Alaya J Timeline Project 1301

Timeline created by alayaanne
In History
  • 476

    The Dark Ages

    The Dark Ages
    The Dark Ages is basically the first part of the Middle Ages. After the fall of the Roman Empire, most of the Roman culture and knowledge was lost. This means their art, technology, engineering, and history. The time after the Romans is "dark" to historians because there was no central government recording events.
  • 1300

    The Renaissance

    The Renaissance
    The Renaissance was a transition from ancient world to modern and gave the foundation of the Age of Enlightenment. The developments in science, art, philosophy and trade, as well as technological advancements like the printing press, left lasting impressions on society and set the stage for many elements of our modern culture.
  • 1347

    The Black Death

    The Black Death
    The Black Death is the name for a super bad disease that spread throughout Europe from 1347 to 1350. There was no cure for the disease and it was super nasty contagious. The disease was carried by fleas that lived on rats. Historians think that black rats living on European merchant ships caught the disease, eventually bringing it to Europe.
  • 1492

    Christopher Columbus

    Christopher Columbus
    An Italian explorer, colonizer, and navigator. He is remembered as the number 1 European discoverer of the Americas and he helped bring the Americas to the rest of the world's attention. His discoveries and travels caused a system of colonization and imperialism and racism. Periodt.
  • 1492

    The Columbian exchange

    The Columbian exchange
    The Colombian Exchange was the exchange of goods, animals, technology, diseases and culture between Europe Americas. It's named after Christopher Columbus obviously, the explorer who got all the credit for discovering the Americas in 1492. A massive exchange of goods took place between the Europeans and Americas. The Colombian Exchange enabled cultural diffusion and globalization, influencing the future up until the present.
  • 1493

    Caribbean Colonies

    Caribbean Colonies
    Christopher Columbus landed in the Caribbean and claimed the region for Spain. The First Spanish settlements were established in the Caribbean starting in 1493.Such colonies spread throughout the Caribbean, from the Bahamas in the North West to Tobago in the South East. European imperialists waged war among themselves and with the Carib Indians. Spanish explorers wiped out the Taíno as they plundered the Caribbean for gold in the 16th century.
  • 1494

    Treaty of Tordesillas

    Treaty of Tordesillas
    The Treaty of Tordesillas neatly divided the “New World” of the Americas between the two superpowers. Spain and Portugal divided the New World by drawing a line in the Atlantic Ocean, about 370 leagues west of the Cape Verde Islands, then controlled by Portugal. All lands west of that line were claimed by Spain. Spain and Portugal adhered to the treaty without major conflict, and the results linger throughout the Americas today.
  • 1517

    Reformation

    Reformation
    The Protestant Reformation was the 16th-century religious, political, intellectual and cultural upheaval that splintered Catholic Europe, setting in place the structures and beliefs that would define the continent in the modern era. In northern and central Europe, reformers like Martin Luther, John Calvin and Henry VIII challenged papal authority and questioned the Catholic Church’s ability to define Christian practice. They argued for a religious and political redistribution of power
  • East India Company

    East India Company
    English and later British joint-stock company. The East India Company evolved from a small enterprise run by a group of City of London merchants, which in 1600 had been granted a royal charter conferring the monopoly of English trade in the whole of Asia and the Pacific.
  • Charter Colonies

    Charter Colonies
    Charter colony is one of three classes of colonial government established in the 17th century English colonies in North America, the other classes being proprietary colony and royal colony. These colonies were operated under a corporate charter given by the crown.In a charter colony, Britain granted a charter to the colonial government establishing the rules under which the colony was to be governed.
  • Massachusetts Bay Colony

    Massachusetts Bay Colony
    In 1628, a group of distinguished Puritan businessmen formed a venture named the Governor and Company of Massachusetts Bay, which was initially conceived as a profit-making endeavor in the New World. A land grant was received from the Council of New England, the successor to the ineffective Virginia Company of Plymouth, providing rights to the area between the Charles and Merrimack rivers and westward to the Pacific Ocean.
  • The Atlantic Slave Trade

    The Atlantic Slave Trade
    A segment of the global slave trade that transported between 10 million and 12 million enslaved Africans across the Atlantic Ocean to the Americas from the 16th to the 19th century. It was the second of three stages of the so-called triangular trade, in which arms, textiles, and wine were shipped from Europe to Africa, slaves from Africa to the Americas, and sugar and coffee from the Americas to Europe.
  • The Navigation Acts

    The Navigation Acts
    The Navigation Acts were a series of laws passed by the British Parliament that imposed restrictions on colonial trade. British economic policy was based on mercantilism, which aimed to use the American colonies to bolster British state power and finances. The Navigation Acts inflamed the hostilities of American colonists and proved a significant contributing event leading up to the revolution.
  • John Locke

    John Locke
    John Locke was an English philosopher who is considered to be one of the first philosophers of the Enlightenment and the father of classical liberalism. Locke rejects the idea of the divine right of kings, supports the idea of natural rights especially of property, and argues for a limited constitutional government which would protect individual rights.
  • The Glorious Revolution

    The Glorious Revolution
    The Glorious Revolution was when William of Orange took the English throne from James II in 1688. The event brought a permanent realignment of power within the English constitution. The new co-monarchy of King William III and Queen Mary II accepted more constraints from Parliament than previous monarchs had, and the new constitution created the expectation that future monarchs would also remain constrained by Parliament.
  • The Salem Witch Trials

    The Salem Witch Trials
    The Salem witch trials were a series of hearings and prosecutions of people accused of witchcraft in colonial Massachusetts between February 1692 and May 1693. More than 200 people were accused, nineteen of whom were found guilty and executed by hanging. It caused 19 convicted “witches” to be hanged and many other suspects to be imprisoned in Salem Village in the Massachusetts Bay Colony
  • Act of Union 1707

    Act of Union 1707
    The Acts of Union were two Acts of Parliament: the Union with Scotland Act 1706 passed by the Parliament of England, and the Union with England Act passed in 1707 by the Parliament of Scotland. They put into effect the terms of the Treaty of Union that had been agreed on 22 July 1706, following negotiation between commissioners representing the parliaments of the two countries. By the two Acts, the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland were United.
  • The Triangular Trade

    The Triangular Trade
    The Transatlantic Triangular Trade involved three journeys each with the promise of a large profit and a full cargo. In reality, the journey was more complicated with ships travelling from all over Europe carrying manufactured goods to different ports along the African coast to trade for slaves. The Triangular Slave Trade always began in West Africa, where slave ships acquired slaves to transport and sell in the New World.
  • The Middle Passage

    The Middle Passage
    The Middle Passage was the crossing from Africa to the Americas, which the ships made carrying their cargo of slaves. It was so-called because it was the middle section of the trade route taken by many of the ships. The Middle Passage took the enslaved Africans away from their homeland.The slaves were packed below the decks of the ship and taken to do labor work in the Americas.
  • French and Indian War

    French and Indian War
    The French and Indian War was the North American conflict in a larger imperial war between Great Britain and France known as the Seven Years’ War. The French and Indian War resulted from ongoing frontier tensions in North America as both French and British imperial officials and colonists sought to extend each country’s sphere of influence in frontier regions. In North America, the war pitted France, French colonists, and their Native allies against Great Britain
  • Treaty of Paris 1763

    Treaty of Paris 1763
    The Treaty of Paris, also known as the Treaty of 1763, was signed on 10 February 1763 by the kingdoms of Great Britain, France and Spain, with Portugal in agreement, after Great Britain's victory over France and Spain during the Seven Years' War. France gave up all its territories in mainland North America, effectively ending any foreign military threat to the British colonies there.
  • The Revenue Act

    The Revenue Act
    The Revenue Act of 1764, also known as the Sugar Act, was the first tax on the American colonies imposed by the British Parliament. Its purpose was to raise revenue through the colonial customs service and to give customs agents more power and latitude with respect to executing seizures and enforcing customs law. That the Act came externally rather than a colonial legislature alarmed a handful of colonial leaders in Boston who held that the Act violated their “British privileges”.
  • Secularism

    Secularism
    Any movement in society directed away from other worldliness to life on earth. In this time there was a strong tendency for religious persons to despise human affairs and to meditate on God and the afterlife. As a reaction to this medieval tendency, secularism, exhibited itself in the development of humanism, when people began to show more interest in human cultural achievements and the possibilities of their fulfillment in this world.
  • Boston Massacre

    Boston Massacre
    The Boston Massacre was a deadly riot that occurred, on King Street in Boston. It began as a street brawl between American colonists and a lone British soldier, but quickly escalated to a chaotic, bloody slaughter. The conflict energized anti-Britain sentiment and What became known as the Boston Massacre intensified anti-British sentiment and proved a pivotal event leading up to the American Revolution.
  • Prohibitory Act

    Prohibitory Act
    The Prohibitory Act was legislation passed by the British Parliament. It cut off all trade between the colonies and England, and removed the colonies from the King's Protection. In over six months before the Declaration of Independence, George III and Parliament had disbanded their relations with the colonies and proclaimed England to be at war with its former colonies. Many Americans believed that the king had given them no choice but to declare independence.
  • Olive Branch Petition

    Olive Branch Petition
    Continental Congress adopts the Olive Branch Petition, written by John Dickinson, which appeals directly to King George III and expresses hope for reconciliation between the colonies and Great Britain. Dickinson, who hoped desperately to avoid a final break with Britain, phrased colonial opposition to British policy. Congress attempted to notify the king that American colonists were unhappy with ministerial policy, not his own. But it was too late to apologize.
  • canals

    Canals, are human-made channels, or artificial waterways, for water conveyance, or to service water transport vehicles.
  • The Declaration of Independence

    The Declaration of Independence
    Throughout the 60's and early 70's, the American colonists found themselves increasingly at odds with British imperial policies regarding taxation and frontier policy. By issuing the Declaration of Independence, the 13 American colonies severed their political connections to Great Britain. The Declaration summarized the colonists’ motivations for seeking independence, declaring themselves an independent nation.
  • Battle of Saratoga

    Battle of Saratoga
    The Battle of Saratoga was a turning point in the American Revolution. On September 19th, British General John Burgoyne achieved a small, but costly victory over American forces led by Horatio Gates and Benedict Arnold. This battle was when France to entered the war against Britain, reinvigorating Washington's Continental Army and providing much needed supplies and support.
  • The Articles of Confederation

    The Articles of Confederation
    The first written constitution of the United States. Under these articles, the states remained sovereign and independent, with Congress serving as the last resort on appeal of disputes. Congress was also given the authority to make treaties and alliances, maintain armed forces and coin money. However, the central government lacked the ability to levy taxes and regulate commerce, issues that led to the Constitutional Convention in 1787 for the creation of new federal laws.
  • Northwest Ordinance

    Northwest Ordinance
    Indicated the western lands north of the Ohio River, west of the Alleghenies, and east of the Mississippi River would be settled and become states on a par with existing ones. No fewer than three, or more than five, states would be formed. Admission to the Union would be available when the number of free inhabitants reached 60,000. The ordinance spurred the westward movement of American settlers
  • Shay’s Rebellion

    Shay’s Rebellion
    Shays’ Rebellion was a series of violent attacks on courthouses and other government properties in Massachusetts. The rebels were farmers who opposed state economic policies causing poverty and property foreclosures. The rebellion was named after Daniel Shays, a farmer and former soldier who fought at Bunker Hill and was one of several leaders of the insurrection.
  • Virginia Plan

    Virginia Plan
    Based on a national and state government system with a Separation of Powers consisting of legislative, executive, and judicial branches. A bicameral legislature (two houses) consisting of the House of Representatives and the Senate would feature proportional representation.
  • New Jersey Plan

    New Jersey Plan
    Proposal by William Paterson at the Constitutional Convention. The plan was created in response to the Virginia Plan, which called for two houses of Congress, both elected with apportionment according to population. The less populous states were opposed to giving most control of the national government to the more populous states, and proposed an alternative plan that would have kept the one-vote-per-state representation under one legislative body from the Articles of Confederation.
  • The Great Compromise

    The Great Compromise
    agreement between states with large and small populations that defined the structure of Congress and the number of representatives each state would have in Congress according to the United States Constitution. Congress would be a “bicameral” or two-chambered body, with each state getting a number of representatives in the lower chamber (the House) proportional to its population and two representatives in the upper chamber (the Senate).
  • Federalist Papers

    Federalist Papers
    The Federalist Papers was a collection of essays written by John Jay, James Madison, and Alexander Hamilton in 1788.
    The essays urged the ratification of the United States Constitution, which had been debated and drafted at the Constitutional Convention
  • Election of 1788

    Election of 1788
    On this day America’s first presidential election is held. Voters cast ballots to choose state electors; only white men who owned property were allowed to vote. As expected, George Washington won the election and was sworn into office on April 30, 1789. It was conducted under the new United States Constitution.
  • Bill of Rights

    Bill of Rights
    The first 10 amendments to the Constitution make up the Bill of Rights. James Madison wrote the amendments, which list specific prohibitions on governmental power, in response to calls from several states for greater constitutional protection for individual liberties. Anti-Federalists had problem with the Constitution’s lack of a bill of rights that would place specific limits on government power.
  • telegraph

    messages without the physical exchange of an object bearing the message. Thus semaphore is a method of telegraphy, whereas pigeon post is not.
  • cotton gin

    a machine that quickly and easily separates cotton fibers from their seeds, enabling much greater productivity than manual cotton separation.The fibers are then processed into various cotton goods such as linens, while any undamaged cotton is used largely for textiles like clothing. The separated seeds may be used to grow more cotton or to produce cottonseed oil.
  • Washington’s Farewell Address

    Washington’s Farewell Address
    Towards the end of Washington's second term as president, he wrote a letter to his "friends and fellow citizens" In the letter he stated a few guiding principals he hoped his successors would follow to ensure the success of the new country. He mainly addressed foreign relations, stating that it is best to stay neutral and not form any permanent alliances. He addressed the issue of political parties, and that they shouldn't be formed either.
  • XYZ Affair

    XYZ Affair
    A diplomatic incident that occurred between the United States and France. In order to avoid war with Great Britain, the U.S. signed the Jay Treaty in 1795. The treaty basically said we could not trade with countries that are at odds with Great Britain and that obviously included France considering they were at a whole war sis. France got big jealous and started seizing U.S. ships. Then when we said something, they tried to bribe us and we was not having that. Period!
  • Kentucky Resolutions

    Kentucky Resolutions
    The Kentucky Resolutions were written by James Madison and Thomas Jefferson in opposition to the Alien and Sedition Acts. These acts were enacted by the federalists who were largely in control at the beginning years of the country. Madison and Jefferson believed these act were unconstitutional and states had the power to decide whether their rights were being violated.
  • Judiciary Act 1801

    Judiciary Act 1801
    The Judiciary Act of 1801 created six distinct judicial circuits in order to increase the power of the judiciary. It also created three judgeships for the five circuits east of the Appalachian mountains. It abolished the practice of "riding circuit" for the Justices of the Supreme Court, since new judges presided over the courts. These appointments were challenged in the Supreme Court case Marbury versus Madison.
  • Marbury v. Madison

    Marbury v. Madison
    Right before Adams gave up office to Thomas Jefferson, he appointed 16 judgeships. The problem is Adams and Jefferson are apart of opposing political parties and the judgeships would have only caused trouble for Jefferson. So Jefferson told his secretary of state, James Madison, "just throw em all away" so he did and Marbury was one of the judges and he got super pissed that he didn't get his judgeship and he was not having that so he went to the supreme court and we got this case. He lost...
  • Louisiana Purchase

    Louisiana Purchase
    The United States bought the Louisiana Territory from France in 1803. This purchase gained the U.S. about 828,000,000 meaning it just about doubled the size of what we were before. Dope AF if ya ask me. It went all the way from the Mississippi River in the east to the Rocky Mountains in the west and from the Gulf of Mexico in the south to the Canadian border in the north.
  • Lewis and Clark

    Lewis and Clark
    We had just bought the Louisiana Territory and we didn't even know what was up with it. So Jefferson told Lewis to go on a real long expedition to check it out. So Lewis was like cool and he took his homeboy Clark, a Indian baddie named Sacajawea, and a slave. The journey lasted like 2 years. They got into fights with other Indians and that wasn't fun but it happened. Long story short, it was super tough but they eventually made it and wrote all about it. They even discovered new animals dog.
  • iron plow

    Jethro Wood was the inventor of a cast-iron moldboard plow with replaceable parts, the first commercially successful iron moldboard plow. His invention accelerated the development of American agriculture in the antebellum period.
  • Hartford Convention

    Hartford Convention
    A secret meeting in Hartford, of Federalist delegates who were upset with President James Madison’s mercantile policies and the progress of the War of 1812. As well as mad over the balance of political power that gave the South, mainly Virginia, effective control of the national government. The convention adopted a strong states rights position and expressed its grievances in a series of resolutions against military conscription and commercial regulations that were agreed to on January 4, 1815.
  • McCulloch v. Maryland'

    McCulloch v. Maryland'
    The supreme court ruled that congress had implied powers under the necessary and proper clause in the constitution to create the second bank of the united states and that the state of Maryland lacked the power to tax the bank.
  • Panic of 1819

    Panic of 1819
    The impressive post-War of 1812 economic expansion ended. Banks throughout the country failed; mortgages were foreclosed, forcing people out of their homes and off their farms. Falling prices impaired agriculture and manufacturing, triggering widespread unemployment. All regions of the country were impacted and prosperity did not return until 1824.
  • Monroe Doctrine

    Monroe Doctrine
    James Monroe had to let everybody in Europe that they can't comer over here trying to take stuff that doesn't belong to them like they always do. The Monroe Doctrine basically stated that we would not be allowing any European nations come to the American continent in efforts to colonize. He said "American continents are no longer subjects of any new European colonial establishments" PERIODT...
  • railroads

    a means of transferring of passengers and good. It is also commonly referred to as train transport. rail vehicles are directionally guided by the tracks on which they run. Tracks usually consist of steel rails, installed on ties and ballast, on which the rolling stock, usually fitted with metal wheels, moves.
  • 40 Acres and a Mule

    40 Acres and a Mule
    What was reserved for slaves when they became free was forty acres and a mule. After being falsely promising to after the Civil War, African Americans did not get forty acres of land and a mule to help them farm on this acquired land. Instead, African Americans suffered economic hardships and they were left with the land that whites no longer wanted and abandoned. The Freedmen's Bureau helped blacks with their situation after Lincoln confiscated 20,000 acres of South Carolina land to give them
  • Freedmen's Bureau

    Freedmen's Bureau
    In efforts to help and encourage the Freedmen, who were once slaves, to achieve economic stability and enhance their political freedoms. Although the ideology of white supremacy was still high in the South and to President Andrew Jackson, the Freedmen's Bureau had several enemies. This lead to the failure of the Bureau, many groups and people were against it. For example, the KKK. The Freedmen's Bureau was created by the Congress in March 1865 and is known as Bureau of Refugees
  • Black Codes

    Black Codes
    The Black Codes were put in as laws by the South to discriminate against blacks who were now considered free. To keep white supremacy intact, the Black Codes were laws that deprived African Americans of their civil rights and economic opportunities. These laws exploited African Americans to the workforce, enforcing apprenticeship for males younger than 25 years old including children. Also outlawing interracial marriage and their ability to serve in court juries.
  • Assassination of Lincoln

    Assassination of Lincoln
    Shortly after the Civil War was over and the Union declared victory, Abraham Lincoln attended a play at Ford's Theater. While watching a play called "Our American Cousin" which was a comedy that was that imitated how the British think Americans are. John Wilkes Booth, an actress from the play and pro-slavery advocate who was angry about the war, shot Lincoln in the back of the head. Booth was found and killed but Lincoln died the day after. Lincoln's body was placed in a tomb and embalmed.
  • White resistance

    White resistance
    The all-time high in white supremacy right after the Civil War emerged from angry people who wanted to continue treating slaves with disrespect and like animals. In efforts to resent black rights, the KKK was created, men who dressed with white blankets and cone-shaped coverings on their heads calling themselves white knights or its official name the White Knights of the Ku Klux Klan. There was also other groups like the White Brotherhood and the White League.
  • Andrew Johnson Administration

    Andrew Johnson Administration
    Andrew Johnson, the Vice President of Abraham Lincoln took control as President after Lincoln was assassinated. Johnson was a very racist man who did not care that he was. He allowed racist farmers to take an oath to promote the lenient readmission policy that opposed secession. So Johnson allowed them to have their land back as long as they pledged the oath. During this time, the 13th amendment was ratified and he pardoned high-ranking Confederate officials. Impeachment was a popular topic.
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    30,000 BCE
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    BEGINNINGS TO EXPLORATION

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    1492
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    BEGINNINGS TO EXPLORATION

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    ENGLISH COLONIAL SOCIETIES

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    ENGLISH COLONIAL SOCIETIES

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    Colonial America

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    The Revolutionary War

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    THE CONSTITUTION

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    NEW REPUBLIC

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    The American Industrial Revolution

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    THE AGE OF JEFFERSON

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    WESTWARD EXPANSION

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    AGE OF JACKSON

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    CULTURAL CHANGES

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    SECTIONALISM

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    THE CIVIL WAR

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    RECONSTRUCTION