Title IX of the Education Amendment of 1972 By C. H.

Timeline created by heathchantal@gmail.com
  • Title IX of the Education Amendment of 1972

    Title IX of the Education Amendment of 1972
    Bernice Sandler with Representatives Edith Green and Patsy Mink and Senator Birch Bayh helped with creating the 1972 Title IX legislation, which eliminated sex-based discrimination to ensure all students (both male and female) have access and equality in education. It offers a wide range of protections from athletics and admission to housing and sexual harassment.
  • The Women's Educational Equity Act (WEEA)

    The Women's Educational Equity Act (WEEA)
    The Women's Educational Equity Act (WEEA) program was enacted in 1974 to promote educational equity for girls and women, including those who suffer multiple discrimination based on gender and on race, ethnicity, national origin, disability, or age, and to provide funds to help education agencies and institutions meet the requirements of Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972.
  • Title IX issued in Athletics

    Title IX issued in Athletics
    Title IX federal regulations are issued in the area of athletics. High schools and colleges are given three years, and elementary schools one year, to comply.
  • Title IX Regulations Enforced

    Title IX Regulations Enforced
    President Gerald R. Ford approves Title IX's regulations which were finalized and enforced in July. Though the goal of Title IX was to eliminate gender discrimination by an institution receiving federal funds, the reform was now focused on the effect it had on collegiate sports. With the new regulations, funding for women's sports was to be of equal to that of men's sports
  • NCAA

    NCAA
    1976 the NCAA challenges the legality of Title IX.
  • Department of Education

    Department of Education
    Department of Education is established and given oversight of Title IX through the Office for Civil Rights
  • Grove City v. Bell

    Grove City v. Bell
    Grove City v. Bell limits the scope of Title IX, effectively taking away coverage of athletics except for athletic scholarships. The Supreme Court concludes that Title IX only applies to specific programs (i.e. Office of Student Financial Aid) that receive federal funds. Under this interpretation, athletic departments are not necessarily covered.
  • The Civil Rights Restoration Act

    The Civil Rights Restoration Act
    The Civil Rights Restoration Act of 1987 is enacted into law over the veto of President Ronald Reagan. This act reverses Grove City, restoring Title IX’s institution-wide coverage. If any program or activity in an educational institution receives federal funds, all of the institution’s programs and activities must comply with Title IX.
  • The Higher Education Reauthorization of 1992

    Under the Title IX Act, the Higher Education Reauthorization of 1992 requires campuses that participate in the programs of the Act to
    develop and distribute policies on preventing and dealing
    with sexual assault.
  • College Enrollment for Women Increased

    College Enrollment for Women Increased
    By 1994, the impact of Title IX had shown an increase in female college enrollment. According to Schenken (1999), 63 percent of female high school graduates were enrolled in college, as opposed to the 43 percent enrolled in 1973.
  • Gebser/Davis Framework

    Created from two separate lawsuits; Gebser v. Lago Vista Independent School District (1998) and Davis v. Monroe County Board of Education (1999). Title IX required that schools be held liable for monetary damages if a teacher sexually harasses a student, an official who has authority to address the harassment has actual knowledge of the harassment, and that official is deliberately indifferent in responding to the harassment.
  • Bullying

    Bullying
    In 1999, under Title IX Georgia implements an anti-bullying law. This meant that schools were required to actively participate in bullying prevention in the form of educational programs. While bullying has always been around, this was a huge step for the anti-bullying movement since it was the first event that involved associating bullying with criminality.
  • Patsy Mink (Renaming of Title IX)

    Patsy Mink (Renaming of Title IX)
    To honor Patsy Mink's influence on Title IX, President George W. Bush renamed the bill to the Patsy Mink Equal Opportunity in Education Act.
  • Transgender Rights Under Title IX

    Transgender Rights Under Title IX
    In 2016, a Dear Colleague Letter (DCL) on transgender rights, requiring schools to allocate access to sex-segregated facilities such as bathrooms, showers, and dorm rooms on the basis of students' gender identity rather than their biological sex under Title IX.
  • New 2020 Title IX Regulation Changes

    The 2020 regulations in the federal gender-equity law, will require colleges to hold live hearings and allow cross-examination when adjudicating sexual-misconduct complaints. The new regulations also will narrow the scope of complaints that colleges are required to investigate