Post-Romanticism, 1890-1930

Timeline created by caroline.rollwitz
In History
  • Classical Ballet

    Ballet grew to mean "classical ballet" during the Post-Romantic and 20th century eras.
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    Gustav Mahler

    Gustav Mahler, an Austrian composer, was born in 1860 and died in 1911. Some of his orchestral works can be considered maximalism. He composed 5 orchestral song cycles, 10 programmatic symphonies, Lieder, and chamber music. He was also a conductor in both Europe and the United States of America.
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    Claude Debussy

    Claude Debussy, a French Composer, was born in 1862 and died in 1918. Debussy introduced impressionism despite hating the term. He mainly composed piano works but also composed chamber music, tone poems, stage works, and other songs. Being the influence for impressionism, he has also influences many modern composers.
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    Frederick Delius

    Delius, an English composer, was born in 1862 and died in 1934. He used impressionism in his orchestral, chamber, choral, and stage works. He also used it in his songs.
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    Richard Strauss

    Richard Strauss, a German composer, was born in 1864 and died in 1949. Although not technically associated with maximalism, his works embodied qualities of the style. He is famous for his tone poems and modern operas. He wrote 15 operas and 150 Lieder. He also did other stage works. As well as vocal pieces, he composed orchestral, chamber, and piano works. He was also a conductor.
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    Erik Satie

    Satie, a French composer, was born in 1866 and died in 1925. While he wasn't strictly an impressionist, he lead aesthetics that would built impressionism.
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    Arnold Schoenberg

    Schoenberg, an Austrian composer, was born in 1874 and died in 1951. He is considered a major influence to the beginnings of expressionism. Schoenberg was also Webern and Berg's teacher. One important element Schoenberg introduced was 12-tone music. Along with this, he composed opera, choral, symphony, song, piano, and canon works. He also wrote.
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    Anton von Webern

    Webern, an Austrian composer, was born in 1883 and died in 1945. He was a student of Schoenberg. Webern used pointillism in his compositions.He wrote many orchestral pieces including symphonies and chamber music. He also composed choral music and songs.
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    Alban Berg

    Beg, and Austrian composer, was born in 1885 and died in 1935. He was a student of Schoenberg. His music focused on being atonal. Atonality was a big element in the expressionism movement. Berg wrote operas and songs. He also composed orchestral, chamber, and concerto works.
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    Nadia Boulanger

    Boulanger, a French composer, was born in 1887 and died in 1979. Born in the beginnings of the impressionism movement, she was a teacher to many future 20th century composers. She was most notable for teaching American composers in the first half of the 20th century.
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    Maximalism

    Maximalism was one of the first modern styles in the post-romanticism movement. Musical elements began to be tested. The main aspect of maximalism was to push music to the max. Composers would expand genres, forms, and how music exists. Some historians put composers like Mahler and Strauss with maximalism due to lack of categories for their musical works. Themes and motifs became important parts of maximalism. The orchestration of pieces leaned to orchestra.
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    Impressionism

    The main composer who introduce impressionism was Claude Debussy. Impressionism tended to abandon traditional elements of music. A largely abandoned element was the use of a traditional chord progression in a sense where all chords were treated equally. Melody was also an important aspect of impressionism in the sense that a melody could be placed anywhere and didn't have to follow traditional uses. Anything in impressionistic pieces could be seen as vague. Although vague, harmonies were tonal.
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    Expressionism

    Expressionism began around 1910 and ended around 1930 with the influences of Arnold Schoenberg. An important shift in this style is the use of all 12 notes in a scale are considered equal. Tonality was abandoned. Traditional elements were left behind. Emotional expression was what composers to achieve. Rhythm, form, and timbre remained almost traditional. A different way of singing, Sprechstimme, was introduced by Schoenberg and Alban Berg. 12-tone music was also introduced during this time.
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    World War I

    World War I began in 1914 and lasted until 1918. This war took place globally and included many countries.
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    Women's Suffrage

    During this time, women in America fought, and won, the right to vote. This gave them political equality with men.
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    Maurice Ravel

    Ravel, a French composer, was born in 1875 and died in 1937. He focused his innovation on piano styles. His works were very versatile. He is known for ballets, operas, vocal, orchestral, and piano works.