1301 Timeline project

Timeline created by jasper671
In History
  • 1,900 BCE

    Chocolate

    Chocolate
    Chocolate was one of the most desired foods of Mesoamerica. It was eaten by the Olmecs, Mayans, and Aztecs. It was passed through trade routes to other parts of the Americas including the Chaco in modern New Mexico. The earliest known chocolate known use of chocolate was by the Olmecs and enjoyed as a drink. Chocolate was, and still is, made from the beans of the cacao pods from "Theobroma cacao tree". Cacao beans were commonly traded and was once used as a currency by the Aztecs.
  • 1340

    The Black Death

    The Black Death
    Also known as the 'Bubonic Plague", the Black Death was a disease that rapidly spread around Europe in 1346 to 1353. It is estimated that the Black Death killed 30% to 60% of Europe's total population. It was caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis which circulates among wild rodents. The black rat lived close to humans, which is what made it dangerous. It was often referred to as the "house rat" or "ship rat". Hungry rat fleas bite humans which turn into lymph nodes which constantly swell.
  • 1394

    Henry the Navigator

    Henry the Navigator
    Henry was born in Porto, Portugal, in 1394. Although he wasn't a navigator, he sponsored many explorations along the west coast of Africa. Under his patronage, Portuguese crews founded the country's first colonies and visited regions Europeans didn't know. Henry is also known as the originator for The Age of Discovery and the Atlantic Slave Trade. Henry funded Nuno Tristao and Antao Gonclave's exploration of the African Coast. These two men captured several Africans and went back to Portugal.
  • 1440

    Printing Press

    Printing Press
    The printing press was created by Johannes Gutenberg. A German man desperate to find a way to make money. The function of the printing press was that it spread information more efficiently than being hand-written. It also influenced many people to read because it was easier to read and increase their knowledge.This was a very important invention and was more productive and efficient. Gutenberg made the first copied book was made from a printing press. The printing press also helped with grammar.
  • Apr 15, 1452

    Leonardo DaVinci

    Leonardo DaVinci
    Leonardo DaVinci was born in April 15, 1452. He is one of the most influential artists in history, and left a significant legacy in art and science. DaVinci lived in an age of creativity with other well known artists such as Raphael and Michelangelo. He is well known for the inspiration of the Renaissance and is also called the "Renaissance Man." DaVinci was not only a great artist and a painter; he also picked up knowledge in diverse fields. Like, mechanics, carpentry, and chemistry.
  • 1492

    The Columbian Exchange

    The Columbian Exchange
    North America and South America were known as the New world, while Africa and Eurasia, Europe and Asia, were known as the Old world. Christopher Columbus, a famous Italian explorer was the first to initiate an exchange of plants, animals, and diseases between the two worlds. Some of the most influential items brought from the Old world to the New world include, horses, pigs, rice, small pox, malaria, etc. The New world also had an influence on the Old world bringing corn, turkeys, and potatoes.
  • 1500

    The Dark Ages

    The Dark Ages
    The Dark Ages is a term often used anonymously used with the Middle Ages. It is the time period between the fall of The Roman Empire and the beginning of the Italian Renaissance and the Age of Discovery. 'Dark Ages' was a name made by an Italian scholar named Francesco Petrarch. It was meant to describe what he perceived as a lack of quality in the Latin literature. Other thinkers agreed with his term and expanded on it. They thought it wasn't just the literature, but also a lack of culture.
  • Roanoke

    Roanoke
    Roanoke was a first attempt at a permanent colony. Roanoke, also known as "The Lost Colony", was founded when a group of settlers arrived on Roanoke. Later that year, John White, the governor of the new colony, sailed back to England to resupply the colony. What he did not know was that a naval war broke out between England and Spain. When White finally returned back to his colony, there was no trace of the colony or the settlers. Only a word carved into a wooden post, "Croatoan".
  • Squanto

    Squanto
    A native american from the Patuxet tribe, was an interpreter and a guide for the Pilgrim settlers of Plymouth during their first winter in the New World. In 1614, Squanto was kidnapped by an English explorer named Thomas Hunt. He was brought to Spain and sold into slavery. When Squanto escaped, he returned back to North America in 1619, and went back to the Patuxet region. Squanto was introduced to the Pilgrims of Plymoth in 1621 and gained their trust by helping them with planting and fishing.
  • Mayflower Compact

    Mayflower Compact
    The settlers that came to the New World on the Mayflower got in an argument because they signed a contract with the Virginia Company to settle on land near Hudson River. Some settlers believed that this contract was void and didn't follow any rules since the ship landed outside of Virginia Company territory and had no control over them. The purpose of the Mayflower Compact was to stop the rebellion before it happened. It was the first document to establish self-government in the New World.
  • Nathaniel Bacon

    Nathaniel Bacon
    Nathaniel Bacon is most famously known as the leader of Bacon's Rebellion. The governor of Jamestown, Virginia, Sir William Berkeley, became hated against farmers and frontiersmen. He raised taxes, lack of protection from Native Americans, and also lowered tobacco prices. Bacon and other colonists decided to rebel against this unfair treatment. Bacon led a small army of angry farmers to Jamestown and the governor fled and the Burgesses allowed protection against the Native attacks.
  • Glorious Revolution

    Glorious Revolution
    The Glorious Revolution took place from 1688-1689 in England. An attempt to overthrow King James ll. This event changed how England was governed, giving Parliament more power over the monarchy. King James was catholic and allowed religious freedom for Catholics. He also allied with France, which concerned many of the English people. William of Orange took the English throne from King James in 1688. This event is also called the "Bloodless Revolution" because of the little violence used.
  • Salem Witch Trials

    Salem Witch Trials
    The paranoia of witches started when a group of young girls in Salem was claimed to be possessed by the devil. The first convicted witch, Bridget Bishop, was hanged while eighteen others followed. They began to hunt down people accused of using witchcraft and many innocent lives were taken because of this. They had ways to test if someone was a witch, the most gruesome one was tossing the person in water and watching if they sink or float. Witches would float while an innocent person would sink
  • Quakers

    Quakers
    The Quakers were members of the Religious Society of Friends, the Quaker Movement. It was founded by George Fox in England in the 17th century. They were persecuted by their beliefs, which was the idea that God exists in every person. Quaker missionaries first arrived in America in the mid-1650s. They practiced pacifism and many considered them Christian, but not all. They also protected Native American's rights and were early abolitionists. By the 1780s, Quakers were barred from owning slaves.
  • Sir Isaac Newton

    Sir Isaac Newton
    Sir Isaac Newton was born on January 4, 1643. During the enlightenment, he discovered gravity, the laws of motion, and a new branch of mathematics. When Newton discovered gravity, he disproved many religious and traditional beliefs, such as believing that god put the planets in order. He changed people's minds, making most of them want proof when believing things. Newton began to inspire individual thinking and encouraged people to not believe everything they were told to by a person.
  • Benjamin Franklin

    Benjamin Franklin
    Born in January 1706, in Boston, Massachusetts, Franklin was a person who stood up for human rights, promoted individual thinking, and also embraced science. Franklin was not only an inventor, but also a scientist. He discovered the basic principle of conversation of electric change. He also went to Europe many times and joined many scientific and political debates. Franklin believed in deism, like many others. People who believed in deism believed in a god, but has no involvement in the world.
  • Samuel Davies

    Samuel Davies
    Samuel Davies was a Presbyterian preacher in colonial British America who defended those that were religiously persecuted. In Virginia, he fought for religious freedom and earned the title "apostle of dissent". Davies became a respected and powerful preacher and allegedly influenced Patrick Henry, a famous orator during the Revolutionary period. Davies also talked about political subjects as well. During the French and Indian War, he said "Christians should be patriots."
  • Triangular Trade

    Triangular Trade
    It is known as the Triangular Trade because the trade between England, Africa, and the Americas formed a triangle. Imports and Exports of sugar, gold, spices, etc. were important, however not the ones that had the most impact. The most important were slaves. Slavery has existed in Africa since ancient times. Africa supplied enslaved Africans to the Americas mainly used by the Spanish and Portuguese. The English became involved in the Slave Trade, which formed the pattern of the Triangular Trade.
  • French & Indian War

    French & Indian War
    A conflict in America when England declares war on France. It is also known as the Seven Years War because it lasted from 1756-1763. At the beginning of the war, the British suffered heavy losses because of France's ally with Native Americas. However, they started to turn the tides in 1760 when Britain formed an alliance with Prussia. The French were expelled from Canada and all of the French's allies have either made peace with Prussia or has been defeated. The Treaty of Paris ended the war.
  • Fort Duquesne

    Fort Duquesne
    Fort Duquesne was established by the French in 1754. British had attempted to take this fort, but failed several times. They wanted to gain control of the Ohio Country. The importance of the fort was the location. It allowed the French to trade with Native Americans in the Ohio Country prevent the growth of British trade. In 1758, they eventually captured Fort Duquesne in an expedition called, Forbes Expedition. Native Americans informed General Forbes the French abandoned the fort and burned it
  • Treaty of Paris

    Treaty of Paris
    The Treaty of Paris officially ended the French and Indian War between Great Britain and France. It was a mutual agreement to end the Seven Years' War because both sides had suffered from it. The terms of this treaty heavily affected the French. France gave up all its territories in North America to end any foreign military threat to the British colonies there. It also gave Quebec, as well as the Ohio Valley, to Britain and Louisiana Territory west of the Mississippi was given to Spain.
  • Stamp Act

    Stamp Act
    A tax on all paper documents imposed on the American colonist by the British government. The British taxed the colonists because they were heavily in debt during the Seven Years' War. However, the colonist did not like this. They believed that this taxed was unconstitutional and refused to accept it. They protested in violent mobs and intimidated stamp collectors into resigning. Eventually, the Stamp Act was repealed in 1766, but the British reminded them that they were still in authority.
  • Boston Tea Party

    Boston Tea Party
    A political protest against the British parliament for imposing taxes without representation. The British were deep in debt and taxed the colonists such as the Stamp Act and the Townshend Act, to help repay the debt. After many protests, British government eventually repealed the taxes except the Tea Act, which was a tax on tea. The colonists were still angry and decided to make the British pay. The Sons of Liberty disguised themselves as Native Americans and threw 342 crates of tea off the ship
  • Shot Heard 'Round the World

    Shot Heard 'Round the World
    British troops marched towards Concord, Massachusetts, to retrieve weapons and ammunition from American colonists. As the British reached Lexington, they faced about 70 minutemen. The battle soon began when someone fired the first shot, uncertain which side. Eight Americans were dead, while only one redcoat was injured. British continued to Concord, where they encountered another american militia. This battle was in favor of the colonists and the British retreated back to Boston.
  • Olive Branch Petition

    Olive Branch Petition
    To avoid war with Britain, the American colonists decided to send an Olive Branch Petition, which was a document in which colonists gave their loyalty to Britain and asserted their rights as British citizens. However, this did not work because King George lll did not read it because he believed the colonists were already planning to rebel against Britain. The colonists responded by explaining how the new taxes felt like punishments, rather than new laws, but were still loyal to the British.
  • Thomas Paine

    Thomas Paine
    Paine is most famously known for his pamphlet, Common Sense. Common Sense was an influential pamphlet that encouraged many American colonists to think independently. It instantly sold out and became important by encouraging colonists to become independent from England. Paine also served in the U.S. Army and went on to write "The Rights of Man," which was a pamphlet supporting the French Revolution. He continued to go against the British government and his political opinions landed him in jail.
  • Battle of Saratoga

    Battle of Saratoga
    On September 19, 1777, the first battle of Saratoga was fought. With overconfidence, the British general, John Burgoyne gave the colonists time to regroup. Although, the colonists lost the first battle, they showed the British that they were stronger than they appeared. Later that year, a second battle began when Burgoyne attempted an assault, furious about the first battle. Arnold led an attack that captured key strong points, which forced the British to retreat to Saratoga.
  • Treaty of Paris

    Treaty of Paris
    The Treaty of Paris of 1783 ended the American Revolutionary War. Great Britain had no choice but to recognize American independence and gave most of their territory east of the Mississippi River. The last battle that was fought at Yorktown, Virginia. American and French forces, were led by George Washington. They surrounded and captured the British general, Charles Cornwallis, and about 9,000 British troops. The negotiators for the treaty were Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, and John Jay
  • Articles of Confederation

    Articles of Confederation
    The Articles of Confederation was the first written constitution of America. It had a weak central government, which left most of the power to the state government. People argued that the government was too weak because it could not levy taxes or enforce laws. On the other hand, some people believed that it was fine and that the government should not interfere. The Constitutional Convention was held in 1787. Soon after, the U.S. Constitution replaced the A.O.C. and is still used today.
  • Shay's Rebellion

    Shay's Rebellion
    Farmers were struggling and they were also dealing with higher taxes and couldn't make enough money. Farmers were arrested and their farms were being foreclosed. At first, the farmers decided to deal with this peacefully in the courthouse, but when that didn't work, they blocked judges from entering the courthouse. Daniel Shays led this rebellion and it was important because it showed the people that the A.O.C. was too weak and needed change. It eventually was replaced by the U.S. Constitution.
  • Northwest Ordinance

    Northwest Ordinance
    There were several Northwest Ordinances, but the most important one, was the Northwest Ordinance of 1787. It stated that a population was that was less than 5,000 adult free males was to be governed by a governor and judges appointed by Congress. It also allowed the Northwest Territory to only be a minimum of three and a maximum of five states. A territory can become a state added in the Union if it had a population of 60,000. Slavery was also outlawed if states wanted to join the Union.
  • The Great Debate

    The Great Debate
    The Great Debate was between Federalists and Anti-Federalists. Federalists wanted to ratify the Constitution and the Anti-Federalists did not. The Anti-Federalists wanted to include the Bill of Rights because the Constitution gave the central government too much power and felt that the peoples' rights needed to be protected. Alexander Hamilton led the Federalists and they believed that the government was limited and not the people. Eventually, the Bill of Rights was added into the Constitution.
  • New Jersey Plan

    New Jersey Plan
    The New Jersey Plan, proposed by William Paterson, was made to help smaller states. The smaller states did not like the Virginia Plan because the states that had a larger population would have more representatives than the smaller states. To fix this, the New Jersey Plan proposed a single legislature, so all states could have an equal number of representatives. The New Jersey Plan and the Virginia Plan was also important because it led to the Great Compromise at the Constitutional Convention.
  • Three Branches

    Three Branches
    The 3 branches of government compose the Legislative, Executive, and Judicial branch. Legislative is the branch that makes the laws. Senators and House of Representatives also have the authority to declare war if they need to. The Executive Branch includes the president, vice president , the Cabinet, and more. They execute the laws that the legislative branch make. The Judicial Branch evaluates the law to make sure it's a just law. They decide if it is unconstitutional or constitutional.
  • Massachusetts Constitution

    Massachusetts Constitution
    The Massachusetts Constitution was drafted by John Adams, and used as a model for the U.S. Constitution. The Massachusetts Constitution prohibited unreasonable searches and seizures. The officials had to obtain a "writ of assistance," which is a warrant that allows them to search private property. This is similar to the fourth amendment in the Bill of Rights. John Adams cared much about the individual rights and this document showed that. This influenced some of the Bill of Rights.
  • Election of 1788

    Election of 1788
    The Election of 1788 was the first presidential election held. White men with property were the only ones given the right of suffrage. George Washington won the election and established the first cabinet in office. It was based on the Prime Minister's system. Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton were some of Washington's cabinet members, or advisers, when he was president. The Election of 1788 also made the person in second place, vice president, which was John Adams.
  • Bill of Rights

    Bill of Rights
    The first ten amendments on the Constitution written by James Madison. The Anti-Federalists believed the Constitution needed the Bill of Rights to protect individuals' rights. The first amendment is the freedom of speech, freedom of assembly, and freedom of religion. This is the most important because it allows people to have opinions and different ideas. The fourth amendment protects citizens privacy because police officers can't do unreasonable searches without a warrant.
  • Whiskey Rebellion

    Whiskey Rebellion
    An uprising from farmers that were furious with the whiskey tax. The American Revolution made many states in debt and needed a way to pay it back. Alexander Hamilton suggested that they put a tax on whiskey, to stop the debt from getting any worse. The protesters believed that this was unfair and were getting more violent. When the protests got too far, Washington decided to put an end to it. The state militia and Washington put an end to the rebellion and showed the constitution was powerful.
  • Jay's Treaty

    Jay's Treaty
    The United States and Great Britain discussed Jay's Treaty and signed it to settle issues. American exports being blocked by British ships, British occupying forts that they should not have, and impressment of American sailors, which was taking men into their naval force under compulsion. John Jay also acknowledged the threat of the U.S. joining with the Danish and Swedish government. However, many people did not like the treaty because the Federalists were seen as pro-British.
  • Election of 1796

    Election of 1796
    The Election of 1796 was between John Adams and Thomas Jefferson. Although George Washington advised that people should not have political parties and also set the line for only serving two terms. Washington said to avoid conflicts, but the Federalists wanted a strong central government, while the Anti-Federalists (Republican Party) wanted a strong interpretation of the constitution. John Adams ended up winning the election and Thomas Jefferson was the Vice President.
  • Adam's Presidency

    Adam's Presidency
    John Adams was elected president in the Election of 1796. Although America was neutral, tensions arose when Adams became president. To settle peace with the French, Adams sent delegates to negotiate a treaty, but they refused to talk. Soon after, the French demanded a large bribe, but Adams turned it down. This became known as the XYZ affair, which made Adams more popular. However, he made the mistake of signing the Alien and Sedition Acts, which made it illegal to talk bad about the government.
  • Election of 1800

    Election of 1800
    The Election of 1800, or Revolution of 1800, was the first time power has passed from one political party to another. It was between Thomas Jefferson and John Adams. Adams believed that the government should have a strong federal government, while Jefferson wanted a strict interpretation of the constitution. Jefferson and his vice president, Aaron Burr, tied in the election. It was also the election that influenced the 12th amendment, so elected presidents could end up with their running mates.
  • Lewis and Clark

    Lewis and Clark
    During Thomas Jefferson's presidency, he made the Louisiana Purchase, which doubled the size of America. Jefferson wanted to explore the land gained, so he sent Meriwether Lewis, a secretary of Jefferson, and William Clark, an army officer, to map out the unknown parts of the territory. Jefferson funded their journey which would soon be known as the, "Lewis and Clark expedition." During the journey, they met many Native Americans and negotiated peace treaties with them.
  • Sacagawea

    Sacagawea
    Sacagawea is most famously known for her aid to Lewis and Clark. In 1804, she joined the Lewis and Clark expedition and aided them by translating and keeping peace between Native American groups. Sacagawea also helped them by looking more trustworthy and wanting peace, rather than violence because she was taking care of her child while they were traveling. She was skilled at gathering fruits and finding edible plants. She got Lewis and Clark horses, which was very important to the expedition.
  • Cotton Gin

    Cotton Gin
    The Cotton Gin was invented by Eli Whitney and had a huge impact on the South. It greatly increased productivity by easily removing seeds from cotton. This revolutionized cotton agriculture and became America's most wanted export. Although this invention seemed like a good thing, there was one negative about it. The Cotton Gin significantly increased the numbers of slaves in the South as it was on the decline. Slave owners believed it was justified for using slaves to operate cotton gins .
  • War of 1812

    War of 1812
    Great Britain was currently enemies with France and saw that the United States was trading with the French. Britain blocked American ports to prevent them from trading and also impressment of their soldiers, which is taking soldiers into your navy by force. Americans decided to go to war with Britain in 1812 because Britain refused to stop taking their ships and blocking trading ports. After numerous battles fought, losses from both sides, the Treaty of Ghent officially ended the war in 1814.
  • Francis Scott Key

    Francis Scott Key
    During the War of 1812, a battle at Fort McHenry was fought. From a British vessel, Francis Scott Key watched the Americans fight back British forces for so long. As he was writing about the violence outside, he noticed the American flag was still standing. The poem he wrote describing the war of Fort McHenry would later become known as the "Star-Spangled Banner". At the end of the War of 1812, both countries took heavy losses, but the Star Spangled Banner rose to fame because it was patriotic.
  • Missouri Compromise

    Missouri Compromise
    Missouri Compromise was established because Missouri applied for admission as a slave state. However, the Union did not want to allow more states being slave states, so they added Maine as a free state. This compromise also passed an amendment that drew an imaginary line, which was a boundary between free states and slave states. This was also known as the 36°30 line because it was 36 longitude and 30 latitude. The states above the line would be free while the states below would be slave states.
  • Henry Clay

    Henry Clay
    Henry Clay was born on April 12, 1777 and chose to study law, which he even got to mentor Thomas Jefferson. When Clay turned 20, he moved to Lexington where he became a successful lawyer. He became very popular and even got into politics. Clay was a abolitionist, supporting the freedom of slaves and also wanting to remove the Alien and Sedition Acts. He was involved with many important documents such as The Treaty of Ghent, Missouri Compromise, and Compromise of 1850.
  • Monroe Doctrine

    Monroe Doctrine
    Monroe Doctrine, created by James Monroe, stated that America will not interfere with Britain in Latin America, so Britain should not intervene with America in the Western Hemisphere of the "New World." If Britain or any European power attempted to colonize land that the Americans were going to colonize, they would be viewed as hostile against the United States. Although, the United States was not a major power at the time and the Monroe Doctrine was taken lightly from other powers.
  • Election of 1824

    Election of 1824
    The Election of 1824 included candidates such as John Quincy Adams, Andrew Jackson, William Crawford, and Henry Clay. This election is unusual because Andrew Jackson won popular vote, and no one won the majority of the electoral college votes. However, John Quincy Adams won the presidential election. Andrew Jackson did not take this lightly, and called this election corrupt. He believed it was corrupt because Henry Clay, Speaker of the House, convinced them to vote for Adams instead of Jackson.
  • Spoils System

    Spoils System
    After Andrew Jackson wins the election of 1828, he soon replaces the bureaucracy with his own supporters that voted for him. This is called the Spoils System, or Patronage system. Many were against the Spoils System because the people that were chosen were usually not able to do the job, or incompetent. While others that supported the spoils system stated that it was the only way that guaranteed loyal workers and cooperative employees. The system has also been used in other countries as well.
  • Steamboats

    Steamboats
    Although John Fitch proposed the idea of using steam power to drive boats and even given a patent, Robert Fulton created the first steamboat. He also became known as "Father of Steam Navigation." The invention of steam boats made it much easier to transport goods along rivers. It could also go upstream and can go twice as fast as flatboats. Steamboats revolutionized transportation and trade. It made for faster, easier, and more comfortable rides across waterways and rivers.
  • Nat Turner's Rebellion

    Nat Turner's Rebellion
    Nat Turner was an American slave who led the rebellion that took place in August 1831. It spread fear to whites in the South and made some people believe that slaves should be prevented an education, to stop anti-slavery movements, and stop slaves from assembling. Turner was convinced that god chose him to lead slaves to freedom. When he saw the eclipse of the sun, Turner and several other slaves, murdered more than 50 whites with guns and horses. Turner thought it was a sign from god.
  • Railroads

    Railroads
    The railroads have had the most impact in the Industrialization Revolution transportation wise. It made transporting goods easier and cheaper. Railroads also transported people to father destinations quicker and easier. This, like many inventions during the Industrialization Revolution, gave countries advantages against other powers. For example, the intercontinental railroad transported supplies to soldiers on the battlefield faster than other countries, which was a major benefit from them.
  • Textiles

    Textiles
    The textile industry grew substantially grew during the Industrial Revolution. Machinery had a huge impact on cloth because it was made cheaper. Since cloth was more expensive and time consuming to make with hand, it had a higher price. However, machines made making cloth more efficient and affordable. Francis Cabot Lowell, established the first American textile industry. This also allowed woman to be apart of the Industrial Revolution, but the conditions were tough and the hours were long.
  • Nullifiication Crisis

    Nullifiication Crisis
    The Nullification Crisis was a conflict between South Carolina and the Federal government. John C. Calhoun helped start this when the Federal government tried to force a tariff on South Carolina, and he refused saying that the U.S. Constitution gave them the right to block enforcement of federal law. South Carolina threatened to secede from the Union if they enforced the tariff on the state. However, Andrew Jackson stated that the states did not have the right to nullification.
  • Iron Plow

    Iron Plow
    An iron plow is a farming tool that helped break the soil and make small ditches for sowing seeds. In 1837. a blacksmith named, John Deere, developed and sold the first steel plow, which worked great for ground in the American prairies. This invention helped many farmers because of its efficiency and improvements of early plows. Deere continued to expand on his business and kept selling plows. The plow also polished itself, which was a unique feature that set itself apart from other plows.
  • Panic of 1837

    Panic of 1837
    During the Panic of 1837, Martin Van Buren was president. Many people were attacking him and blaming him for the bad economy. However, he only inherited bad economy, Jackson was the one who caused inflation and even believed it himself. They started calling him "Martin Van Ruin" because they thought he ruined the economy. Almost everyone in the nation was affected from the Panic of 1837. It was followed by a 5-year depression because of failed banks and an increase in unemployment.
  • Trail of Tears

    Trail of Tears
    In the early 1830s, many Native Americans were forced to leave to Indian Territory. In 1830, the Indian Removal Act forced Native Americans to relocate in present-day Oklahoma. Some Native Americans from the Cherokee tribe decided to stay and fight, while others agreed to go for the incentive. Whites also looted their homes and took their personal items from them. During the Trail of Tears, many of them died to diseases such as Whooping Cough, Dysentery, and starvation.
  • Election of 1840

    Election of 1840
    Although Martin Van Buren was blamed for the Panic of 1837, he still ran for a re-election in the Election of 1840. He was against a Whig party member, William Henry Harrison. The Whigs spread rumors about Van Buren and also tried to get women to influence their husbands to vote for Harrison. The Democrats also mocked Harrison because he was old and argued he could not serve as president. Eventually, William Henry Harrison ended up winning in a landslide, but only makes it a month.
  • Manifest Destiny

    Manifest Destiny
    The belief that the United States was destined by God to achieve land that stretched from sea to sea. Westward expansion was boosted by the Louisiana Purchase. Thomas Jefferson bought this territory from the French that doubled the size of the United States. Manifest Destiny also sparked when Anglo settlers were allowed to live in Texas by Mexico. When the Anglo settlers outnumbered the Hispanics, they decided to rebel against them and fight for their own independence.
  • Telegraph

    Telegraph
    The telegraph was invented by Samuel Morse. It revolutionized communication for long-distance by transmitting electrical signals through wire. Since you could not talk through the telegraph, you had to speak in code, which was dots and dashes. It was known as Morse Code.The telegraph was a very important invention because it got information to each other so much faster than having to travel to send a message. It won many wars and gave a tactical advantage to the United States.
  • Texas

    Texas
    in 1820, Moses Austin asked the Mexican government for permission to settle in their land, which was present-day Texas. Land was given to the settlers, however the Mexican government had some rules for them. To not bring any slaves, to learn Spanish, and to become an official Mexican citizen. The relationship between the United States and Mexico slowly faded as the settlers in Texas realized they outnumbered the Hispanics. Eventually, Texas won independence and became a slave state.
  • Mexican-American War

    Mexican-American War
    James K. Polk believed in Westward Expansion and felt that he had a right to help the United States stretch from across the continent to the Pacific Ocean. When the Mexican government gave land grants to the settlers that were going to occupy what would be present-day Texas, they had three rules for the settlers. To learn Spanish, become Mexican citizens, and have no slaves. However, the Anglos did not respect the Mexican law and also decided to fight for independence in 1846.
  • Bear Flag Revolt

    Bear Flag Revolt
    The Bear Flag Revolt occurred when a group of Americans in California rebelled against the Mexican government and claimed it was an independent republic. However, the United States military occupied the territory and California joined the Union in 1850. The Bear Flag Revolt later became California's state flag in 1911. Americans that settled in California did not trust their Mexican leaders and the Mexican government also believed that the settlers were not interested in becoming citizens.
  • Wilmot Proviso

    Wilmot Proviso
    During the Mexican-American War, Wilmot Proviso helped land that was acquired to eliminate slavery. It was attached to a bill that stated it would pay Mexico back for land that was seized during the Mexican-American War. It would have prevented slavery from expanding to the new territory, and the House of Representatives approved the Bill and the Wilmot Proviso. However, the Senate only approved the bill. Wilmot Proviso ended up getting rejected and never went into effect.
  • California Gold Rush

    California Gold Rush
    The discovery of gold in Sacramento sparked the California Gold Rush. Many people looking for economic opportunities flooded these areas, looking for gold. In 1849, migrants came to California spending their life savings to get here and for supplies. Merchants also came here to make money by selling the miners tools, instead of looking for gold. This is important to the Westward Expansion, or Manifest Destiny, because it pulled more people west and persuaded them with the idea of being rich.
  • Harriet Tubman

    Harriet Tubman
    Harriet Tubman was an escaped slave, who later came back to help other slaves escape from their slave owners. Being born into slavery, Tubman lived her childhood in torturous conditions and work. However in 1849, Harriet and her two brothers decided to escape their plantation. When she escaped through the Underground Railroad to Pennsylvania, Harriet wanted to go back and help others. She later became the most famous conductor of the Underground Railroad, helping hundreds slaves escape.
  • Slums

    Slums
    A populous area that is usually known for having unsanitary conditions. The Industrialization Revolution was a major cause of rapid population increase, so they built neighborhoods that were overcrowded with poorly built houses. They also had segregated neighborhoods, separating blacks from whites. Laws were passed that raised the minimum standard for building houses in low-income neighborhoods, adding ventilation, better sanitation, and also had better protection against fires.
  • John C. Calhoun

    John C. Calhoun
    Born on March 18, 1782, John C. Calhoun helped the United States go to war with Britain and also helped establish the Second Bank of the United States. He served as a secretary of war, secretary of state, and also Vice President. Calhoun supported slavery and slave-plantations and even opposed California being a free state. When he was elected senator for South Carolina, he still continued to argue about slavery. Although abolitionists were on the incline he still argued for pro-slavery.
  • Fire-eaters

    Fire-eaters
    Fire-eaters were southerners who were angry of Northerners and wanted to secede from the Union. They did not want to get rid of slavery and wanted to protect it by threatening to leave the Union. Each side blamed each other. Northerners thought slavery was immoral and wrong, but Southerners were tired of the Union always trying to prevent slavery in new states. They did not like that the Union was growing because the risk that slavery would be abolished was the South's biggest fear.
  • Underground Railroad

    Underground Railroad
    Despite its name, the Underground Railroad was actually a network of safe houses that aided slaves who were trying to escape the South. African Americans, as well as some whites, helped slave escape or hide out from their slave owners. The people that helped the slaves escape to freedom were called "conductors." One famous conductor, named Harriet Tubman, who helped many escape from bounty hunters and slave owners. Although Tubman already escaped, she decided to go back and help more people.
  • Suffrage

    Suffrage
    The first women's rights convention was held in Seneca Falls, New York. This convention was held to fight for women's suffrage, or the right to vote. It fought for social, religious, and political justice among women. The women who established the convention also were involved in the abolitionist movement. They fought state laws prohibiting a married woman from owning her own property and kept fighting for equality. They also fought for better jobs and authority above men.
  • Uncle Tom's Cabin

    Uncle Tom's Cabin
    Written by Harriet Beecher Stowe, the book "Uncle Tom's Cabin", described the torture that slaves had to go through. This became very popular among white northerners as it encouraged them to take a stand against slavery and abolish it forever. Stowe used personal experiences to write parts of the book and what slave owners do to their slaves. The book described the physical and emotional scarring the slave owners set upon the slaves. It is also believed that this helped start the Civil War.
  • Henry David Thoreau

    Henry David Thoreau
    Henry David Thoreau was born on July 12, 1817. David Thoreau began writing poetry about nature and is remembered by his philosophical writings. He was a abolitionists and even wrote several books about slavery such as, "Slavery in Massachusetts." Thoreau also supported John Brown, a radical abolitionists who led a rebellion among slaves in Virginia. Thoreau was a simple man and wrote many books in his lifetime, however, he was diagnosed with tuberculosis which did not get better anytime soon.
  • Bleeding Kansas

    Bleeding Kansas
    Bleeding Kansas was a small war that was fought between people who believed in slavery and abolitionists. When the Kansas-Nebraska Act was passed, many people started to argue whether if Kansas should be a free state or a slave state. This caused many violent brawls and arguments. Groups of pro-slavery members burned down abolitionists' hotels and buildings to get rid of anti-slavery. Abolitionists also partook in this violence, leading a rebellion against slavery and freeing prisoners.
  • Revivalism

    Revivalism
    Charles Grandison Finney, or Father of American Revivalism, became a major leader in the Second Great Awakening. As a revivalist preacher, Grandison Finney rejected the idea of Deism, which was a belief that God created the world, but had no involvement from that point. He also preached about how morality was taken over by economics and politics. Finney also supported the abolitionist movement and denounced slavery, denying slaveowners from reunions in his own churches.
  • Mormons

    Mormons
    Mormons are a religious group that had some ideas of Christianity, but had some changes. Their founder, Joseph Smith, officially founded the group in 1830. They have very different lifestyles from Christians, although they consider themselves Christians. They abstain from alcohol and tobacco, believed in three levels of heaven, and promoted doing good deeds and importance of family. Smith believed an angel appeared to him, giving him The Book of Mormons and asking him to translate it to others.
  • John Brown's Raid

    John Brown's Raid
    An abolitionists, named John Brown, led anti-slavery members on a raid to Harpers Ferry, Virginia. They were going to arm themselves and attempt a slave revolt to abolish slavery once and for all. In the 1850s, Brown launched several attacks on proslavery cabins and wanted revenge to those who attacked abolitionists towns. Brown's army later grew to 22 men. As Brown and his army raided Harpers Ferry, word soon got out and they were surrounded. Brown was defeated and executed later that year.
  • Transcendentalism

    Transcendentalism
    Transcendentalism was a philosophical thought that fought for the respect for nature and self-sufficiency. Transcendentalists, did believe in a god, however they did not believe in spiritual beliefs.The Transcendental Club, was made on September 12, 1836, to talk about Unitarianism and how they can influence people with this idea. Transcendentalism began to fade out in the late 1800s and lost influence on most people. Several people still believed in Transcendentalism, but it did not come back.
  • Robert E. Lee

    Robert E. Lee
    Robert Edward Lee is best known for his leadership of the Confederate army during the American Civil War. Despite all disadvantages, the South had something the North didn't for a while, which was strategical leaders. Lee was a competent general that had experience with leading wars, which made the Civil War prolong as long as it did. However, when Ulysses S. Grant was made general, Lee was soon defeated and surrendered at the Appomattox Court House on April 9, 1865 which ended the Civil War.
  • Ulysses S. Grant

    Ulysses S. Grant
    Ulysses S. Grant was the general for the Union army near the end of the Civil War. Although Grant was not leading the Union army during the start of the Civil War, he did recruit soldiers and assisted them in getting equipped. Eventually, Lee was appointed as a general for the Union and seized confederate strongholds and railroads. He also gained control of Tennessee and Kentucky. The Civil War ended when Robert E. Lee surrendered at the Appomattox Courthouse on April 9, 1865
  • North (Civil War)

    North (Civil War)
    The North had numerous advantages over the South. One of the advantages was Manufacturing. The Union was able to develop and manufacture more supplies and clothing for the soldiers than the South. This played a huge role in the Civil War. Northerners also had communication and better weapons in the war. In fact, both sides of the war thought it would end quickly. However due to the incompetent generals Lincoln kept recruiting, the Union took many losses and defeats before winning the Civil War.
  • South (Civil War)

    South (Civil War)
    South had many disadvantages compared to the North in the Civil War. They had less manufacturers, which led to lack of supplies and clothing for the confederate soldiers. Despite all the hardships, the South still prolonged longer than everyone expected because of their general, Robert E. Lee. The only thing the North lacked was a competent general, which led them to lose in numerous battles at the start of the Civil War. Eventually, the South lost and Lee surrendered on April 9, 1865.
  • Trent Affair

    Trent Affair
    A diplomatic crisis that was between America and Great Britain. Two confederate messengers on aboard the Trent, a British mail ship, to plead for support from Britain and Charles Wilkes, captain of a U.S. ship, decided he could not let that happen. Wilkes arrested the two confederate envoys and let the British ship continue on its way. However, the British were furious and demanded for the release of the prisoners with an apology. Eventually, Lincoln released them and averted war with Britain.
  • Battle of Bull Run

    Battle of Bull Run
    The Battle of Bull Run, or "Battle of Manassas", was the first major battle of the Civil War. Approximately 30,000 Union soldiers marched South to launch an attack on Confederate forces. The South was outnumbered by 10,000 soldiers, but had an advantage since they were on defensive most of the battle. Eventually, the North gets overrun by the Confederate army and retreats back to Washington, D.C. This battle was a humiliating defeat for the Union and it boosts the South's confidence.
  • Clara Barton

    Clara Barton
    Clara Barton started off as an educator, but later turned her interests to treating wounded soldiers in the Civil War. Clara Barton started her career as a nurse by attending a hospital and brought the injured food, clothes, and other needs. Barton was a courageous woman and took her nursing to the in the battlefield hospital. She cooked food for soldiers, aiding the wounded, with the noise of gunfire outside. Barton later established the organization "American Red Cross."
  • Gettysburg Address

    Gettysburg Address
    The Gettysburg Address was a speech by Abraham Lincoln. In 1863, Lincoln gave respects to the fallen Union soldiers and inspired many with his speech. He believed all men were equal and that the living should not let the dead go in vain. Lincoln was not the main speaker of the ceremony, but his speech remained more memorable. Edward Everett, the featured speaker, later wrote to Lincoln about how great his speech was. The Gettysburg Address soon became the most famous speeches in U.S. history.
  • Lincoln's 10% Plan

    Lincoln's 10% Plan
    During the Civil War, Lincoln prepared for reconstruction between the North and South. He passed the Ten-Percent Plan, which stated that a southern state could rejoin the Union if ten percent of their voters pledged allegiance to the Union. He promised a full pardon for every southerner except Confederate generals and government officials. Many Republicans agreed with the plan because they wanted to end the war quick, or the North and the South would never have a chance to reunite.
  • Election of 1864

    Election of 1864
    Lincoln decided to run for president a second term, however the odds were stacked against him. He was criticized on how he handled the war, blaming him for recruiting incompetent generals and using terrible strategies. Lincoln was afraid he would lose the election as well. Northern Democrats also attacked Lincoln due to his wartime setbacks and nominated George McClellan. Eventually, Abraham Lincoln wins the Election of 1864 with a landslide in electoral college votes.
  • Wade-Davis Bill

    Wade-Davis Bill
    After Lincoln proposed the 10% Plan, which stated that 10% of Confederate voters had to pledge allegiance to the Union, Senator Benjamin F. Wade and Henry Winter Davis stated that it was too lenient and suggested that it should be raised to 50%. The Wade-Davis Bill also proposed that the states give African Americans the right to vote. However, Lincoln refused to sign it, which ended the bill in a pocket veto. When Lincoln was assassinated, the Congress passed the bill with harsher requirements.
  • Black Codes

    Black Codes
    Black Codes limited the civil rights and economic opportunities for African Americans. It was designed to allow Southerners use them for cheaper labor after slavery was abolished in the South. If blacks refused to sign labor contracts, they would either be arrested or fined. The Black Codes also outlawed interracial marriage and blacks serving on juries. It allowed the imprisonment of blacks for being homeless. They were then forced into labor to pay fines for being arrested.
  • 13th Amendment

    13th Amendment
    The 13th amendment was the law that abolished slavery once and for all, in the United States. It was passed by Lincoln and Radical Republicans before the war even ended. At first, Lincoln did not focus on freeing slaves and turned his attention elsewhere. Until 1862, Lincoln realized that helping free the slaves would help the Union defeat the Confederate army in the Civil War. He passed the Emancipation Proclamation in 1863, which freed the slaves in the states rebelling against the Union.
  • Carpetbaggers

    Carpetbaggers
    After the Civil War, Northerners came down to the South for economic opportunities during Reconstruction. They were known as "Carpetbaggers." Carpetbaggers exploited southerners and profited from them. The Scalawags were white southerners who collaborated with northern Republicans and were considered traitors by other southerners. Much like the Carpetbaggers, the Scalawags were in it for economic opportunity and realized it was the quickest way for economic improvement.
  • KKK

    KKK
    The Ku Klux Klan was a white resistance group that fought against equality of blacks. The group consisted of racist whites that threatened black and white Republican leaders. They launched an underground campaign that reversed Radical Reconstruction and tried to restore white supremacy. Carpetbaggers and Scalawags were also targets of this group. South Carolina was where the KKK had the most violence occurred. The government even had to step in and pass laws to stop the gang violence.
  • The Lost Cause

    The Lost Cause
    Many Confederates were mad about losing the Civil War and tried completely changing the history of the war. They argued that the Confederates died as heroes and were making themselves look brave. Southerners also blamed the fact that the Union had unfair advantages over the South, which is why they won. Statues of Confederate politicians and generals were created in honor of them and were very respected in the South. They tried to rewrite history because of their bitter loss.
  • Election of 1868

    Election of 1868
    The Election of 1868 was between Ulysses S. Grant and Horatio Seymour. Ulysses S. Grant was in favor of winning the election because of the fame and recognition he earned by defeating Robert E. Lee. However, Grant was criticized for being an alcoholic and for being an abolitionist. Eventually, Grant won with a landslide in electoral votes. The Election of 1868 also showed that whites in both the North and South were racist. Black votes became very important because of this election.
  • Temperance Movement

    Temperance Movement
    The Temperance Movement was the movement to abstain for alcohol. Too many people were heavily consuming alcohol and they drunk all day. Some Americans stopped drinking completely, but most of the temperance advocates just reduced their alcohol consumption. A group was also formed called the American Temperance Society, which helped many people moderate drinking. Many religious people thought this was an immoral act and helped others to stop because God would no longer bless them.
  • Sharecropping

    Sharecropping
    Sharecropping is when families pay their rent by farming crops and giving them to the landowner. It was mostly practiced by former slaves. The South's economy was in shambles after the Civil War because slavery was abolished. South depended heavily on slavery and did not have many industries. Cotton prices fell as well because it was being overproduced. Many newly freed slaves that practiced sharecropping went into debt and poverty because they could not keep up with the rent.
  • Period:
    1,900 BCE
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    1500

    Beginnings To Exploration

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    English Colonial Societies

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    Colonial to 1763

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    The Revolutionary War

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    The Constitution

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    New Republic

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    The Age of Jefferson

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    Age of Jackson

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    The American Industrial Revolution

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    Westward Expansion

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    Sectionalism

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    Cultural Changes

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    The Civil War

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    Reconstruction