1301 Timeline Project

Timeline created by CHANCEJ
In History
  • 2,600 BCE

    Mayan Empire

    Mayan Empire
    The Maya empire was a Mesoamerican civilization in Central America up into Northern Mexico. They practiced human sacrifices similar to the Aztec tribes and have a caste system as well. Now unlike the other empires, the Mayans actually had a written language system of hieroglyphs and a unique agricultural technique called the slash and burn method. The empire unfortunately came to an unforeseen end as climate change, deforestation, and overpopulation took their tolls on the Mayan Empire.
  • 1,450 BCE

    Aztec Empire

    Aztec Empire
    The Aztec was another Mesoamerican empire in central Mexico that flourished from late 1400's to around 1520 BCE. The Aztecs are known for practicing brutal human sacrifices which were done to honor the gods. They would commonly use warriors captured in battle and animals for their sacrifice as well. They used a caste system and the entire empire was comprised of three city states, the capitol of which being Tenochtitlan. The empire was of polytheistic religion, one of the main gods being Maize.
  • 1,400 BCE

    Olmec Tribal Presence

    Olmec Tribal Presence
    The Olmec tribe was the earliest recorded civilization of the Americas, situated within the Mexican Gulf coast. With interesting cultural creations such as the Mesoamerican ballgame which was one of the original documented American sports. They also practiced ritualistic bloodletting, which was the act of cutting someone at the peak of a pyramid for all to see. This was done to maintain political power and mostly performed by the religious figures or elites within the tribes.
  • -200 BCE

    North American Northeastern Woodlands Native Tribes

    North American Northeastern Woodlands Native Tribes
    The North American Northeastern Woodlands tribes were located near the Great Lakes, in what is now known as Illinois, Wisconsin, Indiana, and Michigan. These tribes used tattoos, wore animal skin, and were nomadic as they followed the herds or migrating animals, however there were several different tribes within this region. Some were mound builders and even constructed burial mounds for people of a high stature after passing. They commonly traded between tribes and even European immigrants.
  • 1100

    European Dark Ages

    European Dark Ages
    This was a time period in Western Europe after the Roman empire fell and is also called the Middle Ages. This time period is referred to as the dark ages due to its immense level of financial and cultural deterioration and basically was Europe's "all time low". After the Roman empire fell it left many different types of people scattered about Europe less civilized and speaking all types of languages.
  • 1291

    The Crusades

    The Crusades
    The Crusades was a series of wars of religious between the Christians and Muslims reasoning over the Holy land that was under control of the Muslim people. There were eight major Crusade expeditions between 1096 and 1291. The crusades were violent and bloody wars carried out by 4 groups of European people that eventually ended in European defeat by the Muslims. Peter the Hermit was one of Europe's leaders/generals during the Crusades.
  • 1347

    The Black Death ( Bubonic Plague)

    The Black Death ( Bubonic Plague)
    The Black Death, also known as the Bubonic Plague was an immense disease epidemic that wiped out about 75 to 200 million people in Europe and Asia between 1347 to 1351. It was termed the Black plague, due to the dark scabs it left spread over the inhabitants' bodies. The disease is believed to have originally come from a flea that bit a rat, then a rat that bit or spread it then to a human. The black plague is viewed as one of the worlds worst epidemics, due to its effects on Eurasia.
  • Plymouth Colony

    Plymouth Colony
    Plymouth was the first successful English colony in the Americas founded by the pilgrims. They established a treaty with Wampanoag native chief Massasoit and had agricultural guidance from Squanto, another native leader. Plymouth was founded as a place of religious refuge, as many of the pilgrims were escaping prosecution in Europe. Plymouth was a very important colony as it demonstrated colonial success and even founded the national holiday of Thanksgiving that is still celebrated to this day.
  • Massachusetts Bay Colony

    Massachusetts Bay Colony
    The Massachusetts bay colony was the second major successful colony in the Americas from England. It was founded by owners of the Massachusetts Bay Company, one of which was John Winthrop. It was home to one of history's important theologians Roger Williams, who believed in separation of church and state, fair treatment of Native Americans, and religious toleration. Anne Hutchinson did the same as well, and was ultimately banished from the colony all together.
  • Colony of Connecticut

    Colony of Connecticut
    The Connecticut colony was started on March 3 1663 and a place for puritans to congregate. This is where the Pequot wars took place for five years over fur trading rights and tensions with opposing tribes. There was lots of farming and shipbuilding in Connecticut. It was founded by Thomas Hooker. Also had lots of lumber business, fur trade, and livestock (especially horses).
  • Caribbean Colonies

    Caribbean Colonies
    The Caribbean colonies were termed " Colonial Musical Chairs" as they all were just settlers from all over Europe taking whichever area they could get to first. France claimed Haiti, and England had Jamaica and Barbados. The Caribbean islands were the home to majority of slaves coming from the Atlantic Slave Trade, which anywhere between 4 to 9 million African slaves ending up there. Slavery was so big down in the Caribbean that slaves even outnumbered the white people!
  • Colonies of Carolina

    Colonies of Carolina
    The Carolina colonies were founded by eight proprietors given permission from King Charles II. This colony was one of the original 13 colonies of America and one of the first to practice Slavery in the south. This colony was also used as a buffer colony to anticipate any attack the Spaniards further south might unleash on the England colonies. The fertile soil and permitting climate conditions made it an almost perfect place to farm, therefore agriculture was produced almost all year round.
  • Pennsylvania Colonies

    Pennsylvania Colonies
    The Pennsylvania Colonies were founded by Quakers under the guidance of William Penn. The primary activity in this region was farming (especially wheat) and it was founded as religious refuge from the Church of England under the rule of King Charles, who would only allow one religion in his kingdom. The King gave William's Father a large land grant in America, thus the foundation of Pennsylvania was formed.
  • Chesapeake Colonies

    Chesapeake Colonies
    The Chesapeake Colonies were located in Virginia and Maryland. They were founded by Cecilius Calvert and Lord Baltimore. The main economic practices in this region were agriculture due to the fertile soil located on river beds and near water sources. The main cash-crop of the time was tobacco, and many poor Europeans were brought over to work the fields as indentured servants. These ares had a high mortality rate due to malaria and typhoid, slowing down the growth of the colonies tremendously.
  • Enlightenment

    This was a period of time where the colonies developed much stronger intellectual thoughts and processes, and ultimately led to the American Revolution. The enlightenment was brought on mainstream by none other than John Locke,who was termed the "Father of Liberalism." He created many different philosophies and was very forward thinking for his time. He preached of religious tolerance, and made lots of self awareness teachings.
  • Sir Isaac Newton

    Sir Isaac Newton
    Sir Isaac Newton was a very important historical figure, as he created several scientific theories that are still believed, taught, and used today. He discovered gravity and the physics that explain phenomenon of everyday life. He was also a mathematician, an astronomer, an author, and a theologian. He theorized new information about light and even some parts of calculus math and is considered to be one of the greatest and most important historical scientists.
  • Triangular Trade

    Triangular Trade
    The triangular trade was a three legged route for trading that was responsible for the shipping of finished goods, raw materials, and slaves between England and the new world. The middle passage was the bottom leg of the triangular trade in which slaves were forced directly from Africa and to the Americas, mostly the Caribbean Islands. This trading passage was one of the fueling occurrences for the practice of mercantilism.
  • Slavery

    Slavery was a very big historical practice of using forced African labor in the southern colonies and eventually southern states of America. Slavery was carried out by usage of the Triangular Trade routes, specifically the Middle Passage, which was the leg of the route in which slaves were directly brought from Africa to the Americas. Majority of the slavery during this time period was native to the Caribbean Islands, as anywhere from 4 to 9 million slaves were inhabitants of the islands.
  • Britain Drained from French and Indian War

    Britain Drained from French and Indian War
    The French and Indian war was a war between Britain and France that went on for almost an entire decade. After the French and Indian war, where Britain fought against France for who got control over land in the Americas, Britain was left economically low and weak and the government eventually started to tax things for the colonists in America. The British parliament ruled for the growth of Britain's economy after the war, without representation from colonists and this angered them.
  • Stamp Act from Parliament

    Stamp Act from Parliament
    The Stamp act of 1765 was the first direct tax imposed on colonists by British Parliament. The tax was created to generate revenue and reverse the debt that was left over in Britain after their participation in the French and Indian war. The Stamp act put tax on any paper goods within the colonies. With no representation in Parliament, the colonists hated the tariff and resorted to violence to intimidate and force tax collectors into retirement. After the backlash, the act was revoked in 1766.
  • Declaratory Act

    Declaratory Act
    The Declaratory Act was passed by British Parliament in 1766 after the repeal of the Stamp Act of 1765. It stated that the British government had the authority to pass laws of that nature in America as well as Britain, and that they could do so "in all cases whatsoever." This act was an actual reinforcement of their power over the colonies and an establishment of what was to follow, which is the motherly like relationship between the colonies and their motherland.
  • Townshend Acts

    Townshend Acts
    Again, still drained and in debt from the Seven Years (French and Indian) War, the British government imposed a new set of tariffs on colonies in America. The Townshend acts placed tariffs on goods such as glass, paper, tea, paint, and lead. Of course the colonies responded by boycotting the British products, but the importance of this act was that it was accompanied by Britain sending troops to the colonies to enforce the taxes, which was a move that worsened the relationship between the two.
  • Boston Massacre

    Boston Massacre
    The Boston Massacre was an event in Boston where colonists began to taunt British soldiers and threw stones and ice chunks at them. The soldiers didn't know how to respond so they starting shooting and ended up killing 5 colonists. The event was not exactly a massacre, but the colonists used it as promotional for the rebel cause and crafted propaganda around the whole thing. They named it "Massacre" to influence colonists into believing that Britain was too powerful and that they must react now.
  • Boston Tea Party

    Boston Tea Party
    The Boston Tea Party was a violent riot/revolt by colonists against British soldiers. Colonists dressed up as Native Americans and went onboard a British Cargo ship and dumped over board around 342 chests of tea into the Boston Harbor, amassing a million dollars worth of damages (in today's amount.) This was one of the first major examples of colonist rebellion and a foreshadowing event that signaled what would soon come. This was a reaction to Britain repealing every tariff except for tea.
  • Intolerable Acts

    Intolerable Acts
    After colonial backlash from the colonists in America, especially the Boston Tea Party, the British government sought out to put an end to the revolts(or so they thought;) ) so they released the Intolerable acts, which listed out harsh rules that directly disabled the behavior of the colonists. These acts were strict and were a direct response to the Massachusetts colony for their participation in the Boston Tea Party where they caused over a million dollars worth of damage (in today's worth.)
  • Olive Branch Petition

    Olive Branch Petition
    After all the smoke between Britain and the colonies, the constant rebellious acts, and the push-back from Britain, the colonists delegated and decided to resort to one last effort to avoid a war with Britain. This is where the Olive Branch Petition came into play. The second continental congress established a list of truce and reached out to King George III, however he rejected the proposal and wouldn't even read the petition! This inspired patriotic passion towards the fight for independence.
  • Thomas Paine Writes Common Sense

    Thomas Paine Writes Common Sense
    After the failure of the Olive Branch Petition for truce with Britain, the colonists were furious and patriotic to have independence. This movement was drastically influenced and grown from Thomas Paine publishing "Common Sense", a book discrediting and disapproving of the British governments abuse of power. This book was so powerful because of Thomas's use of average, non-advanced words, and diction that spoke to and related to the common folk of the colonies. This made it a successful cause.
  • Deism

    Deism was the idea that there was a god but that he did not intervene with activities on Earth. The idea was that answers could be found elsewhere than just miracles from God. Thomas Paine and Benjamin Franklin can both be credited for the founding of the Deism movement in the American colonies, as they were both authors and wrote about the subject. They promoted the idea that humans controlled their own fate/ destiny and that church was not a necessity .
  • Massachusetts Constitution

    Massachusetts Constitution
    The Constitution of Massachusetts was the drafting of their specific state government. It was signed and passed by democratic voters on June 15 1780. It is important as it remains one of the oldest functioning written constitutions to this day. It established rules that prohibited the formation of one church and encourage religious tolerance. It also promoted freedom of press, freedom of conscience, and freedom to assembly and petition.
  • Articles of Confederation

    Articles of Confederation
    The Articles of Confederation was the first ever drafted form of government in America after the Revolutionary War. Under the articles, states were independent and had all the power in the government. They made congress the very last resort in needed situations. Congress could also make alliances and treaties, and was responsible for making an army and coining all the money. They couldn't levy taxes or regulate commerce and this lack of central government is what lead to the end of the articles.
  • Shay's Rebellion

    Shay's Rebellion
    Shay's rebellion was an attack on courthouses in Massachusetts by angry farmers who were upset about the lack of funding into their farms and debt that ensued because of low work and high taxes. Many of these farmers had previously fought in the American Revolution and didn't get any form of compensation afterwards. This rebellion was important because it exposed the lack of central government and gave reason to end the Articles of Confederation and draft the constitution.
  • Northwest Ordinance

    Northwest Ordinance
    The Northwest Ordinance was put into action on July 13 1787 to set an official standard for allowing new states to join the nation. It prevented quarrels about territories joining the country officially and it answered wonders about what to expect for settlers migrating into western territories. It declared that any new territory had to reach a population of 60,000 people before it could apply for official statehood and draft their own constitution.
  • Constitutional Convention

    Constitutional Convention
    The Constitutional convention took place on May 25, 1787 at Philadelphia's Pennsylvania State House and was created by delegates from all 55 states except for Rhode Island. This convention is one of the most important events of American history, even being displayed on our paper money today! This convention is where the government of the United States was originally decided and agreed upon, still being used today as the governing body of our country. It came after the failure of the A.O.C.
  • The Federalist Papers

    The Federalist Papers
    During the gap between the ending of the Articles of Confederation and the passing of the Constitution, the draft must first be approved. It was during this time that the nation was divided between federalists and anti federalists, so to support the federalist cause Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison wrote the federalist papers to persuade people to join the patriot cause and explain the benefits that would ensue if the constitution were ratified.
  • Anti-Federalist Papers

    Anti-Federalist Papers
    In response to the Federalist papers, several different anti federalists started writing essays that disagreed and opposed the ratification of the constitution. Unlike the Federalist papers, the anti federalist papers were just a collection of works published by many different authors for the same cause, rather than a group of authors coming together to write for a persuasive cause. Even thought they were less powerful than the Federalist papers, they helped establish early political grounds.
  • Election of 1789

    Election of 1789
    This was the first election if United States history, no wonder it's very important! George Washington, leader of the of the Continental Army during the Revolutionary war was a people's person and was a great candidate for the nation's first president. Washington won by a landslide and set the precedent for what a president should be like. In this election, the runner up was to serve as the vice president, as this was before the separation of the ballots.
  • The Bill of Rights

    The Bill of Rights
    The Bill of Rights was written after the discord between the federalists and anti-federalists came to a head between the publishing of the federalist papers and the rebuttal of the anti federalist papers. This was a document used to relieve anti-federalists who were worried the new constitution might deprive them of their personal rights. The bill of rights explains every right that every United States citizen is born with and can exercise at any time in their life.
  • Benjamin Franklin

    Benjamin Franklin
    Benjamin Franklin lived from 1706 to 1790 and was a key role in the enlightenment as well. He was an American polymath who dabbled in areas amassing many different trades. He was an author, political activist, an inventor, scientist, civil activist , and a diplomat. His versatility during this time period is what boosted the enlightenment era and gave others an example to follow suit. He was one of the country's founding fathers and was also present at the constitutional convention.
  • Adam Smith

    Adam Smith
    Adam Smith is credited as the founder of modern economics for his advanced work with political economics and was a philosopher and an author. He is responsible for proposing the idea of free markets using supply and demand to regulate their stability and also is responsible for compensating wage differentials, which is what requires jobs of increased danger or strain to have higher wages than those that do not. This is important because it is what draws in workers for jobs that they would avoid.
  • The Bank of the United States

    The Bank of the United States
    The Bank of the United States was created by Alexander Hamilton in 1791 as a place that would stash federal funds, however many people accused the bank's true intentions to be suppressing economic flourishing. The backlash made for the banks renewal of charter to be denied eventually in 1811. Soon, troubles financing for the war of 1812 came about, and the need for a control of Central Finances was in high demand, and the bank was revisited as the Second Bank of the United States.
  • The Whiskey Rebellion

    The Whiskey Rebellion
    The Whiskey Rebellion was a protest on a tariff imposed on alcohol by George Washington after the revolutionary war in an effort to reverse debt and stop the widespread damage of alcohol addiction in the nation. This was the first tax distributed by the Federal Government after the country came about , and was not liked by the Americans. Whiskey was the country's most popular spirited drink, which is why Americans used violence to intimidate government officials from collecting the taxes.
  • Two Competing Forms of Government

    Two Competing Forms of Government
    This time period was very important as it established early politics in America. The two competing ideals for government were mainly Anti-Federalist and Federalist. Alexander Hamilton was federalist and the first treasurer of the united states. He pushed for a more modernized version of governing, while his opposing foe Jefferson wanted more of a traditional, rural style government. Alexander had a loose interpretation of the constitution, while Jefferson had a more direct understanding of it.
  • The XYZ

    The XYZ
    The XYZ affairs were a diplomatic confrontation between the United States and 3 French diplomat representatives that eventually lead to an unofficial war over seas. This was provoked after the ratification of Jay's Treaty with Britain which was currently in a war with France. This angered France as they felt the treaty violated a previous one that they had with the United States. George washington sent 3 reps to France to speak with the Prime minister, but he refused and sent his 3 unnamed reps.
  • Pickney's Treaty

    Pickney's Treaty
    Pickney's Treaty was a treaty written for the intentions of a friendly relationship with Spain and the United States. This treaty also established official boundaries between United States land and Spanish territory in Florida and granted navigational permission to the United States in the Mississippi river. This treaty put an end to the border dispute known as the West Florida Controversy and aided in a better relationship between the two nations.
  • Jay's Treaty

    Jay's Treaty
    Jay's Treaty, also known as The Treaty of Amity, was a treaty written for the avoiding of war between Britain and America after the revolutionary war. This treaty was written after America gained independence and became its own nation, to prevent further conflict with Britain. It mentioned at least a decade of peaceful trading with Britain during the French Revolutionary wars, was written by Alexander Hamilton and supported by president George Washington.
  • The Election of 1796

    The Election of 1796
    The Election of 1796 was the nation's third election. It marked a huge turning point in American history, especially in politics, as it was the first election under the emerging political system. The previous elections were carried out with no specific political party affiliation and is the only election where the vice president and president were elected from opposite tickets. The two roles were still apart of the same ballot and therefore the runner up was of a different political party.
  • Alien and Sedition Acts

    Alien and Sedition Acts
    The Alien and Sedition acts were four bill passed during the presidency of John Adams in 1798 that made it harder for immigrants to become United States citizens. It gave the president power to imprison and deport immigrants who were labeled dangerous and or made comments that criticized the American Government. The acts were inspired by brewing fears that war with France was in the near future and were passed in an act to prevent this from happening.
  • Election of 1800

    Election of 1800
    The election of 1800 was the fourth election of United States history and was another important election and turning point in America's political history. This election is termed the Revolution of 1800 as it demonstrates the shift between a then-traditional federalist leadership, to a more modern traditional Democratic-Republican presidency. These two parties oppose on many different political views, and this marked a generation of Democratic Republican rule.
  • Judiciary Act of 1801

    Judiciary Act of 1801
    The judiciary act of 1801 was an attempt by John Adams administration and accompanying federalists to fill the federal court systems in America with federalists. They engaged in a last minute rehiring of new judges, called midnight judges. However, this didn't last long or lead to any long term success for John Adams or his administration, as the upcoming president Jefferson repealed the act in the following year of 1802 and passed his own act: The Judiciary Act of 1802, to refurbish the courts.
  • Mardbury vs. Madison

    Mardbury vs. Madison
    Mardbury vs. Madison was an important court case where the Supreme court declared that a court may void an act of Congress if it is defined as unconstitutional or inconsistent with constitution ideals. This process coined is known as judicial review. To this day, the case of Mardbury vs. Madison is regarded as the most important decision ever made concerning American constitutional law. This decision reaffirmed that the constitution was actual law and not just politial suggestion or principles.
  • Louisiana Purchase

    Louisiana Purchase
    One of the most important events that happened in this time span and during Thomas Jefferson's presidency was the Louisiana Purchase, a purchase of a huge land strip from French ruler Napoleon Bonaparte. This purchase doubled the entire size of America, adding over 820,000 acres of land to the country and costing a whopping 15 million dollars. After acquiring the land, Jefferson then enlisted Louis and Clark to go survey the land and report back with information.
  • Lewis and Clark Expedition

    Lewis and Clark Expedition
    After purchasing over 820,000 acres of land from French king Napoleon Bonaparte and ultimately doubling the size of America, he sent Lewis and Clark, two explorers, to go survey the land and bring back all the information they could about the new territory. They enlisted on a journey sailing up the Mississippi river for over two years with the help of Native translator Sacagawea. They brought back access to the Pacific Ocean and no sign of a rumored Northwest passage into a different continent.
  • Hamilton vs. Burr

    Hamilton vs. Burr
    Hamilton and Burr were brought up of two opposing political views. When Burr ran for vice president in 1796, Hamilton sought out the opportunity to publicly tarnish Burr's image stating that “I feel it is a religious duty to oppose his career.” In 1800 Burr ran again with Jefferson, this time publishing private articles written by Hamilton that caused a rift in the Federalists. Eventually their feud reached a duel, where Burr shot Hamilton after he deliberately shot into the air!
  • Embargo Act of 1807

    Embargo Act of 1807
    The Embargo Act of 1807 was an embargo proposed against Britain and France during the Napoleonic Wars in response to a violation of neutrality between the United States and Europe. American merchants were taken as contraband by the European navy. So in response, the Embargo was enacted and it made exports from the United States to Europe illegal, to cause financial struggles for the countries to teach them about their belligerent actions and behavior.
  • Madison Presidency

    Madison Presidency
    James Madison was a very historically relevant person, being included as one of the country's founding fathers, and being credited as the "Father of The Constitution". He was the scribe for the Bill of Rights AND the Constitution and founded the Democratic-Republican Party with Thomas Jefferson. He was Jefferson's secretary of state, and then after his term ended, he served as the fourth president of the United States.
  • War of 1812

    War of 1812
    War of 1812 was a reaction to restrictions of trade by Britain and America's hunger for more territory. Britain had imposed a blockade on trade between America and France during the Napoleonic Wars to suppress the success of their French foes. Since this was neutral trade, American viewed the actions as illegal against international law. To add to the blockade, British navy impressed American soldiers and forced them into the Royal navy.
  • Francis Scott Key at Fort McHenry

    Francis Scott Key at Fort McHenry
    Fort McHenry was a significant battle of the War of 1812 where the British had recently defeated Napoleon and were then able to turn their attention to fighting America. Francis Scott Key was present at the battle and witnessed the American flag still waving and admired American resilience and wrote a poem about it called "Defense of Fort M'Henry" that would later be adapted into a song and furthermore became America's national anthem The Star Spangled banner.
  • Treaty of Ghent

    Treaty of Ghent
    The Treaty of Ghent was the treaty that ended the war of 1812 and restored relationships between the United States and Britain and also reapplied previous borderlines set between the two nations. It was signed on December 24 of 1814. However, word of the Treaty took over a month to reach America, and in the time since, Americans won the fierce Battle of New Orleans in early 1815. This treaty was important because it was the foundation for over two centuries of alliance with Britain and the U.S.
  • Era of Good Feelings

    Era of Good Feelings
    The Era of Good Feelings was a time period after the Napoleonic Wars where American unity was celebrated and embraced and a sense of national purpose was at a peak. This era is marked as the point in time where the Federalists party collapsed, and is examined mainly through the presidential legacy of James Monroe who was elected as the country's 5th president. The era of good feelings was fueled by two main events, which were the ending of Napoleonic Wars and the renewal of the Federal Bank.
  • Rush-Bagot Treaty

    Rush-Bagot Treaty
    The Rush-Bagot Treaty was another treaty between the United States and Britain, established on April 16 1818. It was after the end of the War of 1812, that ended previously in 1815. This treaty further exemplified the good relations with Britain, it called for a demilitarization of the Great Lakes and only allowed for one military vessel and one cannon by each nation. With some differences, the Rush-Bagot Treaty is still in affect today and keeps a friendly relationship with Canada and Britain.n
  • Adams-Onis Treaty

    Adams-Onis Treaty
    The Adams Onis Treaty was a very important land grant and treaty between the United States and Spain that took previously owned Spanish territory and added it into the United States. It settled long lasting disputes and feuds over boundaries between the two nations after the end of the American Revolution. It also reduced the chances of future war between the two nations and decreased preexisting tensions between Spain and the United States, overall increasing the relationship between the two.
  • McCulloch Vs. Maryland

    McCulloch Vs. Maryland
    Andrew McCulloch was the defendant in the case of McCulloch Vs. Maryland. He believed that the federal bank he managed was not to be held accountable for paying taxes. The state of Maryland opposed this idea however, as they believed that federal banks should have to pay state taxes as they operate on state owned lands. Ultimately McCulloch won the case and thus helped clear taxation issues between federal and state level banks.
  • Panic of 1819

    Panic of 1819
    The Panic of 1819 was America's first financial crisis that wasn't linked to an international war. During this time there was an entire economic collapse, but it marked an important shift in America's economic independence as it ended the reliance on Britain for financial stability. There was inflation due to the over production of paper money and falling prices. The Panic of 1819 was only reversed when the second bank of the United States was chartered/renewed.
  • Missouri Compromise

    Missouri Compromise
    After the long standing debates about slavery in a blossoming America, there came a time where it was controversial if states joined the Union as free or slave states. After Missouri attempted to join as a slave state, the balance of free and slave states was disrupted and inspired backlash. To deescalate the situation, congress passed this bill that allowed Missouri to enter with slaves while simultaneously adding Maine as a free state. It also established slavery boundaries between latitudes.
  • Changes in Agriculture

    Changes in Agriculture
    After the Industrial Revolution took off in America, many of the new creations and machines revolved around agriculture in the south and therefore made huge economic prosperity within the agricultural business. Inventions such as the cotton gin, iron plow, and crank turns all helped to the immense increase in agricultural success. Seed drills were also a common product used, as previous planting was done completely by hand.
  • Monroe Doctrine

    Monroe Doctrine
    The Monroe Doctrine is one of my favorite historical decrees, stating that now since America has become an established and stable Western-Hemisphere powerhouse nation, that other nations may enter at their own risks! It was a warning document for European nations not to colonize and to stay away from the American country. It made clear that any action that strayed from this warning was to be viewed as aggression and would be intervened and dealt with accordingly! ( Written by James Monroe)
  • William Miller and the Millerites

    William Miller and the Millerites
    William Miller was a baptist preacher during the later 19th century and is known for being the founder of his religious following called the Millerites. He was originally a deist, but after being asked to help in a Church sermon, he began to reconcile with his Baptist faith. He was seen as a prophet and was even preaching of his biblical calculations of when Jesus would return to Earth and purify the land with fire. His vision didn't come true and he lost his followers' revenue.
  • Election of 1824

    Election of 1824
    The Election of 1824 was an important election as it exercised the constitutional right of the 12th amendment, after no candidate won a majority of the electoral college votes. This is also the first election in history where popular votes were counted as well, as opposed to just the electoral rep votes. Eventually, after being moved to the house of representatives in the event that there hadn't been any majority win, John Quincy Adams came out on top, with the support of his 3rd runner up.
  • Transportation Revolution

    Transportation Revolution
    During this period, America was undergoing a very important modernizing shift towards a more present style of transportation. The way transportation developed had been changing ever since the steam engine, but during the early 1800's America started to improve roads and canals, and the railroads where invented as well. This helped facilitate migration towards factories in big booming cities, and also the mass shipment of goods over shorter periods of time and simultaneously farther distances.
  • Andrew Jackson

    Andrew Jackson
    Andrew Jackson was a very important historical figure s he served as the nations 7th president, and also a military leader. His election is referred to as one of the harshest in history, as it contained many malicious personal attacks between opponents. Jackson and his wife we accused of adultery by opposing politicians due to Rachel still being legally married when she remarried Jackson. Jackson was persistent in giving power to the common man and was given the nickname "Old Hickory" by them.
  • Changes in Communication

    Changes in Communication
    The Industrial and Transportation Revolutions were both accompanied by the changes of communication in the early 1800's. During this time period, the invention of the electrical telegraph mass influenced a new wave of faster and easier communication than before. It was invented by William Cooke, Charles Wheatstone, and Samuel Morse. It was an electronic device that could send signals up to miles away by using coded signals, which have since been termed Morse code.
  • The Spoils System

    The Spoils System
    The Spoils System was an event during Andrew Jackson's presidential reign where he was determined to remove federal positions of those who opposed his political views, and replace them with people who supported his and his cause. It's been estimated that under this system, Jackson could've been responsible for anywhere between 700 to 900 terminations and replacements. Eventually this system was dismantled in 1881 by the Civil Service Reform Act.
  • Cherokee Nation Vs. Georgia

    Cherokee Nation Vs. Georgia
    The Cherokee, one of the most famous tribes of Native American history filed a lawsuit against the state of Georgia for passing laws that were unconstitutional as they violated Native Americans' rights on their own land. The Unite States Supreme Court ruled that the Cherokee nation had no original jurisdiction in the matter, and ruled them as their own nation within the states, ultimately refusing to see the suit or give a hearing to the case.
  • The Second Great Awakening

    The Second Great Awakening
    The Second Great Awakening was an important turn in American history that marked the growth and spread of religious ideals. This time period is marked by the presence of large camp meetings that were held to convert people into the fast growing religious groups such as Baptists and Methodists. Personal piety was viewed as a more important lifestyle choice than traditional education. This time period also emphasized a more positive outlook on the human condition.
  • Church of Jesus Christ Latter- Day Saints and Joseph Smith

    Church of Jesus Christ Latter- Day Saints and Joseph Smith
    The Church of Jesus Christ Latter Day Saints was created by Joseph Smith, a religious leader during the nineteenth century and founder of the Mormon religion. He published the "Book of Mormon" at the age of 24 and eventually garnered up a following of thousands from this publication, ultimately setting up success of his own religious group the Mormons. He is viewed by the Mormons as a prophet equal to the status of Moses.
  • Nat Turner's Rebellion

    Nat Turner's Rebellion
    Nat Turner's Rebellion was a slave revolt lead by himself, a slave, who had been taught to read and was given the idea of preaching the word of Christianity from the bible. After being exposed to the biblical hope, he began to question the lifestyle of slavery and eventually garnered up slaves to join his rebel cause. Around 60 slaves helped kill around 55 to 65 white people before being suppressed within a few days by white militias. This was the country's largest and deadliest slave revolts.
  • The Nullification Crisis

    The Nullification Crisis
    The Nullification Crisis was a headbutting between the government and the state of South Carolina. The State of South Carolina believed that the tariffs of 1828 imposed by the federal government were unconstitutional and unfair. They decided to just ignore the taxes within their state boundaries. The tax was on foreign imports in order to boost economy within American production, but since the south was mainly agricultural, South Carolina viewed it as unfair and protested.
  • Labor Changes

    Labor Changes
    The Industrial Revolution is credited to have also started a mass labor difference within America. With new machinery and technologies, mass production was on the front-lines of economic prowess. The steam engine was used to make machines that made textile mills and Lowell mills in Massachusetts. They lead to migration into cities and even increased the demand for people-power, turning to women and children as young as toddlers to work in factories with heavy, dangerous machinery.
  • Trail of Tears

    Trail of Tears
    After white settlers saw fertility and depth in Native American owned lands and decided to spread their agriculture, the Natives who lived there were forced to leave and marched thousands of miles away into designated lands. President Andrew Jackson was no stranger to Indian Removal as he had previously done the same while he was an official military leader. 3,500 out of 15,000 of the Native Americans that were forced on the long journey died on the Trail of Tears.
  • Nicholas Biddle

    Nicholas Biddle
    Mr. Nicholas Biddle served as the country's third and final president of the second bank of the United States. Nicholas Biddle is important as he served a fierce opponent to then president Andrew Jackson in what is known today as the Bank Wars. After asking president Jackson to fund the renewal of the bank charter, he refused, and he moved federal funds into state banks. In response, Biddle raised interest rates and cause an economic struggle, but eventually the bank was ended for good in 1839.
  • Martin Van Buren

    Martin Van Buren
    Marin Van Buren was the country's 8th president, and he was the country's first president born as a United States citizen and not direct European decent. Martin Van Buren's term wasn't very successful as there was an economic struggle that plagued the county in 1837. After that he tried to run for president again in 1844 but he lost. :( Martin Buren is known to be the origins of one of the English languages most popular phrases "OK" as his nickname was "Old Kinderhook."
  • First Police Force

    First Police Force
    As the industrialization swept across America from transportation, to manufacturing, to communication, migration into urbanized areas was all the rage. People moved to the booming cities to get factory jobs. While moving to the cities was good for economic opportunity, the downside was that now people were all close together and crime was much harder to pinpoint on one person, opposite to the country areas where everyone knows each other. Crime increased and this lead to the formation of police.
  • Stephen F Austin

    Stephen F Austin
    Stephen F Austin is called the Father of Texas and was an empresario. He is the founder of Texas because during 1825, he brought somewhere around 300 families from the United States to settle in Texas territory. He also was opposed to the idea of the Mexican government banning slavery in their territories, so he insisted on instituting the practice anyways to boost the economy and agricultural industry.
  • William Harrison

    William Harrison
    William Harrison is a very special president. He only lasted 31 days. Literally he died 31 days into his presidency after he spoke his inaugural speech for over 2 hours, wearing not even a coat or hat in the cold and extreme weather. His body caught pneumonia and only four weeks later, 31 days into the presidency he was dead. He was the first ever president to die while in office and has held one of the shortest presidential terms.
  • Irish Immigration

    Irish Immigration
    During the 1840's there was a potato famine in Ireland that made many potatoes inedible. Potatoes were the country of Ireland's main source of food and the potato loss devastated the people of Ireland. Its believed to have made a death toll anywhere from around 500,000 to a million people in Ireland. This forced the Irish to migrate to America and begin seeking jobs in factories as well as building railroads and trains.
  • Transcendentalism with Edgar Allan Poe

    Transcendentalism with Edgar Allan Poe
    Edgar Allan Poe is a very famous historical author, with many of his works found in libraries all across the country to this day. He hated the idea of transcendentalism and his works were very blunt, direct, and often very dark and gloomy in nature, writing about topics such as murder and hallucinations. The movement of transcendentalism influenced Edgar's work by making him want to oppose it and be unique from other authors during his lifetime.
  • Frederick Douglas

    Frederick Douglas
    Frederick Douglas was originally born as a slave, but as an adult he escaped slavery and became a freedman. He was one of many abolitionist leaders as he was the face of escaped slavery. Not only was he an advocate for African American equality, but for all people, and even women. He was present at the Seneca Falls Convention and he was an activist until he died in 1895. He was also a well known author, his most prized works being autobiographies about his life as a slave in Maryland.
  • Seneca Falls Convention

    Seneca Falls Convention
    Seneca Falls Convention was a meeting held by women leading the women's rights campaign. Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton are credited as the two women who called for the convention. 200 women showed up to the meeting on July 19, and it was then that Elizabeth Cady Stanton read aloud the "Declaration of Sentiments and Grievances." It was cleverly written to resemble the Declaration of Independence, starting with the famous line "We hold these truths to be self-evident..."
  • California Gold Rush

    California Gold Rush
    The California Gold Rush was a rapid migration into California after gold was found very potent in the land. Over 300,000 people flocked into California, basically giving the economy an enormous boost and helping California reach official statehood with ease after The Compromise of 1850. This of course had adverse affects on the Native Americans who lived in California, as they were wiped out majority by diseases and genocide from the incoming white settlers who were gold greedy!
  • Charles Grandison Finney

    Charles Grandison Finney
    Charles Grandison Finney was a leader during the Second Great Awakening in America. He was a minister for the church of "Christian Perfectionism" and has been named "The Father of Revivalism." Along with several other religious leaders, he was able to sway not only religious change but social changes as well, publicly endorsing the abolishment of slavery, women's equality, and the education of both women and African Americans.
  • Greek Revival

    Greek Revival
    The Greek Revival was the rise of styled architecture that originated in Greece. This era took place in the late nineteenth century until the end of the Civil War. It was popularized by Thomas Hope and it wasn't just architecture, it was also furniture, and just overall interior design of buildings and houses in America and also Northern Europe. The use of columns and pillars in building design is an example of this trend, and can still be seen in many buildings nowadays.
  • Manifest Destiny

    Manifest Destiny
    Manifest Destiny is the name of the American hunger to move outward, described as "destiny" to have more land in the name of God. This was enacted in plenty of different ways, one of the most important was the Louisiana Purchase, where over 820,000 acres of land were added to the country and doubling America's size. This allowed for millions of Americans to spread westward and greatly fueled the success of Manifest Destiny.
  • The Compromise of 1850

    The Compromise of 1850
    With the argument over whether or not slavery should be allowed in states joining the country, the American government passed a series of five bills that explained the process that would determine what states entered with or without slavery, also admitting California into the country as a free state. States that entered from there on out would have to use the process of popular sovereignty to decide if the state would have slaves.
  • Fugitive Slave Acts

    Fugitive Slave Acts
    The Fugitive Slave Acts were a series of laws that were passed allowing for the capture of free blacks in free states and bringing them back into slavery states and selling them back into slavery. These laws also forced white people to rat out anyone suspected of being a runaway slave, and even if they weren't they were still subject to be kidnapped into the South. This even prohibited whites from helping harbor fugitive slaves and subjected them to legal punishment as well!
  • Bleeding Kansas

    Bleeding Kansas
    Bleeding Kansas was a bloody brother vs. brother war in Kansas over whether or not the state would have slavery or enter the Union as a free state. After the Kansas-Nebraska Act passed in 1854, popular sovereignty was the process that would determine if states were free or slave states. People of both sides illegally migrated into Kansas to pretend like they were locals and vote, ultimately trying to sway the vote to their side! Violence broke due to the confrontation of different parties.
  • Oregon Trail

    Oregon Trail
    The Oregon Trail is the poster child of American Migration into the west as it was the trail that was used for Millions migrating westward during Manifest Destiny, through the Louisiana Purchase. It was about 2,000 miles from Missouri to Oregon that took anywhere from five to six months to reach the final destination. This was a rigorous and dangerous trail and killed every one out of ten people that set out through the trail, most commonly by diseases such as cholera, smallpox, and influenza.
  • The Underground Railroad

    The Underground Railroad
    The harsh lifestyle forced onto slaves was so brutal that many were not so inclined to staying within bondage. The runaway slaves had a system called the underground railroad that used a series of safe houses, cabins, hidden codes and trails that led to the Northern, slave-less states. They were facilitated by abolitionist white people that helped them escape slavery and use their homes as shelter, while feeding them, clothing them, and sometimes even giving them weapons.
  • Harriet Tubman

    Harriet Tubman
    Harriet Tubman was an escaped slave and is one of the most famous historical black figures as she helped free over 300 slaves from slavery! She was nicknamed "Moses" for her similar style of freeing enslaved people (and frequently making them travel through water). She escaped from the South and went back over a series of 19 trips to free more and more slaves. She also became a Union spy during the American Civil War.
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    30,000 BCE

    Beginnings to Exploration

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    English Colonial Societies

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    Colonial America to 1763

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    American Industrial Revolution

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    Revolutionary War ( American Revolution)

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    Constitution Timespan

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    New Republic

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    Age of Jefferson

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    Westward Expansion

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    Age of Jackson

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    Cultural Changes in America

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    Sectionalism/ The Civil War