Survey Timeline

Timeline created by jainareanne
In Music
  • 1430

    1430- 1600 The Renaissance

    1430- 1600 The Renaissance
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    History of the Renaissance

    -it was the rebirth of the arts and sciences from the antiquity
    -emphasized humanism - an intellectual and cultural movement that explored interests and values through science, art, and vocal music
    -encouraged individuality and human reasoning
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    Music of the Renaissance

    -Split in the church because of the Protestant Reformation caused music to split between religions as well
    -Musicians were forced to compose for whichever religion the ruler of their country practiced
    -Growth in music because of the overall economic growth of countries
    -Humanism and focus on the individual made music more personal and emotional
    -Music began to revolve around characters
    -Printing music became more available and accessible
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    "The Cricket" Prez (1450-1521) in 1500

    -Composed by Josquin des Prez in 1500
    -Polyphony is four voices of equal importance
    -Used Motets
    -Used Chansons are secular polyphonic songs, often with French texts.
    -Ternary form (ABA)
    -Word painting is when you illustrate words and phrases through music that reflects its meaning
    -This is when you project the meaning of the text
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    Christopher Columbus voyages to the New World

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    Leonardo da Vinci paints the Mona Lisa

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    Michelangelo paints the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel

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    Pope Marcellus Mass “Gloria" Palestrina (1526-1594) in 1555

    -Composed by Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina in 1555
    -Catholic composer
    -Worked in the Vatican and elsewhere
    -Establish polyphony in the church
    -Uses elided cadences it uses some voices cadence while other voices continue
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    "Sing Joyfully" Byrd (1542-1623) in 1590

    -The greatest English composer of all time
    -Composed by William Byrd in 1590
    - From the Book of Psalms
    -A Capella - sung without instrumental accompaniment
    -Imitative counterpoint is when one voice introduces a new theme and is imitated by other voices that enter in succession.
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    "Orpheus" by Claudio Monteverdi (1567-1643) in 1607

    -Italian opera composed by Claudio Monteverdi (1567-1643) in 1607
    -Usually performed for royal courts in small spaces for a small audience
    -Focus on understanding and projecting of text and drama
    -Homophony - melody performed with supporting accompaniment
    -Basso continuo - a small ensemble that accompanies the singer with bassline and harmonies
    -Recitative - between lyrical song and speech
    -polyphonic texture
  • 1600-1750 The Baroque Era

    1600-1750 The Baroque Era
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    History and Music in the Baroque Era

    -The era of extravagant and bizarre music and art
    -Age of energy and emotion, ornamentation, extremes, and contrast
    -Affect is an expression of one emotion
    -The emergence of new and more complex musical ideas:
    Opera - drama was sung from beginning to end
    -Virtuoso singers and instrumentalists were very popular
    -Homophony is one voice of more importance
    -Dissonance was used more
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    1600 to 1640 Early Baroque

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    First American Colony, Jamestown, is established

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    Pilgrims arrive in Plymouth, Massachusetts

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    1640 to 1690 Middle Baroque

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    "Dido and Aeneas" by Henry Purcell (1659-1685) in 1689

    -English opera composed by Henry Purcell in 1689
    Based on Roman myth:
    -Dido and Aeneas fall in love, but the gods order Aeneas to leave, and Dido soon dies
    -Utilized many common aspects of opera
    Overture is a purely instrumental opening movement that introduces a longer work
    Aria is a lyrical movement or piece for solo voice
    Ostinato is a short pattern of notes repeated over and over
    Ground bass is an ostinato in the bass part
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    "Brandenburg Concerto No. 2 in F Major" by Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) in 1720

    -Composed by Johann Sebastian Bach in 1720
    -Features trumpet, oboe, violin, and recorder with string orchestra
    -Fugue - central theme is introduced and then imitated by subsequent voices; famously associated with Bach
    -Fugal exposition - exposes the theme in each of the solo instruments in turn
    -Episode - subject does not appear at all – where all instruments play
    -Terraced dynamics - jumps in dynamics with no transition
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    "Messiah" by George Frideric Handel (1685-1759) in 1747

    Composed by George Frideric Handel in 1747
    Oratorio - musical work similar to an opera but not staged and usually on a sacred topic
    Used as a replacement for opera around religious holidays
    One of the most famous and well-known works ever written
    Especially the Hallelujah Chorus
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    The "Glorious Revolution" brings William and Mary to power in England

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    1690 to 1750 Late Baroque

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    "String Quartet in C Major, op. 76, no. 3" by Joseph Haydn (1732-1809) in 1797

    -Composed by Joseph Haydn (1732-1809) in 1797
    -Known as the father of classical music
    -String quartet is two violins, a viola, a cello
    -Melody comes from a birthday song for the Holy Roman Emperor
    -Eventually becomes the unofficial national anthem for Germany/Austria
    Theme and variations form - the theme is presented and then altered in some way in a succession of individual variations
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    "Chester" by William Billings (1746-1800) in 1770

    -Composed by William Billings in 1770
    -The unofficial anthem of the American Revolution
    -Periodic phrase structure - musical structure in which antecedent and consequent phrase units make up a larger whole
    -Follows conventions of the hymn: four voices move in the same rhythm
  • 1750-1800 The Classical Era

    1750-1800 The Classical Era
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    History of the Classical Era

    -Enlightenment is an age of splendor and freeing humanity from dark superstitions
    -More science, less drama, more critical thinking
    -Focus on more realistic and everyday themes in music
    -Opera buffa is a comic opera very similar to an opera seria but with plots revolving around believable, everyday characters
    -National independence and democracy became important
    -National revolutions were occurring (America and France)
    -Public concerts and theater events were increasingly common
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    Music of the Classical Era

    -Reflected social and political movements of the time
    -More tuneful, less complicated
    -Natural and spontaneous while still observing counterpoint
    -More homophony and less polyphony
    -Important musical forms and creations emerged
    Sonata form
    -String quartet
    -Opera was the most popular music of the time
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    Piano Concerto in A Major K. 488 by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart in (1756-1791) in 1786

    -Composed by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791) in 1786
    -Piano prodigy
    -Double-exposition concerto form is a structure based on sonata form but with two expositions, one for orchestra alone and one for the soloist and orchestra together
    -Cadenza in a concerto, elaborate improvisation by a soloist on themes heard earlier in movement with no orchestral accompaniment
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    Marriage of Figaro, Act 1, “Cosa sento” by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791) in 1786

    -Composed by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791) in 1786
    -Opera buffa
    -The plot surrounds the crazy love lives of a Count, Countess, and various other characters
    -Similar to rondo form
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    "Symphony no. 5 in C Minor, op. 67" by Ludwig Beethoven (1770-1827) in 1808

    -Composed by Ludwig van Beethoven in 1808
    -He lost his hearing mid-way through his career
    -An extremely well-known theme and is repeated and varied throughout the piece
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    1775-1781 American Revolution

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    French Revolution 1789

  • 1800 - 1900 The Romantic Era

    1800 - 1900 The Romantic Era
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    History and Music of the Romantic Era

    -Pianos started to become common household items
    -Nationalism- composers wrote in characteristic rhythmic and melodic elements and language of a group of people
    -Transportation allowed musicians to easily travel and share music
    -Composers worked to find the original sound that made them unique
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    Napoleon crowns himself Emperor of France

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    Napoleon crowns himself Emperor of France

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    "Mazurka in Bb Major, op. 7, no. 1" by Frédéric Chopin (1809-1849) in the 1830s

    -Composed by Frédéric Chopin in the 1830s
    -French and Polish composer
    -Polish folk dance
    -Character piece - relatively short works that capture a particular mood
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    The Valkyrie, Act III, “Wotan’s Farewell” by Richard Wagner (1813-1883) in 1856

    -Composed by Richard Wagner in 1856
    -Progressive composer musically, socially, and politically
    -Based on Norse mythology
    -He tended to make his vocal writing more syllabic
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    American Civil War

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    "Symphony no. 4 in E Minor, op. 98, finale" by Johannes Brahms (1833-1897) in 1885

    -Composed by Johannes Brahms in 1885
    -Under a great deal of pressure to be a great composer
    -Able to convey many emotions through the piece
    -Ternary form
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    "The Rite of Spring" by Igor Stravinsky (1882-1971) in 1913

    -Began career at the forefront of Neoclassicism - revival of classical style
    -Career became more modern and used 12-tone scale
    -Commissioned for the Russian Ballet
    -Polytonal - the juxtaposition of two conventional harmonies in a way that creates new dissonance
    -Uses the pentatonic scale
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    "Cotton Tailby by Duke Ellington (1899-1974) in 1940

    -Referred to as the greatest American jazz composer
    -The style evolved from other styles of music
    -Uses syncopation and swing rhythms
    -Rhythm changes pattern
    -Circle of fifths progression
    -The downward-moving chromatic bass line
    -Call-and-Response pattern
  • Post 1900s Music

    Post 1900s Music
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    History and Music of the 20th and 21st Centuries

    -Gave listener options as to genres of music (classical, ragtime, jazz, etc.)
    -Incredibly surprising ways of expressing the music that shocked the public
    -People are now able to listen to whatever type of music they want whenever they want
    -Music with roots in African American culture helped to bridge the divide between whites and blacks
    -Easy communication and transportation allowed composers to draw inspiration from different part of the world
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    "Voiles" by Claude Debussy (1862-1918) in 1910

    -The first great composer of the 20th Century
    -Associated with impressionism and pushing the boundaries of music
    -The ambiguity of the meaning of the piece left it up to the audience to interpret
    -Uses fragments of themes throughout without ever sounding like a true melody
    -Little sense of fixed meter
    -Uses a whole-tone scale where all notes are of equal importance
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    "Sonata II from Sonatas and Interludes" by John Cage (1912-1992) in 1946-1948

    -20 pieces for "prepared piano"
    -Periodic phrase structure
    -Binary form
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    World War 1

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    "Tonight" from West Side Story by Leonard Bernstein in 1957

    -Musical - spoken drama with a significant amount of singing
    -Tells a modern tale of Romeo and Juliet
    -Two fighting gangs and a man and woman from opposite gangs fall in love
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    Women win the right to vote!

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    "School Day" by Chuck Berry in 1957

    -Helped generate the genre of rock n' roll
    -Shuffle groove - mid-tempo rhythmic pattern, typically in quadruple meter subdivided into three pulses
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    World War II

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    "Hoe-Down" from Rodeo by Aaron Copland (1900-1990) in 1942

    -Written to be choreographed and performed
    -Uses a traditional fiddle
    -Rondo form
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    "The Walls Converge" from Star Wars

    Composed by John Williams (1932-present) in 1977
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    "Signs O' The Times"

    -Composed by Prince (1958-2016) in 1987