1301 Timeline Project

Timeline created by abicho
In History
  • 1,200 BCE

    The Olmecs

    The Olmecs
    The Olmecs were the first advanced civilization in Mesoamerica, or present-day Mexico and Central America. They themselves lived near the Gulf of Mexico. Their culture involved bloodletting and sacrificial rituals, which influenced many other Mesoamerican civilizations. They were also known for building pyramids and Olmec heads. San Lorenzo was a major city and oldest site known to mankind of the Olmec that demonstrated this art style. They hit decline by 350BC, due to Alexander the Great.
  • 900

    The Pueblo (Anasazis)

    The Pueblo (Anasazis)
    The Pueblo, also known as the Anasazis, were an ancient Native tribe of the southwestern US. The Anasazis were known for living in cliff homes that were constructed from adobe. This required a lot of rock climbing to get around. These cliff homes were found in cultural centers, one of the major ones being the Chaco Canyon. The Anasazis were also known for being experts in building irrigation systems. But the Anasazi eventually left their homes due to drought and famine by the 1300's.
  • 1096

    The Crusades

    The Crusades
    The Crusades were a series of wars between the Christians and other religious groups (Muslims and Jews) in an attempt to secure holy sites for either opponent. The Knights Templar was established as a religious military order. Although they were relatively unsuccessful, it gave the European Christians a legacy that made them one of the major players in the fight for Middle Eastern land. They also developed military upgrades and trade, due to an increase in demand for supplies after the wars.
  • 1300

    The Renaissance

    The Renaissance
    The Renaissance was a period of economic, cultural, and political rebirth in Europe. This lasted from the 14th to 17th centuries. Art was encouraged during this time. Classical realism spread across Europe. Famous artists include Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo. The printing press allowed an increase in literacy. Medicine and philosophy became greatly developed. Technology, such as the astrolab, helped in exploration. This period developed many advances for the people and their interactions.
  • 1492

    Caribbean Colonies

    Caribbean Colonies
    The Caribbean Colonies consisted of Barbados, Jamaica, and many other English-held islands. Sugar was the main crop in this region. Sugar was very popular in Europe, as the people used it in almost everything. These islands were considered the most important region, and several countries (France, England, Spain, and Holland) called stakes for island possession. Slaves in this region were so widespread that they outnumbered whites. These slaves had no chance of legal recourse, either.
  • Aug 3, 1492

    Christopher Columbus

    Christopher Columbus
    Christopher Columbus was an Italian known for being a talented navigator. In his attempt to find the shortcut to Asia, he became one of the first Europeans to land in the New World. He was sponsored by both of the Catholic Monarchs of Spain, Ferdinand and Isabella. After promising them gold and slaves, he set out for his first of four voyages across the Atlantic in 1492. While he did discover the various Caribbean islands and the Bahamas, he died believing he had found Asia instead.
  • 1517


    Before the Protestant Reformation, Pope Leo X had the Catholic Church in cultural control for a thousand years. He monopolized the Church by using indulgences, a way for the common people to pay to go to Heaven. Martin Luther was upset by this, and challenged the Church by writing his 95 Theses. This sparked the beginning of the Reformation. Meanwhile John Calvin adopted Predestination. There becomes a struggle between Anglicans and Catholics, up until Elizabeth I takes control as a Protestant.
  • Jul 24, 1534

    New France

    New France
    New France was founded because the French wanted fur from the New World. They eventually became a fur trading empire. They also had the best relationship with Native Americans compared to the other empires, which allowed for cooperative conversion to Christianity. The French explored from The Mississippi River to the Gulf of Mexico. During this exploration, they established New Orleans and named the Mississippi Valley as Louisiana, after Louis XIV, the Sun King.
  • Chesapeake Colonies

    Chesapeake Colonies
    Virginia and Maryland were founded in British America. Jamestown was one major site. It began as a charter for the English Crown. John Smith was one of the settlers and played an important role in the development of Jamestown. Tobacco was a large profit maker and became the main cash crop in Virginia and Maryland. Many settlers came as indentured servants. Chesapeake also developed the Headright System in attempt to solve labor shortage. These colonies were placed on coasts and near waterways.
  • Proprietary Colonies

    Proprietary Colonies
    New Netherland started Dutch. Charles II issued a royal charter for new colonies here. New Amsterdam was the original name of New York, which was a city built for trade. Some land was also given to William Penn, who named it Pennsylvania. Penn used this land as religious refuge for fellow Quakers. It soon became known as the "Peaceful Kingdom". Carolina was founded as a buffer colony between Spanish Florida, and to make money. Proprietors eventually divided it into North and South Carolina.
  • Slavery

    The Atlantic Slave Trade played a major role in the development of slavery. Slaves were a new source for a labor force for Europeans. Demand for slaves increased during the late 17th century. Britain became the largest slave trader in the 1700's. Slaves were exchanged on the Middle Passage, the sea route from West Africa to the West Indies. More than 10% of all slaves ended up dying on the voyage. They were conditioned and sent in to work upon landing.
  • Glorious Revolution

    Glorious Revolution
    James II was the first Catholic monarch in over a hundred years, and many feared Catholic tyranny. Boston and New York tried to keep the revolution hidden, which sparked hostility in settlers towards their leaders. Eventually, Parliament gets William and Mary of Orange to invade England. James II is ousted by his daughter and her husband. They then sign the English Bill of Rights. This revolution was also called the Bloodless Revolution, as James II was overthrown with limited to no violence.
  • Salem Witch Trials

    Salem Witch Trials
    The Salem Witch Trials were a series of trials against settlers accused of witchcraft. These accusations occurred in Salem Town, Ipswich, and Andover. During this time, settlers feared Native raids and were on edge from war in the North. Fear in general was widespread in the area, and soon the people began to fear the supernatural as well. One slave, Tiguba, was known for practicing voodoo, which added fuel to the fire. Hundreds of settlers were accused of witchcraft, and dozens were executed.
  • Development of Colonial Differences

    Development of Colonial Differences
    New England, Chesapeake, and the Southern colonies had environmental differences which led them to develop their economy differently. New England was very mountainous and the soil was rocky, which made farming hard. But they were close to water, so they had a diverse economy in shipbuilding, fishing, and trade. Chesapeake was very warm and had fertile soil. They were tobacco, indigo, and a variety of other crops. The South was very swampy. Their main crop was rice and they had a lot of slaves.
  • Triangular Trade

    Triangular Trade
    The Triangular Trade was a system of transatlantic trade routes between Africa, Europe, and the colonies in North America. Britain would send goods to Africa in exchange for slaves, which were then sent to the islands in the Caribbean. These slaves were exchanged for rum and sugar, which were then shipped all the way back to Britain. Other goods were trade on these routes, but they were generally used for the same purposes all throughout.
  • Act of Union (1707)

    Act of Union (1707)
    The Acts of Union were two acts passed by either Parliament in England and in Scotland. These acts joined together and created the United Kingdom of Great Britain. The English wanted to ensure that Scotland would not choose a different monarch, whereas the Scottish believed this act would help them recover from financial devastation. They also created a federal system with central authority and local government. This set an example for the modern United States system of government.
  • Colonial Economies

    Colonial Economies
    New England was close to water, so they had a diverse economy that included shipbuilding, fishing, and trade. The Mid-Atlantic was involved in European trade, and also had a small manufacturing industry. Chesapeake was more agricultural. They harvest a variety of crops, but mainly tobacco and indigo. The South was also agricultural. Their main cash crop was rice. Their economy also heavily depended on slaves, as they were the labor force for the Southern colonies.
  • The Enlightnment

    The Enlightnment
    Enlightenment was a intellectual and philosophical movement during the eighteenth century. During this period of time, people promoted the ideas of reason and science, rather than superstition. They also started believing in doing your own thinking as an individual. People began to question pre-conceived notions, such as the Bible. Some idols of Enlightenment are Sir Isaac Newton, John Locke, and Benjamin Franklin. Deism and atheism also arise,
  • The Great Awakening

    The Great Awakening
    The Great Awakening was a religious revivalism movement. It is sometimes considered as a response to the Enlightenment secularism. The first revivals were the Churches of New England. Colonists wanted a more pious lifestyle. George Whitfield was one of many itinerant preachers that made revivalists popular. Even some Native Americans found comfort in religious revivalism, as they felt they could relate to Jesus and used him as a symbol of their suffering.
  • Seven Year's War

    Seven Year's War
    The Seven Year's War (also known as the French and Indian War) was a fight between England, France, and Spain for territory. Britain and its colonies wanted more land to the west, and France wanted more land to the South. This war was the first world-wide conflict. Britain had the most powerful naval force during this time. They decided to capture both Quebec and Montreal, which resolves for them to win. The Treaty of Paris 1763 ends the war, and Britain gains control of New France (Canada).
  • Treaty of Paris 1763

    Treaty of Paris 1763
    The Treaty of Paris (1763) ended the French and Indian War, also known as the Seven Year's War. This war was a fight over more territory between the French and the British. The French had a good relationship with Native Americans and eventually developed alliances with them during the war, but they lost in the end. This treaty also ended French rule in North America. The British gained control of New France, which is now Canada, leaving the French with only Haiti and St. Pierre.
  • Stamp Act

    Stamp Act
    The Stamp Act was one of the first acts passed by Parliament on the colonies. This act required a tax on all paper. This effected colonists working as lawyers and printers the most. The Stamp Act was also a lot harsher on the colonists than the Sugar Act. This increased colonial resistance towards Parliament. The Stamp Act Congress was then established. Protests erupted in the colonies. Benjamin Franklin and others write the Declaration of Rights and Grievances to demonstrate their discontent.
  • Boston Massacre

    Boston Massacre
    The Boston Massacre was a riot that went south. Redcoats were sent into the colonies to enforce the acts that were passed by Parliament. Colonists saw this as increasingly repressive. Thus, a mob began harassing Redcoats. Soldiers eventually fired into the crowd, and 5 were killed, with 6 injured. Paul Revere writes a fictitious account of this event which becomes America's first propaganda. This fight fueled anti-British views and anger throughout the colonies.
  • Boston Tea Party

    Boston Tea Party
    The Boston Tea Party was a political protest towards the Tea Act. The East India Company was able to lower the price of tea for the colonies, but there would still be a tax once it was imported. This still angered the colonists that Parliament continued to enforce "taxation without representation". Thus, a group of rebellious men (many the part of the Sons of Liberty) disguised themselves as "Indians" and snuck onto to docked ships. From there they threw 342 chests of tea over board as protest.
  • Olive Branch Petition

    Olive Branch Petition
    The Olive Branch Petition was a document that colonists used to pledge their loyalty to the British Crown. The Continental Congress came together to write this document. In it, they also tried to declare their rights as British citizens. This document was their last hope for peace with Britain. They then sent it to King George. He received it On August 3, 1775, which he rejected. Because of this, colonial support for the revolution increased.
  • Common Sense

    Common Sense
    Common Sense was a book written by Thomas Paine. Paine wrote this book to share his anti-British views and to make his argument for the colonies' independence. He called for a democratic representative government for the colonies (a republic) and attacked the monarchy in his discontent with Parliament. Paine's book was sold for cheap and quickly became very popular, spreading the idea of change in the monarchy among colonists.
  • Declaration of Independence

    Declaration of Independence
    The Declaration of Independence was a document developed under the Second Continental Congress. They believed that independence was the only chance that the colonies had, and thus this document declared their independence as united states. Thomas Jefferson wrote the draft for this document, which was completed on July 2nd. He included grievances against the British, while also calling for European alliances. It was signed by the Founding Fathers two days later.
  • Battle of Saratoga

    Battle of Saratoga
    The Battle of Saratoga is considered to be the turning point of the Revolutionary War. This battle was a victory for the colonies. News of this major victory proved themselves to the French. King Louis XIV then recognizes the independence of the colonies and the French soon send aid to the colonies for their Patriot cause. Because of this alliance, the colonists armies were strengthened and were able to win the war against Britain.
  • Articles of Confederation

    Articles of Confederation
    The Articles of Confederation was the original constitution of the United States. There were many problems with the AOC. This document was weak in that the government system of the US had no central authority. This meant that they could not enforce taxation. They also relied on requisition, to which the state did not comply. They could not even pay pensions because they were short on funds. Overall, the government could not get anything done, and many turn to revolt against the US government.
  • Slavery

    Slavery was a big issue during the time of government reformation for the United States. Government was unsure how the slaves should be counted, or if they should at all. The North was against slavery, whereas the South was pro-slavery. Government then proposed to make a compromise by establishing the Three-Fifths Compromise. For every five slaves, three were counted for representation. This was one of the most contentious issues, as it gave more power to the southern states.
  • The Anti-Federalist Papers

    The Anti-Federalist Papers
    The Anti-Federalists were an association of people that were opposed to the ratification of the US Constitution. They supported a lesser central government, and stronger state's rights. They feared that the Constitution would be a threat to the people's individual liberties and freedoms, and would be vulnerable to central authority. They then wrote the Anti-Federalists papers, a collection of works that were written to voice these concerns.
  • Northwest Ordinance

    Northwest Ordinance
    The Northwest Ordinance was an act adopted by the Confederation Congress. It created a new system of future admission of a new state into the Union. It also provided a government for territory in the Northwest. They were divided into different regions that would be self-governed. Northwest ordinance forbade both slavery and any other form of involuntary service in this territory. It was one of the few positive outcomes of the Articles of Confederation.
  • Connecticut Plan

    Connecticut Plan
    The Connecticut Plan was also known as the Great Compromise. The Virginia Plans were created in favor of large states, whereas the New Jersey Plan was made in favor of smaller states. The Connecticut Plan took from both and was made into a compromise. This plan joined ancient republicanism and English tradition together, and created a balance between national and state authority. It also gave the US a bi-cameral legislature and created what is now our modern-day Congress.
  • Shay's Rebellion

    Shay's Rebellion
    After the American Revolution, there was a post-war recession. Farms were seized, veterans did not receive pension, and it was generally bad for the entire population. Daniel Shay was one of these men and led an army of Revolutionary War veterans to rebel. But, it was put down almost as quickly as it spread. Still, as the first form of resistance against the AOC, this rebellion created a sense of urgency within the United States that there needed to be some kind of government reform.
  • The Great Debate

    The Great Debate
    The Great Debate was a series of different protests and long debates concerning the transition from the Articles of Confederation to the Constitution. The weaknesses of the AOC created multiple internal conflicts, and the government had to reform it one way or another. The Federalists, led by Hamilton, supported the Constitution. The Anti-Federalists opposed it. They demanded protection for individual liberties and freedom. The Federalists won through compromise by adding the Bill of Rights.
  • Election of 1788

    Election of 1788
    The Election of 1788 was the first presidential election held in the United States. It was also the first election under the new US Constitution. George Washington, a Founding Father and former military leader of the Revolutionary War, was very popular amongst settlers and was everyone's first choice. There was no other candidate during this election, as he was elected as president unanimously. John Adams received "second place" and served as the vice president.
  • Whiskey Rebellion

    Whiskey Rebellion
    The Whiskey Rebellion was known to be the first form of resistance towards the United States government under the Constitution. Hamilton was the cause of this rebellion when he proposed a federal excise tax on the production, sale, and consumption of whiskey. Whiskey was a large profitable good, and many farmers revolt against this liquor tax. It is immediately shut down by George Washington and his army, which allowed him to show the strength of the government under the Constitution as well.
  • Bank of the US

    Bank of the US
    The first Bank of the United States was created because of the debt the US was in after the Revolutionary War. It was made in the hopes of Alexander Hamilton to stabilize the United States' currency, as each state had currency of their own. There were doubts to establishing the Bank of the US, with concerns of whether it was constitutional or not and if it meant that central government had too much power. In the end, Washington takes sides with Hamilton and the bank was chartered.
  • Cotton Gin

    Cotton Gin
    The cotton gin was one of the most innovative agricultural inventions made during industrialization. It was invented by Eli Whitney. Slavery was popular in the south, in which African-Americans were exploited for labor to produce cotton for money. But the cotton gin made the production of cotton much quicker and much more efficient. The southern economy mainly focused on cotton to make a profit, and so slavery increased after the cotton gin was invented.
  • Jay's Treaty

    Jay's Treaty
    Jay's Treaty was a treaty made between the United States and Britain in order to prevent war from breaking. John Jay, who was the Chief of Justice in the United States, wrote this treaty. As John JAy was a federalist, Jay's Treaty was very pro-British. It kept the United States neutral in European affairs. It also allowed the British to vacate forts. Republicans were extremely upset by this treaty as they were not pro-British like the Federalists.
  • Election of 1796

    Election of 1796
    During the Election of 1796, George Washington choose to not seek a third presidential term. He writes hi farewell address, where he advises following president to remain neutral to opposing parties, and to only seek out temporary alliances. This election was the first to have political competition. In this election, it was specific to Republicans against Federalists. John Adams wins the election, which left Thomas Jefferson to become the vice president.
  • XYZ Affair

    XYZ Affair
    The XYZ Affair is an incident that occurred between French and United States diplomats. Jay's Treaty with the British made the French very upset, and so they began to capture ships from the United States. Adams then send three American envoys to France to restore peace with the French. There, three French diplomats demand three concessions from Adams. Adams denied these requests, and the XYZ Affair ultimately resulted in an undeclared naval war known as the Quasi-War.
  • Election of 1800

    Election of 1800
    The Election of 1800 was another presidential competition between Thomas Jefferson and John Adams. After the naval war, there were several division among the Federalist party. Adams was seen as weak, but he runs against Jefferson in the next election anyways. Jefferson ends up tying with Aaron Burr, but Hamilton was able to sway the House of Representatives in favor of Jefferson, as he had a personal hatred for Burr and considered Jefferson the lesser of two evils.
  • Louisiana Purchase

    Louisiana Purchase
    Jefferson was a man that believed in building the United States into a nation of farmers. Jefferson bought this Louisiana territory from France, known as the Louisiana Purchase. It was sold for a total of $15 million. This purchase secured the Mississippi River for the United States, and also doubled the country's size as a nation. This created controversy around Jefferson. He believed in strict interpretation of the Constitution, but this purchase was considered to be unconstitutional.
  • Embargo Act of 1807

    Embargo Act of 1807
    The United States had some problems with Britain. The British would enforce impressment on Americans. The Embargo Act of 1807 was a United States reaction to these problems with the British. This act prohibited American ships from trading with all foreign ports. This was supposed to deprive the British and the French of American goods. But, this act was very unpopular amongst seaports in the United States as well, because it hurt American merchants.
  • War of 1812

    War of 1812
    The War of 1812 was fought between the United States and the United Kingdom. There was a lot of build up to this war, that included economic attacks on the United States by Britain and France. Due to this, many American settlers wanted to go to war. There were many victories for either side, which resulted in a draw. This did not help solve any of the diplomatic issues at hand. It was even worse for Native Americans. This war was known to be the second war of independence from Britain.
  • Battle of New Orleans

    Battle of New Orleans
    The War of 1812 was ended with the Treaty of Ghent in 1814. But, news spread slowly during this time period and thus another battle commenced after the treaty was established. This battle was the Battle of New Orleans. Although it was not technically a "real" battle during the war, it is still considered to be a major American victory, where the Americans were able to defeat the British with their bi-racial army. It also boosted Andrew Jackson's reputation and made his a household name.
  • Panic of 1819

    Panic of 1819
    After the War of 1812, there was a major boom in the United States economy. The Panic of 1819 was considered to be the worst economic depression in American history. The banks of America failed to save the economy, and made it very hard for citizens to get credit. Prices collapsed and made it extremely difficult for the agricultural and manufacturing businesses and resulted in an increase of unemployment. Mortgages were foreclosed as well, which forced citizens out of their homes and work.
  • Lowell Mills

    Lowell Mills
    The Lowell Mills is the name used to refer a manufacturing system in Massachusetts. This new system was made for working women and girls, which increased female representation in the working industry. Thousands of "Lowell girls" were hired by 1840 to operate the machinery (such as the textile mills and looms) within these centralized factories. Lowell Mills became popular very quickly during the industrial revolution, though the conditions in the work force were bad and the hours were long.
  • European Immigration

    European Immigration
    Many European nations had push factors that led their people to migrate to America. The Irish suffered from a devastating potato famine. These people ended up in the inner city slums. Germany did not live in a unified region due to political turmoil. They also had poor harvest. The Germans migrated to America and lived in the Midwest with the Scandinavians. Scandinavians and the British chose to migrate to America seeking better economic opportunity.
  • The Missouri Compromise

    The Missouri Compromise
    Because of the Missouri Crisis, Henry Clay proposed the Missouri Compromise. This bill served as a temporary solution to creating balance between Northern and Southern states. An "imaginary line" was drawn along the 36°30° latitude line. States that were above the 36°30° latitude line were to be free states, whereas state that would be below would become slave states. In 1820, Congress allowed Maine to pass as a free state and Missouri entered the Union as a slave one.
  • Monroe Doctrine

    Monroe Doctrine
    The Monroe Doctrine was a speech that President James Monroe was most known for. In this doctrine, he claimed that the New World and the Old World should remain separate. He declared that Europe shall not have any intervention with the Western Hemisphere or Latin America, and that the colonization of these lands were off limits to foreign nations. The United States would also return the favor by staying away from the internal affairs of European nations.
  • Greek Revivalism

    Greek Revivalism
    Greek Revivalism was an architectural movement that spread across the United States of America during the early nineteenth century. The people were very invested with Ancient Grecian architecture and design, as well as their art, and culture in general. They were also impressed with Greece's common-man democracy. One factor that helped the spread of Greek Revivalism was in 1828, when they won independence from the Ottoman Empire. The Second Bank of the US was inspired by Greek architecture.
  • Election of 1824

    Election of 1824
    The election of 1824 had four candidates running for the presidential position. These candidates included John Quincy Adams, Andrew Jackson, William Crawford, and Henry Clay. Of these candidates, Andrew Jackson won the popular vote, but not from the electoral college. Adams was chosen by the House of Representatives, which angered Jackson. He claimed that it was a corrupt bargain between Clay and Adams. But this didn't stop him from running in the next presidential election.
  • John Quincy Adams' Presidency

    John Quincy Adams' Presidency
    While John Quincy Adams was president of the United States, he encouraged a progressive American system. This included the building of network of canals and roads within the United States. The Erie Canal was in fact completed during his presidency. He also proposed the making of the first national university, as well as the first observatory. But, he was not the most popular president, as he was very introverted and out of touch with popular democracy. This hurt him in the next election.
  • Andrew Jackson

    Andrew Jackson
    Andrew Jackson was the seventh president of the United States of America. Many knew him as Old Hickory. This is because he was popularly known for being a serial duelist--with 13 known duels recorded. His reputation got a huge boost after defeating the British in the Battle of New Orleans. Because of this victory, he was considered to be a war hero. He later won the Election of 1828, which is considered to be the first modern presidential election.
  • The Telegraph

    The Telegraph
    The telegraph was invented by Samuel Morse, along with Morse code. Morse code is used as a form of encoding to send messages from one telegraph to another. The invention of the telegraph greatly improved communication within the United States, as it was much quicker and much more efficient than delivering messages on foot or on horseback. The telegraph also played a very important role of giving the Union an advantage as a strategic communication device during the Civil War.
  • Temperance Movement

    Temperance Movement
    The Temperance Movement was a social movement against the consumption of alcohol. This is because alcohol was considered to be bad for health, behavior, as well as family life. Many drunks were guilty of beating their wives or even children. As a result, women were strong advocates for the Temperance Movement. Supporters of this movement promoted the reduction of alcohol consumption, if not complete abstinence. Some states even banned alcohol during this time.
  • Abolitionism

    Abolitionism is the term used to refer to the ending of slavery. There became two interpretations that branched off of abolitionism. The first was gradualism. These people believed that free slaves should be moved back to Africa gradually, over time. The other was immedialism. People who believed in immedialism believed that there should simply be an immediate end to slavery. There was a lot of controversy surrounding abolitionism, but Congress was forced to keep quiet of it due to the gag rule.
  • Underground Railroad

    Underground Railroad
    The Underground Railroad was a network of routes that allowed the escape of fugitive southern slaves into the North. Several abolitionists chose to help these slaves by not only helping them escape, but also providing safe houses that slaves could use as a hideout. Harriet Tubman was the most well-known accomplice in helping fugitive slaves. She went back several times to help as many slaves as she could. It is estimated that about 100,000 slaves were able to escape the South from 1830-1860.
  • Mormons

    Mormons are members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Saint Latter-day Saints. This religion was founded under Joseph Smith, who claimed to be a prophet. He also found the Golden Tablets in 1823, which was written in an ancient language that he then translated into the Book of Mormon. This religion appealed to mostly farmers and traders. But Mormons were victims to society and were very much ostracized. They then relocated away from federal government and into the west.
  • Trail of Tears

    Trail of Tears
    Andrew Jackson did not like Native Americans. During his presidency, he passed the Indian Removal Act of 1830. This allowed him to arrange the removal of these Native Americans and have them moved the territory that lied west of the Mississippi River so that American settlers could have their land. Thousands of Natives were forced to leave their homes, and many died on this trip. Especially the children and the elderly. This became known as the Trail of Tears to symbolize the Native's suffering.
  • Nat Turner's Rebellion

    Nat Turner's Rebellion
    Nat Turner was a slave and a preacher who led a rebellion in the South. He, along with about 60-80 other slaves. This was the only successful slave rebellion, in which 55-60 whites were killed. This included men, women, and children. Nat Turner's Rebellion was put down after a few days, and he was executed for his actions. As a result of this slave rebellion, the South decided to strengthen their militias and also outlawed the preaching of slaves.
  • Nullification Crisis

    Nullification Crisis
    The Nullification Crisis was a conflict between South Carolina, the "trouble state", and the federal government. Congress passed the Tariff Act of 1832. This hurt the southern economy, but South Carolina voiced their discontent through John Calhoun, who claimed that it was the state's constitutional right to deny the enforcement of federal laws. He advocated for nullifying the Tariff Act of 1832 Eventually Clay makes a deal and the tariffs are scaled back.
  • Panic of 1837

    Panic of 1837
    During Andrew Jackson's presidency was what was known as the Bank War. After his reelection, he was determined to undermine the Second Bank of the United States. It was also defunded under his executive order. The Bank War had a major negative effect on the United States economy. It created a major recessions, and ultimately caused the Panic of 1837. Prices went up, and unemployment decreased. Martin Van Buren inherited this bad economy and was named "Martin van Ruin".
  • Yeoman Farmers

    Yeoman Farmers
    Yeoman Farmers were one of the three classes of whites in the south. They were the second highest class. These farmers farmed as a communal effort, and they helped one another with their farming. About three-fourths of Yeoman Farmers did not actually own slaves. Some of them hated the planters, whereas others relied on them. These Yeoman Farmers also formed southern militias used to capture any runaway slaves, or put down slave rebellions if needed.
  • Great Migration

    Great Migration
    In the 1840's, many American settlers began to migrate to Oregon. These settlers thought that Oregon would be a new opportunity for them. Many caught Oregon fever, as they hoped that moving to the new land would give them a better and richer life, after the Panic of 1837. This was also the result of Manifest Destiny, which was the belief that white settlers would have a future in western territories. The journey to Oregon took about 5-6 months, and was very arduous.
  • Shakers

    The Shakers branched off into their own religion and spread during this era. Part of their lifestyle included living in celibacy. They were also communistic people. They also believed in complete equality among the two sexes, and strongly rejected the idea of domesticity. Shakers also did not like private property because they did not believe in either marriage or procreation. Because of this, their beliefs were not passed down and therefore the Shakers did not last very long.
  • Election of 1840

    Election of 1840
    The Election of 1840 was an election based on a battle between two political parties, the Democrats and Whigs. Martin van Buren ran for his reelection for the democratic party. But he was labeled as a sexual predator during this election, and generally negatively received due to rumors spread by the Whig Party. William Henry Harrison, his competitor and also a Whig, won the Election of 1840. But he only served a month in presidency before his death.
  • Edgar Allan Poe

    Edgar Allan Poe
    Edgar Allan Poe was an American writer. He was most popularly known for his poems and gruesome short stores. He wrote during the spread of transcendentalism, a social and philosophical movement. Edgar Allan Poe himself though, was actually an anti-transcendentalist. While other transcendentalist authors such as Emerson had very optimistic and light themes, Poe wrote in a very Dark Romantic/Gothic style. He hated transcendentalists and their beliefs.
  • Election of 1844

    Election of 1844
    In the Election of 1844, John Tyler runs to be president a second time. He ran as a candidate of the Whig party. James K. Polk, also known as Young Hickory, ran for the democratic party. In his campaign, he promised to only run for one term in office. This is because he believed he would either fail or complete his goals. He had three goals as president--annex Texas, settle the Oregon border with the British, and to complete Manifest Destiny. James K. Polk won this presidential election.
  • First Police Force

    First Police Force
    With the Industrial Revolution came urbanization. Immigrants from several different countries came to America, which created racial tension between immigrants. They also had religious conflicts, as immigrants from different countries followed different beliefs. During this time there was also a lot a controversy surrounding slavery. These tensions needed to be dealt with, and so the first police forces were established in the 1830s-40s. The New York Police Force was the first to be effective.
  • Bear Flag Revolt

    Bear Flag Revolt
    During the time of the Mexican-American War, the political atmosphere of these Mexican territories became very tense for the white settlers that had moved there. Once news reached to California of the war, Californian settlers began to doubt their Mexican "leaders" and feared that the Mexicans would attack. And so, a group of settlers started the Bear Flag Revolt. It was a rebellion against the Mexican government, supported by those who wanted to declare California an independent republic.
  • Mexican-American War

    Mexican-American War
    The Mexican-American War was a war fought between Mexico and the United States of America. These two countries were ultimately fighting over land. Mexico believed the land was theirs, and the United States wanted to obtain it from them. President John Tyler somewhat provoked the start of this war, as he received warning from Mexico that annexing Texas into the United States may bring it upon him, but he chose to do so anyway. There were many other factors as well, including slavery.
  • Wilmot Proviso

    Wilmot Proviso
    David Wilmot was a member of the Democratic party in the United States of America. After the Mexican-American War, David Wilmot wrote the Wilmot Proviso. It was a proposal to ban/prevent the spreading of slavery into the Mexican territory gained by the United States after the war. Though it had barely passed the House of Representatives, it was voted down in the Senate. The Wilmot Proviso was considered too bold and played a role in triggering the American Civil War.
  • Mormon Migration

    Mormon Migration
    Mormons were very much ostracized by the rest of society. They were harassed by others and chased onto separate settlements all the way out in the Midwest of the United States. After Joseph Smith's death, Brigham Young became the second president of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints. He wanted to get away from this, so he led his followers on an "exodus" to Salt Lake City, Utah which he founded. This allowed them to move away from the federal government.
  • California Gold Rush

    California Gold Rush
    California was a territory in 1848, which is the same year as when James W. Marshall first discovered gold there. It then gained statehood for the United States in 1850. People wanted to make California a rich state. They also wanted to make themselves rich, as gold was easily found there. Thousands had migrated to California, who hoped for new opportunity. This included the Chinese, who worked the gold mines beginning in 1852. The Chinese faced a lot of racism and were hated by white settlers.
  • Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo

    Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo
    The Mexican-American War ended after two years. Mexico became overwhelmed by the United States. After Mexican defeat and the fall of Mexico City, their army finally surrendered. The Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo was negotiated and officially ended the Mexican-American War. This treaty added Mexican territory to the US, including California, Arizona, New Mexico, and many others. It also settled the Mexican border as the Rio Grande.
  • Seneca Falls Convention

    Seneca Falls Convention
    Due to industrialization, women began to work outside of the home. This gave them the opportunity to become more involved in politics. Women soon began wanting suffrage. Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott were two women that held the Seneca Falls Convention in New York. Here they created the "Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions", to secure their rights in both economies as well as voting. This convention became the foundation for women's suffrage in the future.
  • Compromise of 1850

    Compromise of 1850
    At the beginning of 1850, Henry Clay proposed a list of five bills in hopes of preventing any conflict between Northern and Southern states. The first made California a free state of the United States of America. New Mexico and Utah were to be decided later. Another bill allowed federal government to "absorb" Texas' debt. Next, slave trade was to be banned in Washington, D.C. Lastly, the Fugitive Slave Act was passed. This allowed the return of any runaway slaves to the South.
  • Republican Party

    Republican Party
    The birthplace of the Republican party was Wisconsin. This political party was generally known to be a Northern party, but there were, of course, a few Republicans that were scattered within the south as well. The Republican party appealed to several different people such as free soilers, anti-slavery Democrats, and even Whigs, which was a political party that had died out. These people united and formed the Republican party against the Democrats in the south.
  • Kansas-Nebraska Act

    Kansas-Nebraska Act
    The Kansas-Nebraska Act was written because Southern states feared the addition of two new free states. They wanted to abolish the Missouri Compromise, as well as have more of the Transcontinental Railroad. The act passed, which meant the 36°30° latitude line that divided the North and the South was repealed. It also allowed for popular sovereignty. This meant that states would be allowed to chose to be a free or slave state themselves. Kansas chose to be a slave state, and Nebraska was free.
  • Confederate States of America

    Confederate States of America
    After the Election of 1860 and Abraham Lincoln was elected as the new President of the United States, it was the last straw for the Southern states. They began to succeed from the Union, with South Carolina being the first to do so. They were followed by other Southern states like Mississippi, Alabama, Florida, and more. They had the same government as the Union, only they protected the right to slavery. Jefferson Davis became the president of the Confederacy.
  • The North

    The North
    The North had a lot of advantages during the Civil War. They had a larger population of about 22 million people. Their biggest advantage was, of course, the industrialization. There were over 110 thousand factories in the north that supplied 97% of the weapons, 94% of clothing, and 90% of shoes and boots to the United States. They also had 30 thousand miles worth of railroad tracks across the country. They also used the telegraph, which gave them more efficient communication during the war.
  • Clara Barton

    Clara Barton
    During the American Civil War, women took place in work that were considered to be traditionally male roles. Jobs such as teachers, store managers, farmers, and especially nurses. Though she did not have formal nurse training, Clara Barton was one of the many women who filled in as a nurse. She also founded the American Red Cross. She would help the wounded soldiers on the battlefield, whether they were a Union or Confederate soldier. She is now one of the most honored women in history.
  • Election of 1860

    Election of 1860
    Abraham Lincoln ran for the Presidential Election of 1860. In this election, he ran was the candidate for the Republican party. He had very few political enemies and was known for his honesty as a lawyer. He kept a moderate approach to slavery as to not upset either end of the country. He was also a realist. Lincoln won the election due to the division within the Democratic party. This angered the South, and triggered the beginning of southern seccession.
  • First Battle of Bull Run

    First Battle of Bull Run
    The First Battle of Manassas, also known as the First Battle of Bull Run, was the first major battle of the Civil War between the northern and southern states of the United States. In this battle, the Union army tried to take Bull Run, which was a railroad junction in Virginia. But they were flanked in the middle of the fight, which forced them to retreat to Washington, D.C. It was a victory for the Confederate States, and was also considered to be quite humiliating for the Union army.
  • Emancipation Proclamation

    Emancipation Proclamation
    During the Civil War, President Abraham Lincoln made an executive order in an attempt to prevent further rebellion in the South. This was known as the Emancipation Proclamation. In this order, Lincoln stated that if the rebellion did not stop by the new year, he would declare all southern slaves free from their owners. But, the border states would be allowed to keep their slaves as to prevent causing any more disruption. He wanted to keep a positive relationship with those states.
  • Battle of Gettysburg

    Battle of Gettysburg
    This battle took place over the course of three days. On the first day, the Confederacy advanced on the Union army. The Union then advanced, and it continued to be a game of back-and-forth throughout the second day of battle. On the third, however, the Confederate army took a charge up the center of the opposing soldiers. The Union devastated the Confederate soldiers, killing over a third of their forces. This was the bloodiest battle, killing about 9,000 Union soldiers and 75,000 Confederates.
  • Lincoln's 10% Plan

    Lincoln's 10% Plan
    After the end of the American Civil War, President Abraham Lincoln created the Ten-Percent Plan as part of his blueprint for reconstruction. In this plan, all southern soldiers would be pardoned for their actions, except for officers and officials that led the South during the war. Southern states would also be allowed to be readmitted into the Union, but only if 10% of each of their population's took an oath of loyalty to the Union.
  • Freedmen's Bureau

    Freedmen's Bureau
    The Freedmen's Bureau was a relief agency established by Congress to help the free slaves and poor whites in the South after the end of the American Civil War. They provided food for these people, as well as schools. Many African Americans did not have access to education in the south as slaves, and so providing education to them was a huge part of the reconstruction era. Both children and adults attended. The Freedmen's Bureau is considered to be the main institution during reconstruction.
  • Appomattox Courthouse

    Appomattox Courthouse
    After the Union's victory at the Siege of Petersburg, the Confederate army was forced to retreat. Several thousand Confederate soldiers were captured by the Union, and they became nearly surrounded by Union soldiers. The Confederate army was starved, and General Robert E. Lee finally sent a letter to General Ulysses Grant stating his willingness to surrender. They met at the Appomattox Court House, where Grant wrote the conditions and Lee surrendered, ending the American Civil War.
  • Lincoln's Assassination

    Lincoln's Assassination
    Not long after Lincoln's inauguration of his second presidential term, he himself when to go see a play at Ford's Theater. This play was "Our American Cousin", a comic play. The night he saw this play, five days had passed since General Lee's surrender at Appomattox Courthouse. On this night, a well-known actor by the name John Wilkes Booth, shot the president in the head. He did so with the help of fellow conspirators who wanted to avenge the Confederacy. Lincoln died the following morning.
  • Freedom Amendments

    Freedom Amendments
    The Freedom Amendments are the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments in the United States Constitution. The thirteenth amendment was the abolishment of both slavery and involuntary servitude. The 14th amendment defined citizens as people born within the States. It also forbid any of the states from trying to deny the rights of other citizens. The 15th amendment prohibited the states from denying a person of any color, race, etc., from voting. These amendments did a lot of good for African Americans.
  • KKK

    After the Civil War, African-Americans became one of the many key points of reconstruction. The 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments were ratified. They are also referred to as the Civil War Amendments. But many were upset by this, and white resistance arose. The Ku Klux Klan, KKK, was a group a people who resented the amount of new black rights. They punished African Americans and other supportive white settlers for "challenging social order", as they believed blacks should be at the bottom.
  • Impeachment

    Andrew Johnson was originally the vice president of Abraham Lincoln, but after his death, Johnson took his place and became the 17th president of the US. He was a racist and was very lenient with southern readmission into the Union. They were returned their land and even officials were pardoned. There was tension between Congress and Johnson due to different reconstruction plans. So Congress eventually voted for impeachment, and made Johnson the first president to be impeached.
  • Election of 1868

    Election of 1868
    In the Election of 1868, Andrew Johnson had some hope that the democratic party would choose him as their candidate, but they instead turned to a new candidate by the name of Horatio Seymour. He was running against Ulysses S. Grant, the republican candidate.
  • Sharecropping

    Industrialization began to arise in the South, in hopes of fixing their economy during the late 1800's. But they were still mainly an agricultural. Sharecropping was a form of agriculture in which landowners allow tenants to use their land, in return for a share of the harvest produced on it. Workers would usually give a half to a third of their crops to the landowners. This system exploited the labor of blacks and poor whites, making 70% of southern citizens live in poverty by 1900.
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    Beginnings to Exploration

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    English Colonial Societies

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    Colonial America

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    The Revolutionary War

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    The Constitution

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    New Republic

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    Age of Jefferson

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    The American Industrial Revolution

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    Age of Jackson

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    Westward Expansion

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    Civil War

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