ORIGIN AND EVOLUTION OF THE COMPUTER

Timeline created by yoshua05
  • -500 BCE

    500 BC: ABACUS

    500 BC: ABACUS
    The first mechanical-type calculator was devised in Babylon around 500 B.C. This mechanical device called abacus consisted of a system of bars and pulleys with which different types of arithmetic calculations could be carried out.
  • 1622: Oughtred introduces the slide rule

    1622: Oughtred introduces the slide rule
    Around 1622, the English mathematician William Oughtred used the newly invented logarithms to make a device that simplified multiplication and division. It consisted of two joined graduated rulers sliding one over the other.
  • 1642: First adding machine

    1642: First adding machine
    The French mathematician and philosopher Blaise Pascal was 19 years old when he built the world's first adding machine in 1642. He used cogwheel gear as counters. The device carried 1 automatically when reaching the tens and could also be used to subtract.
  • 1834: First programmable digital computer

    1834: First programmable digital computer
    In 1834 the English scientist and inventor Charles Babbage made the schematics of a device which he called the analytical engine, which was actually a general purpose computer. This machine was programmed by a series of punched cards that contained data or instructions which passed through a reading device, were stored in a memory and the results were reproduced by molds. This machine far exceeded the technology of its time and was never finished.
  • 1850: First keyboard adder

    1850: First keyboard adder
    The keyboard appeared on a machine invented in the United States in 1850. A sequence of digits could be added by pressing successive keys. Each key raised a vertical axis to a certain height and the sum was indicated by the total height.
  • First generation: C. 1940 - 1955

    First generation: C. 1940 - 1955
    Physical endowment
    Empty tubes
    Magnetic drums
    Magnetic tape (near the end of the build)
    Logic software
    Computer terminology programs
    Assembly language programs (near the end of generation)
  • Second generation: C. 1955 - 1964

    Second generation: C. 1955 - 1964
    Physical endowment
    Transistors
    1947 - Converted
    1955 - IBM's Transistor Calculator
    Minicomputers
    Magnetic discs
    Printed circuit boards
    Logic software
    High-level languages
    1956 - FORTRAN
    1959 - COBOL
    Special Machines
    1963 - PDP 8 (1st minicomputer)
  • Third generation: C. 1964 - 1971

    Third generation: C. 1964 - 1971
    Physical endowment
    Integrated circuits (c. Developed 1958)
    Computer families (1964 - IBM 360)
    1970 - Floppy disk
    Logic software
    Programs went directly into computers
    Higher level languages ​​(1965 - BASIC)
    Operating systems
    Timesharing
    Special Machines
    1964 - IBM System 360 Series (1st Family of Computers)
  • Fourth generation: C. 1971 - PRESENT

    Fourth generation: C. 1971 - PRESENT
    Physical endowment
    1971 - Microprocessor chip introduced in the US by Intel
    Microcomputers (Personal Computers)
    Large Scale Integration (LSI)
    Very Large Scale Integration (Vlsi)
    Logic software
    Structured programming
    Application sets
    Windowing systems (graphical user interfaces - GUIs)
    Convivial programs
    Special Machines
    1971 - (1st pocket calculator)
    1975 - Altaír 8800 (1st PC)
    1977 - Apple I (do it yourself kit)
    1978 - Apple II (pre-assembled)
    1981 - IBM PC
    1984 - Waterproof
  • Future evolution

     Future evolution
    A constant trend in the development of computers is microminiaturization, an initiative that tends to compress more circuit elements into an increasingly smaller chip space. In addition, the researchers are trying to speed up the operation of circuits by using superconductivity, a phenomenon of decreased electrical resistance that is observed when objects are cooled to very low temperatures.