly no workers and the wages of peasants were increased which allowed them a higher standard of living. Merchant societies were formed by the Black Death as well.
  • 1492

    Columbian Exchange

    Columbian Exchange
    The Columbian Exchange was the exchange of animals, plants, culture, population, disease, technology, and ideas between America and Europe/Africa. Some goods exchanged were sugar and tobacco which were popular goods. Columbus also brought cows, pigs, chickens, and horses to America. However, Europeans also brought smallpox, measles, chickenpox, and syphilis that decimated the native population in the New World.
  • 1517


    It was a movement that wanted to reform the beliefs of the church and began when Martin Luther wrote his 95 Thesis and broke away from the Catholic church and Pope Leo X. John Calvin followed Martin Luther and created his own belief of predestination which is god setting your destiny before you are born. Reformation in England took place when Henry VIII had his divorce denied by the pope so he creates Church of England. Elizabeth I also takes control after decades of power struggles.
  • Jul 24, 1534

    New France

    New France
    Jacques Cartier was an explorer who found New World traveling St. Lawrence River. France was became interested in the New World because of fur trading. France wanted to establish a good relationship with natives so that they could have fur. Samuel de champlain created the first French settlement in Quebec. Robert de La Salle explored the Mississipi River to the Gulf of Mexico. He established New Orleans and named the Mississippi Valley region Louisiana, after the king, King Louis XIV.
  • Chesapeake Colonies

    Chesapeake Colonies
    The Chesapeake region had consisted of Virginia, Maryland, the New Jerseys, and Pennsylvania. Jamestown was the first English colony in the New World. Winters were harsh but John Brown managed to save the colony and John Rolfe brought tobacco to Jamestown. They established a headright system stating new settlers who paid would get 50 acres of land. Tobacco became popular which led to indentured servitude. Maryland was named after George Calvert's wife and inherited by Cecil Calvert.
  • Slavery

    Slaves became a new source of labor started 1619 in Jamestown. The Atlantic Slave Trade brought African people to mostly America. Slave trade mostly used the triangular trade route and the Middle Passage. The trip to the Middle Passage was harsh and more than 10% of slaves died on the voyage. In lower South 2/3 of the population were slaves. Upper South slaves were treated better. North did not find slavery vital and disliked it. Some slaves tried to rebel but most were put down.
  • Proprietary Colonies

    Proprietary Colonies
    These were grants of lands in the form of a charter to control. New Netherland explored present-day New York. It set up its own colony between Chesapeake and New England. New Amsterdam was created (New York/New Jersey) in which Charles II issued a charter for new colonies in New Netherlands. William Penn wanted a religious refugee for Quakers so he got a land grant to control Pennsylvania. Proprietors wanted Carolina and founded it for a buffer between Spanish Florida and make money.
  • Triangular Trade

    Triangular Trade
    A system of transatlantic trading between Africa, America, and Europe. The trade started off by bringing European goods from Europe to Africa where they were then traded for slaves. Afterward, the slaves were transported to America to be sold. Colonists could export raw materials to Europe and recieve slaves from Africa as well as manufactured goods from Europe.
  • Navigation Acts

    Navigation Acts
    The Navigation Acts limited Dutch trade with English colonies. Soon after additional acts were passed that followed after this one. The acts required all goods to be transported on English or colonial American ships which later resulted in the Anglo-Dutch War in 1652.
  • Caribbean Colonies

    Caribbean Colonies
    Columbus landed and claimed the Caribbean, establishing colonies. Sugar was the lifeblood of this region and used for the majority of everything. Barbados, Jamaica, and other English held islands were in this region. Slaves outnumbered the whites in this region but there was no legal recourse for slaves.
  • Glorious Revolution

    Glorious Revolution
    The Glorious Revolution was when William of Orange claimed the throne from James II in 1688. It replaced the joint monarchy with Mary and her husband William of Orange. It was a bloodless revolution in which no blood was shed when this occurred. New taxes were imposed such as the English Bill of Rights declaring the rights and liberties of people which also settled the succession of William and Mary.
  • Salem Witch Trials

    Salem Witch Trials
    The Salem witch trials were a series of persecutions of those accused of witchcraft that occurred in Salem Village, Massachusetts. The hysteria began when a group of young girls accused several women of witchcraft, resulting in the hanging of Bridget Bishop. As panic spread, people were accused of witchcraft and either imprisoned or hanged. Trials continued until public opinion turned against it in which those who were in prison due to witchcraft charges were eventually released.
  • Acts of Union

    Acts of Union
    Two acts of parliament in order for the unification of United England and Scotland. Scottish parliament was dissolved and both England and Scotland became one country. New Britain becomes an empire and parliament is the head of this empire. Colonies had control and so a federal system with a central authority and local governments were created which also paved way for the modern U.S. system of government.
  • The Enlightenment

    The Enlightenment
    An intellectual movement that focused on reason and science. Scientists like Sir Isaac Newton, John Locke, Benjamin Franklin helped define American Enlightenment. The idea of Deism was created which was the idea that God created the universe and watches over them. Enlightened ideals reached and guided the founding of Georgia. The Enlightenment made people feel like individuals. However, Georgia found administrative problems which caused a staging point to attack Florida.
  • Colonial Economies

    Colonial Economies
    Immigrants in America came from England and Wales and others from Northern Europe. New England was fishing based and encouraged shipbuilding and involved in Atlantic trade. Mid-Atlantic was agriculturally based, had a small manufacturing industry, and ethnically diverse. Upper South focused on tobacco with some English and Scottish descent. Lower South was religiously diverse and had a large number of slaves. Western lands focused on farming and had a wild-frontier.
  • The Great Awakening

    The Great Awakening
    A series of Christian revivals and reacted to Enlightenment secularism. John Edwards beliefs centered around idea that humans were sinners and made others scared into becoming religious. George Whitefield traveled to North America to preach the gospel. He gave ordinary people a voice and became a religious icon in the Methodist movement. Native Americans revivals took place as well as they saw Jesus as a symbol and a pre-contact way of life
  • Seven Years War/ French and Indian War

    Seven Years War/ French and Indian War
    Britain and France had colonies in North America. The British and colonies desired more land. The French created forts to protect their trade with the Indians. Later, George Washington led an army to attack the French. British create a new policy to defeat French leading to capture of Quebec and Montreal. This was the first real world war. Fort William Henry was turning point of the war. Treaty of Paris 1763 ends the war. British now control New France
  • Acts of Parliament

    Acts of Parliament
    It started with the Sugar Act in which it put a tax on coffee and wine. Next the Stamp Act, in which a stamp tax was put on all paper. The Declaratory Act allowed parliament to repeal stamp act. Townsend Act put new taxes on paper, glass, paint, and tea. Colonists boycotted against British goods and women started making their own clothes. Eventually, the Boston Tea Party caused the Coercive Acts closed the port of Boston. Prohibitory Act was passed as retaliation against the rebellion.
  • Virtual Representation

    Virtual Representation
    Virtual Representation was the idea of members of Parliament representing all areas of Britain and receiving the right to speak for the interests of British subjects. The cause of this was when Americas wanted a type of representation in the British parliament after the first few acts were passed. This created salutary neglect in which the colonies started to govern themselves when the British were not enforcing laws in the colonies. This led to an autonomous government in the colonies.
  • Boston Massacre

    Boston Massacre
    The Boston Massacre was a confrontation between the angry colonists and British soldiers. When Bostonians harassed the British soldiers they opened fire and shot the crowd killing five people. Paul Revere created propaganda about this to anger colonists. Parliament then repealed the Townsend Acts in order to keep their relationship stable with colonists. However this led to the famous quote "No taxation without representation."
  • Boston Tea Party

    Boston Tea Party
    The Boston Tea Party was a protest by the Sons of Liberty in Boston, led by Samuel Adams. Groups of drunk Bostonians disguised themselves as Mohawk Indians and threw crates of tea into the Boston harbor to protest the Tea Act. 340 chests were lost that day and this eventually led to the British government passing the Intolerable Acts which closed the port and enforced strict policy on colonists.
  • 1st Continental Congress

    1st Continental Congress
    The First Continental Congress was formed concerning the British government. It was a series of meetings of delegates from the colonies who expressed their grievances against the British. The meeting denounced the Intolerable Acts and the delegates recommended boycotting British goods. Patrick Henry became worried of the conflict that would come and led to his famous quote "Give me libery or give me death!"
  • Battles

    The first battle in Lexington and Concord in 1775. Paul Revere midnight ride warned of the British coming. In the battle of Lexington the first shot was fired which was known as the shot heard around the world. Next came the Battle of Bunker Hill in which British won but it showed colonists weren't easy to beat. In New York, British drove out Americans. Guerilla warfare used against British. Battle of Saratoga turning point of the war. Battle of Yorktown was final battle with British defeat.
  • The Declaration of Independence

    The Declaration of Independence
    During the second continental congress meeting, the declaration of independence was adopted. Thomas Jefferson wrote the draft of the declaration of independence. The people who signed it became known as the founding fathers of America. The declaration summarized the colonist's grievances against the British but writers made sure to avoid anti-monarchal sentiment in order for European allies. The declaration was completed on July 2nd and signed on July 4th.
  • Enlightenment ideals on America in the late 18th century

    Enlightenment ideals on America in the late 18th century
    The Age of Enlightenment still took place in America. The American Enlightenment educated the population and influenced them. The Enlightenment also started to make religion less important. As a result many people separated from the church, this is also known as secular. Ordinary citizens also had more of a voice than before.
  • Articles of Confederation

    Articles of Confederation
    The Articles of Confederation was created in 1777 and ratified in 1781. However, the Articles were weak in which they formed loose bonds with independent states. Money, power, and jurisdiction were different from state to state. No central authority was established either. The Articles were also weak because it could not enforce taxation, short on funds, and weak. Congress could not get anything done with the Articles. If rebellions occured military action couldn't happen either.
  • American Virtue (late 18th century)

    American Virtue (late 18th century)
    Republican ideals started to spread during this time. After colonist won their independence they broke away from British styles and traditions. As a result, unique styles were also forged into furniture and architecture. There were democratic symbolism in these and colonists did not use British style anymore. Greek was also sort of the new national language during this time.
  • Problems with the British

    Problems with the British
    Although the Treaty of Paris 1783 ended the war, Britain and America still had tensions between them. For example, the British refused to dismantle several forts in the former Northwest territory while Americans confiscated property from citizens who had remained loyal to Britain during the war. Natives were not represented in the treaty as well so there were continued conflicts with natives. Spain was denied access to the Mississippi River as well so they did not trade with U.S.
  • Treaty of Paris - 1783

    Treaty of Paris - 1783
    The Treaty of Paris 1783 ended the American Revolutionary War. It made the British recognize the U.S. as a separate and independent nation. The treaty ended British rule in the U.S. and the colonial empire of Great Britian was destroyed in it. It also established northern borders with British North America/ Canada. The United States also receive frontier land to the Mississippi River.
  • Shay's Rebellion

    Shay's Rebellion
    Shay's Rebellion was a revolt in Massachusetts led by Daniel Shay. The cause of the rebellion was the lack of money which caused people's farms to be seized. However, the Articles of Confederation could not allow military troops to take action in order to stop the rebellion. Local militia had to be used in order to put down the rebellion. The result of this rebellion showed how weak the Articles of Confederation really were.
  • Constitutional Convention

    Constitutional Convention
    The constitutional convention called to revise constitution. Two plans for reform was created. One was the Virginia Plan which wanted a two-house legislature. New Jersey Plan wanted a single legislature. Connecticut Plan was a compromise that had a bi-carneal legislature. Issues of slavery were discussed such as how to count them. The 3-man executive made and the electoral college system. Debate over the bill of rights with federalist and anti-federalist over constitution and bill of rights.
  • Northwest Ordinance

    Northwest Ordinance
    The Northwest ordinance provided a new method for admitting new states to Union as well as a bill of rights that are guaranteed in the territory. Slavery was also forbidden in the Northwest Territory. It also laid the basis of governors and legislatures for the government of the Northwest territory.
  • Election of 1788

    Election of 1788
    This was the first presidential election in American history. George Washington becomes unanimously elected by the electoral college and John Adams in second place of the election became Vice President. Washington was a god-like figure for people and everyone's choice during the election. George Washington became the first president of the United States from this election.
  • Second Great Awakening

    Second Great Awakening
    The Second Great Awakening began around the 1800s but later picked up around the 1820s. The Second Great Awakening emphasized religious romanticism and was primarily revolved around religion. It was a movement that believed in the supernatural but rejected secularism and deism. Morality was also taken over by economics and politics. It also led to reform movement such as women's suffrage, temperance movement, and the abolitionist movement.
  • Whiskey Rebellion

    Whiskey Rebellion
    The Whiskey Rebellion was a protest against the liquor tax. Pennsylvania farmers started to revolt because whiskey was economically important and it earned a large profit. 6,000 people threatened to attack Pittsburg but the new U.S. Constitution could allow military force to put down the rebellion. As a result Washington led an army to Pittsburg and all of the protesters scattered. This rebellion was the first true test of the Constitution and it showed that it was suitable for the U.S.
  • Bill of Rights

    Bill of Rights
    The Bill of Rights was created in 1789 and ratified in 1791. The Bill of Rights had 10 amendments. They were: freedom of speech, right to bear arms, no quartering of troops, no search and seizure, right against self-incrimination, right to speedy trial, no cruel punishment, right kept to people, and power of states and people. The Bill of Rights guarenteed civil rights and liberties to individuals.
  • Two competing forms of government

    Two competing forms of government
    Two forms of government were created: the Federalist and the Democrat-Republicans. The Democrat-Republican party was formed by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison. The Federalist party was formed by Alexander Hamilton. Both had different views on government. Federalist believed in loose interpretation and a strong central government. Democrat-Republicans believed in a strict interpretation and a loose government with more power given to the states.
  • Election of 1796

    Election of 1796
    The election of 1796 was the first contested presidential election between two opposing parties. It was an election between John Adams from the Federalist side and Thomas Jefferson from the Republican side. John Adams won the election but Thomas Jefferson got second place in the election so he was elected vice president. George Washington did not seek a 3rd term in his presidency and gave a farewell address. His farewell address warned of foreign relation and the dangers of a permanent alliance.
  • Adam's Presidency

    Adam's Presidency
    In Adam's Presidency, the French seized American ships because they didn't like Jay's Treaty. Adams sent delegates to negotiate with France or XYZ affair. French ministers (X, Y, Z) wanted a bribe for negotiations. Americans were angry and an undeclared naval war was announced until 1800. Later Adams signed the Alien and Sedition Acts which gave the government power to deport aliens and arrest anyone who said bad things about the government These laws were declared unconstitutional by Jefferson.
  • Election of 1800

    Election of 1800
    Thomas Jefferson and Burr tied in this election but in case of a tie, the House of Representatives had to decide. Hamilton persuades the House to vote for Jefferson but he hates Burr. The 12th amendment was made for separate ballots for VP and President after this. Later the Judiciary Act was made which reduced Supreme Court Justices. Madison withholds judge nominations but Marbury did not get his judge position so he took it to court. This Supreme Court case led to judicial review.
  • Jefferson Administration

    Jefferson Administration
    Jefferson's Presidency began in 1801. During his presidency, there was a reduction in government. Jefferson also struck a deal with Napoleon to buy the Louisiana territory which doubled the size of the U.S. The territory was unknown so Jefferson sends Lewis and Clark to map out the area. The British had also began forcing Americans into naval service and fired on U.S.S. Chespeake. In response the Embargo Act of 1807 was passed that prohibited trade with American ships on foreign ports.
  • Hamilton vs. Burr

    Hamilton vs. Burr
    A duel was fought between Alexander Hamilton and Aaron Burr. Duels were usually illegal in the U.S. but some people still dueled anyways. Burr was also the vice president at the time. During the duel, Hamilton didn't think Burr was really going to shoot him so he pointed his gun and shot away from Burr. However, Burr shot Hamilton during the duel and killed him. As a result the Federalist Party's main leader died.
  • Madison Presidency

    Madison Presidency
    James Madison became president after Jefferson and inherited the Embargo Act. However, the Embargo Act caused problems such as hurting the economy affecting the South and Northeast the most. The British became upset from this and started giving natives guns and supplies. Tecumseh got British supplies and started raiding American settlements because of this. This ended up creating further tensions with the British.
  • War of 1812

    War of 1812
    America declared war on the British in 1812. America began taking on a land-based strategy but the British defeated America from Canada in 1813. The British also blockaded American ports. In 1814, British took Washington D.C. and burned down the White House for revenge on the U.S. attack on them in York. In the battle of Fort McHenry, Francis Scott Key wrote the Star-Spangled Banner. Battle of New Orleans was led by Andrew Jackson who defeated British, became a war hero, and ended the war.
  • Changes in Agriculture

    Changes in Agriculture
    American society began to undergo revolutionary changes in its industrialization. New inventions were created for agriculture. One was the Iron Plow which was invented by John Deere. It was able to turn and break up soil to help control weeds. Another invention was the Crank churns. It had a crank to help convert cream into butter. Lastly the Cotton Gin was invented by Eli Whitney. It helped increased the production of cotton however this led to an increase of slavery who picked out the cotton.
  • Changes in Transportation

    Changes in Transportation
    Innovations to transportation were invented during the industrial revolution to help transport raw materials and travel long distances. Among them were steamboats, canals, railroads, and modern roads. John Fitch invented the first steamboat which helped people carry goods across the ocean. Thomas Telford created a new foundation for roads using large flat stones. Canals and railroads also allowed a pathway for people to travel great distances and a lot of money was invested into building them.
  • Southern Society

    Southern Society
    There were three main classes of whites in southern society. They were the Planters, Yeomen farmers, and Tenant farmers. Yeoman relied on Planters and 75% didn’t own slaves. Tennant, and Planter majority didn’t own slaves and were the ruling class of the South, Yeoman farmers were second, and the Tenant were third. Tenant farmers were the lowest level and same level as slaves. Tenant farmers were encouraged white supremacy due to planter’s fear of revolts
  • McCulloch vs. Maryland

    McCulloch vs. Maryland
    The issue was that the state of Maryland lacked the power to tax the Second Bank of America. This was one of the most supreme court cases of the U.S. The case implied that the powers of the government had more power over the states. It also said the states cannot take place in federal government. This case led to the South to have more radical views toward states rights.
  • Panic of 1819

    Panic of 1819
    This was one of the U.S. first major financial crisis. There was an economic boom after the War of 1812 that led to this crisis. Tax loan policies from the Second Bank of the U.S. were also high and so no one could pay it. Banks failed and many people lost their homes or farms due to the economic tailspin. Agricultural prices also began to drop during this time. Unemployment rates became increasingly high. This became one of the worst depressions in American history.
  • Missouri Crisis

    Missouri Crisis
    Missouri wanted to apply for admission to the Union as a slave state. The North was against this but the South was supportive of it. This was because the balance of slave states to free states would shift because of this. As a result, the Missouri Compromise was created to balance this shift. It drew an imaginary line at 36-30 latitude. States above the line would be free and below would be slaves. Maine was accepted as a free state and Missouri a slave.
  • Florida

    The United States wanted Florida from Spain. As a result, the Adams - Onis Treaty of 1819 was made. The Adams Onis Treaty ceded Florida to the United States and also established a boundary between the U.S. and New Spain. Andrew Jackson also defends from Indians. Spain cedes and later the U.S. has recognized a claim to Louisiana.
  • Slavery

    The issue of slavery was a problem between abolitionists and anti-abolitionists. Abolitionists wanted to free slaves but anti-abolitionists supported slavery. Rallies were held to denounce abolitionists and bonfires burnt abolitionists literature. Congress was also forbidden to speak of abolition. Abolitionists believed in immediatism which was an immediate end to slavery.
  • Architecture

    Americans began to have a fascination with Greek culture which became known as Greek revival. Greek gained their independence from the Ottoman Empire in the 1820s. Greek revival was incorporated into the architecture which had buildings made of marble and painted white. Towns also began to be named after Greek cities such as Troy, Ithaca, and Syracuse.
  • Nature

    Nature and Architecture began to grow popular. The idea of Parks was a new idea in nature. Parks served to be a getaway from face paced life. Parks became popular in the idea of nature away from the urban city life and a place to admire nature. Cemeteries also follow the designed that parks had. This became a rural cemetery-movement
  • Western Frontier

    Western Frontier
    Fur trade became immensely popular and created huge profits. American dominated this trade by the 1820s. However, this led to a decline of beavers in which they were almost hunted to extinction. Eventually, fashion for beaver fur changed and trappers began to disappear by the 1840s. Trappers were on expeditions to bring info about western lands.
  • Monroe Doctrine

    Monroe Doctrine
    The Monroe Doctrine was created by President James Monroe, addressing European colonialism. Monroe warned to Europe no intervention in Latin America or the Western Hemisphere. The Monroe Doctrine also stated the American continents were to be taken seriously and not subjects of American colonization. The Monroe Doctrine ended up becoming a cornerstone of future U.S. policy.
  • Texas

    In 1824, Stephen F. Austin received a land grant for Texas. There were conditions for living in Texas such as no slaves. Texans didn't follow these though and they outnumbered Hispanics. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna sent forces to the North when Texas wanted to separate. This led to Texas Revolution with Battle of Gonzalez in which Texans defended a cannon with a flag Come and Take It. Texan defeat in Alamo led to San Jacinto. Texans defeated the Spanish army easily and Texas became independent.
  • Election of 1824

    Election of 1824
    There were four candidates in this election; John Quincy Adams, Andrew Jackson, William Crawford, and Henry Clay. Andrew Jackson won the popular vote but not the electoral college. John Quincy Adams ended up being chosen by the House of Representatives. Andrew Jackson was upset and bitter over the election and called it "corrupt bargain." This was because it was believed that Henry Clay convinced congress to elect John Quincy Adams over Andrew Jackson.
  • Presidency of John Quincy Adams

    Presidency of John Quincy Adams
    During the Presidency of John Quincy Adams, he created an American system in which he imposed tariffs and created a new national bank to modernize the economy of the U.S. He also able to reduce the national debt of the U.S. and also created national universities. However, his popularity began to decline with his lenient approach towards Native Americans. When he signed the Tariff of Abominations it decreased his popularity further leading to Andrew Jackson who was his successor.
  • Election of 1828

    Election of 1828
    The Election of 1828 was a rematch between Andrew Jackson and John Quincy Adams. The election involved personal attacks between Jackson and Adams. The Democratic Party also drew support for Jackson. Adams focused on Jackson's military and personal life such as attacking Jackson's wife Rachael. Jackson also got his nickname "Old Hickory" for being a strict general in the War of 1812. Andrew Jackson won this election overwhelmingly but his wife Rachael died before the inauguration.
  • Jackson Administration

    Jackson Administration
    Andrew Jackson created a Spoils System in which he replaced bureaucracy with his own supporters. However, in 1832 South Carolina nullified tariff acts which became known as the Nullification Crisis. John Calhoun was Jackson's VP who advocated nullifying laws. Jackson also hated Indians and created the Indian Removal Act of 1833 when gold was found. The Cherokees forced to leave became known as the Trail of Tears. In Election of 1832, Jackson destroyed Clay in the election by his bank veto speech
  • Changes in Communication

    Changes in Communication
    The first telegraph was invented around the 1830s by Samuel Morse. News was able to be sent quicker with this new invention by sending Morse Code, which was also invented by Samuel Morse. The printing press also increased the speed of communication as well as knowledge. This was because people did not need to manually hand write copies of books but instead print out copies of books. Due to these inventions news could be spread faster without having to send a messenger.
  • Immigration

    Many immigrants began to flock to America through rural migration and European immigration. The Irish immigrated to America because of the potato famine they had experienced. Due to this the Irish faced starvation and disease in their country. Meanwhile, the Germans came to America because they had poor harvests and had undergone a political turmoil in Germany. Scandinavians and British came to America for economic opportunities.
  • Growing cities

    Growing cities
    During the industrial revolution people flocked to cities. Slums had terrible living conditions and unhygienic. Many left these slums and had extra money to live in working-class neighborhoods. Tenants were popular because they could fit many people in a single building. There were also old cities like New York, East Coast, and Europe. The new inland cities were Chicago, Pittsburgh, St. Louis. Urban crowding was an issue so a police force was established in New York.
  • Temperance Movement

    Temperance Movement
    The Temperance movement was a social and political movement that advocated the ban of alcohol. Alcohol consumptions were really bad during the time and people drank all day. Temperance societies made people sign pledges who promised not to drink alcohol. Some states banned alcohol and alcohol consumptions were reduced because of this movement.
  • Election of 1836

    Election of 1836
    Martin Van Buren won the Election of 1836. He was also known as Old Kinderhook or "OK" which led to the saying "ok." Martin was in the Democratic Party and barely won the election against the Whigs Party. However, when Martin became president he inherited a bad economy. This led to the Panic of 1837, where profits and wages went down. Martin Van Buren was then nicknamed "Martin Van Ruin." In the Election of 1840, William Henry Harrison became president but died after his first month in office.
  • Labor Changes

    Labor Changes
    In the 1840s women began to have jobs in the Lowell Mills and became part of the industry. In the North, The Waltham System was employed in centralized factories or mills. There was a large labor force and women had poor working conditions. Women were also paid by working. Steam power engines were also developed and cheaper goods opened up to the economy. However, there were also strikes in the factories for long work hours.
  • Manifest Destiny

    Manifest Destiny
    Manifest Destiny was the belief of American expansion towards the West and throughout the American continents. It was also a belief in Native American's extinction. This led to the Great Migration in Oregon in which people sought new opportunities and lasted 5-6 months. Mormon was becoming persecuted as well. Joseph Smith was killed by an angry mob in his cell and so Mormons migrated to Brigham Young. In Salt Lake Valley some relocated away from the federal government and practiced polygamy.
  • Millenialism

    Millennialism was the belief that Christ was coming for Judgement Day. William Miller kept picking dates of when he would come but he never came. Shakers were celibate and communistic who believed in equality among the sexes. However, they didn't believe in marriage so Shakers eventually dissolved. Mormons were members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints. Joseph Smith was the religious leader of the Mormons.
  • Slavery

    After the Mexican American War, Wilmot Proviso was created in 1846. It was a proposal to ban slavery from the territories the U.S. acquired from Mexico at the end of the war. However, it failed and was defeated in Congress. Popular sovereignty was created to allow slaves to choose if they wanted to be a slave or a free state. In Election of 1848, Zachary Taylor campaigned in North for Wilmot Proviso and in the South for pro slavery which allowed him to win easily.
  • Mexican American War

    Mexican American War
    Disputes over the border and issues over Texas led to the Mexican American War. California declares independence from Mexico in Bear Flag Revolt. Mexico was overwhelmed in the war which lasted 2 years. Important American generals such as Ulysses S. Grant and Robert E. Lee became important in future Civil War. Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo settled the border dispute, gave America over half of Mexico's territory, and led to problems over slavery.
  • Suffrage

    Industrialization changed the lives of women in which women were now working in cities outside of their homes. This led to a rise of women involved in politics. Women were participating in temperance, and anti-slavery movements. Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Luciella Matt became well-known figures in the Seneca Falls Convention in 1848. It was a women's rights convention and led to the Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions. Women wanted to secure rights in economics and voting.
  • California Gold Rush

    California Gold Rush
    Gold was discovered in California which led to thousands to migrate to California and mine for gold. California was a territory in 1848 and received statehood in 1850. Gold was easy to find and mining began in the are in 1852 which supported industries. Chinese migrated to California as well for opportunities and worked in the worst mines. This was because Chinese people faced racism in California.
  • Slavery

    Slavery for statehood became a major issue for California. California became a state in 1850 but later the Compromise of 1850 was made. It stated that California would enter a free state and banned slavery in areas. Fugitive Slave Act allowed people bring back slaves. The Underground Railroad allowed for Slaves to escape to South. Kansas-Nebraska allowed them to decide if they want to be a free or slave state. This led to bloody conflict and John Brown attacks Harpers Ferry.
  • Nativism

    Nativism was a political policy that believed in the native people against immigrants. Nativists blamed immigrants for problems. They were also against immigration such as Germans and Irish Catholics. The Know-Nothings Party was a secret organization against immigration. They also solely wanted to restrict immigrants but they eventually disappeared by the 1860s.
  • Election of 1852

    Election of 1852
    The Election of 1852 was between Franklin Pierce from the Democrats and Winfield Scott from the Whigs Party. Franklin Pierce won this election. However, Winfield Scott allied with antislavery Whigs. This eventually led to the Whig party began to fall apart and dissolve. Franklin Pierce spread democracy, increased international trade, and promoted territorial expansion.
  • Republican Party

    Republican Party
    After the Whig Party dissolved a new party known as the Republicans were formed. The Republican Party was a Northern party. It was made up of Free Soilers, Whigs, and anti-slavery Democrats. The Republican Party became an important party that rivaled against the Democratic Party. The Democratic Party grew in the South and had pro-slavery Whigs that joined. Important people in the Republican Party was Abraham Lincoln and in 2016 Donald Trump.
  • Election of 1860

    Election of 1860
    The Election of 1860 was between Democrats John Breckinridge, John Bell, and Republicans Abraham Lincoln. Abraham Lincoln had very few political enemies and had a moderate approach towards slavery. Abraham Lincoln disliked slavery which won him the majority of the votes from free states. The democrat party also had divisions which allowed Lincoln to win this election.
  • Confederate States of America

    Confederate States of America
    The South was upset over Lincoln's election which led to South Carolina leaving the Union. This led to the Confederates States of America who's president was Jefferson Davis. The government was the same as the U.S. expect slavery was protected. President Buchanon did nothing to stop the South from secession saying it was their choice. Confederates captured federal property expect for two forts. This led to Fort Sumter led by P.G.T. Beauregard in which South attacked first. This began civil war.
  • North

    The North had a population of 22 million. They were also high more advanced industrially than the South. The North had 100,000 factories and a 1.5 billion dollar industry. The North made 97% of weapon manufacturing, 94% of clothing, and 90% of shoes and boots in the U.S. The North also had a railroad with 30,000 miles of track. Their motivation for fighting was to uphold the Constitution in the Union. However their military leaders were not as good at the South.
  • South

    The South had a population of about 9 million with 3.5-4 million slaves making up part of the population. Their industrialization was not as strong as the North. They had 18,000 factories, a 155-million dollar industry, and only made 3% of weapons manufacturing in the U.S. The South also had a railroad with 9000 miles of track. However the South had better military leaders than the North such as Robert E. Lee. The South wanted a European ally to help them win the war such as Britain.
  • Neutral States

    Neutral States
    During the Civil War, the border states remained neutral. These states were Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland, and Delaware. Both the North and the South tried to gain influence over these border states. The South's industrialization made 80% of southern production in Border States. Meanwhile, the North allowed border states to keep their slaves in order to not create any conflict. The border states also helped D.C. from being surrounded.
  • Leaders

    The North's military leaders were not as competent as the South. The North's military leaders were Ulysses S. Grant, George Meade, George McClellan, Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain, William Tecumseh Sherman, and Winfield Scott. The South's military leaders were Robert E. Lee, James Longstreet, Stonewall Jackson, Nathan Bedford Forrest, George Pickett, and J.E.B. Stuart. McClellan didn't like Abraham Lincoln and was later fired. Lincoln finally chose Grant to command all Union forces in 1864.
  • The War

    The War
    The Battle of Bull Run was first major battle of the civil war. It was a defeat for the Union. Lee defeats McClellan in Second Battle of Bull Run as well. Battle of Antietam led to Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation. The North also sets up a blockade on the South to stop supplies. Battle of Gettysburg was a turning point of the war in which Union wins. In Battle of Vicksburg Grant cuts South in two. Lee was defeated in Siege of Petersburg. War ends when Lee surrenders in Appomattox Courthouse.
  • Women at Work

    Women at Work
    The Civil War allowed women to have new roles that male traditionally held. Women became teachers, nurses, store managers, had civil service jobs, farmers, and planters. Clara Barton was a popular figure who starts the American Red Cross. She also helped wounded soldiers on both sides who were in battle. Some women also disguised themselves as soldiers to fight in the war such as Jennie Hodgers. More than 400 women disguised themselves as men and fought in the war.
  • International

    The South implemented voluntary cotton embargo. This created a pressure on French and British industry because South had massive cotton production. In 1861 the Trent Affairs stated that Confederates would send diplomats to Europe. However the u.SS. San Jacinto intercepts RMS Trent. As a result, the British demanded an apology. To not cause further tensions, Lincon releases the confederate diplemats and also secured British and French neutrality.
  • Slaves

    During the war slaves fled to the North for liberation and they were taken in as contraband. Slaves were also allowed to fight as soldiers around 1862. However in 1863, Lincoln passed the Emancipation Proclamation which freed slaves free. The proclamation also stopped Britain from getting involved from the war because Britain was against slavery which was what the South supported. However border states were stilled allowed to keep their slaves to not cause a dispute.
  • Plans

    There two plans for reconstruction in the South. One was Lincoln's 10% Plan which pardoned all Southerners except officers or officials who had to take an oath of loyalty. They also had to apply for federal recognition as a state again. The Wade-Davis Bill punished Confederate leaders and destroyed slave society. They also had to take an oath declaring they never aided the Confederacy and officers were stripped of citizenship. States would also be readmitted after a long punishment.
  • Former Slaves

    Former Slaves
    Freedmen's Bureau was a relief agency in the war-torn South. It offered food, schools, and emergency services, becoming the main institution for Reconstruction. Many former slaves went to cities but were given labor-intensive jobs with a low paying wage. Former slaves were also given 40 acres a mule in which they could own land to farm. Some planters land was taken by Union forces but eventually given back. Northern missionaries also educated former slaves which were part of Freedman's Bureau
  • Life for whites Reconstruction South

    Life for whites Reconstruction South
    In the South, there were Carpetbaggers, Scalawags, and Southern Republicans. Southern Republicans were opportunistic and relief workers. Carpetbaggers who Northerners who moved to the South for economic opportunity. Scalawags were whites who were considered traitors by other southerners. They also got wealthy by manipulating black voters. Rumors of corruption in Southern Republican government was made. They built public improvmeents and deficits built up bribery.
  • Assassination

    After a week the Civil War ended Lincoln attended a play at Ford's Theater. During the play, John Wilkes Booth shoots Lincoln in the back of the head. Afterward, Booth jumped off the balcony Lincoln was in and onto the stage saying, "The South is avenged!" Lincoln died the next day he was shot. Abraham Lincoln's funeral attracted millions on the railroad tracks so that they could see Lincoln.
  • Andrew Johnson's Administration

    Andrew Johnson's Administration
    Andrew Johnson was the Vice President of Lincoln who became president after his assassination. However, unlike Lincoln, Johnson was seen as a racist and opposed secession. Johnson promoted the lenient readmission policy which was to take an oath and he ratified the 13th amendment. This also allowed high-ranking confederates to be pardoned but most states failed to live up to terms. Andrew Johnson was also the first president to be impeached in 1868.
  • Grant Administration

    Grant Administration
    In the election of 1868, Grant won this election but it showed whites were racist and violence towards black voters. Whites resented new black rights and punished blacks as well as supportive whites for challenging the social order. This led to groups such as the Ku Klux Klan. Grant tried to stop the suppression with the Enforcement Acts. Grant also didn't have control over cabinet and scandals were made with him interfering in state affairs in the South. Panic of 1873 occurred from bad economy.
  • Election of 1876

    Election of 1876
    The election of 1876 was one of the most disputed between Samuel Tilden from the Democrats and Rutherford Hayes from the Republicans. There were rumors of corruption and issues over reconstruction and the economy. The popular vote went to Tilden but the electoral votes were unclear. Hayes was given all electoral votes and became president, passing the Compromise of 1877. Hayes agreed he would end Reconstruction, removal federal troops from the South, and began suppression for southern blacks.
  • The New South

    The New South
    A new society was built around oppression and segregation. African American representation in government began to plummet. However economic boom developed in industrialization, urbanization, and new railroads. Money was spent less on social programs and primarily on public education as well. Some Southerners believed they were brave and at a disadvantage which was why they lost the war (Lost Cause). Sharecropping was practiced as well by giving owner 1/3 of harvest in exchange for rent.
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    Beginnings of Exploration

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    English Colonial Societies

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    Colonial America to 1763

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    The Revolutionary War

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    The Constitution

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    New Republic

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    The Age of Jefferson

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    The American Industrial Revolution

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    Age of Jackson

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    Westward Expansion

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    The Civil War

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