Mussolini Timeline - Zariya O'Neal

Timeline created by zariya
In History
  • Formation of an independent Italy

    Formation of an independent Italy
    Italian unification, or Risorgimento, was the political/social movement in the 19th century that consolidated different states of the Italian peninsula into the single state of the Kingdom of Italy in 1861. This is significant because the overly liberal takeover of the newly independent Italy was one of the key factors in Mussolini’s success. This image is significant as it demonstrates how the Italian state was split up before unification and when each section joined Italy.
  • Papal States Taken Over by the New Nation of Italy

    Papal States Taken Over by the New Nation of Italy
    By 1861, much of the Papal States' territory had been conquered by the Kingdom of Italy. Only Lazio, including Rome, remained under the pope's control until 1870. This is significant because in 1929 Mussolini ended the crisis between unified Italy and the Holy See by negotiating the Lateran Treaty, signed by the two parties. This image is significant as it shows which parts of Italy were considered to be a part of the Papal state.
  • Failure of First Italo-Ethiopian War with the Battle of Adowa (Adwa)

    Failure of First Italo-Ethiopian War with the Battle of Adowa (Adwa)
    The First Italo-Ethiopian War was fought between Italy and Ethiopia (supported by Russia and France). It originated from the disputed Treaty of Wuchale which, supposedly, turned the country into an Italian protectorate. Italian defeat came about after the Battle of Adwa, where the Ethiopian army dealt the heavily outnumbered Italians. This image is significant as it shows the sophisticated weapons that the Ethiopians were supplied with.
  • Italy invades and takes over Libya

    Italy invades and takes over Libya
    The Invasion of Libya by Italy happened in 1911 when Italian troops invaded the Turkish province of Libya (then part of the Ottoman Empire) and started the Italo-Turkish War. As a result, Italian Tripolitania and Italian Cyrenaica were established, later unified in the colony of Italian Libya. This image is significant as it demonstrates which parts of Libya the Italians took over and where they were in regards to the Ottoman Empire.
  • Mussolini begins work as editor for the Socialist Party newspaper Avanti

    Mussolini begins work as editor for the Socialist Party newspaper Avanti
    Mussolini began to edit the Socialist Party newspaper Avanti after he was let out of jail for his activism against the war. The stories published were encouraging of a revolution against the liberal state. This image is significant as it gives an example of the types of articles that Avanti would publish.
  • Mussolini kicked out of Socialist Party for pro-nationalistic sentiments regarding WWI

    Mussolini kicked out of Socialist Party for pro-nationalistic sentiments regarding WWI
    Avanti! supported absolute during WWI. Benito Mussolini pushed the socialist newspaper into an interventionist campaign with his articles as director. The new interventionist newspaper of Mussolini, Il Popolo d'Italia, would be published on 15 Nov 1914, with syndicalists and dissidents from the Socialist Party. On 23 November, Mussolini was expelled from the Socialist Party. This picture is significant as it illustrates the types of articles that were published in this newspaper.
  • Treaty of London

    Treaty of London
    The Treaty of London was a secret treaty between the Triple Entente and Italy. Its intent was to have Italy break away from the Triple Alliance and to switch its allegiance to the Triple Entente. Italy was promised large amounts of Austria-Hungary to the north of Italy and to the east across the Adriatic and funding by Britain. This image is significant as it shows the amount of land promised to Italy in the Treaty of London, which impacted their decision on which side they fought on.
  • D'Annunzio takes Fiume

    D'Annunzio takes Fiume
    Gabriele D’Annunzio led 2000 armed men to Fiume and ruled it for 15 months in open defiance of the Italian govt. and its allies. This inspired Mussolini and led to him adopting theatrical trappings used by D’Annunzio. This image is significant as it shows where Fiume was in comparison to the Italian border.
  • Beginning of Biennio Rosso

    Beginning of Biennio Rosso
    The beginning of Bienno Rosso happened as a result of a rise in unemployment (2mil) which caused workers to begin military action. There were strikes at factories and land occupations that were organized by trade unions and peasant leagues. These strikes included over one million workers. This image is significant because it demonstrates the violence that went on during this time.
  • Fascio di Combattimento formed in Milan

    Fascio di Combattimento formed in Milan
    In March 1919, Mussolini tried to bring Arditi groups together and on March 23rd, 118 members met in Milan (and fascio di combattimento). They became known as the fascists of the first hour and intended to bring together socialists and nationalists.
  • Mussolini Forms Alliance With Giolitti

    Mussolini Forms Alliance With Giolitti
    After Mussolini assured liberal politicians in private that talk of a fascist revolution was not serious, Giolitti offered the fascists an electoral alliance. This alliance was intended to prevent a socialist win for the May 1921 elections. The socialists were still the largest party, but the fascists got 35 seats increasing fascist respectability in Italian politics. This image is significant as it showcases people’s feelings towards Giolitti.
  • Mussolini forms the PNF (Fascist Party) and is elected its leader

    Mussolini forms the PNF (Fascist Party) and is elected its leader
    Mussolini persuaded members of Fasci di Combattimento to reform into the PNF. In November 1921, he was able to persuade the Fascist National Congress to elect him leader. In return, Mussolini agreed to end the truce with socialists. The local ras still had some influence, but Mussolini could now present himself as a leader, which played a crucial role in his overall success. This image is significant as it shows how an axe was used as the party’s symbol, emphasizing their violent nature.
  • March on Rome and Mussolini becomes Prime Minister

    March on Rome and Mussolini becomes Prime Minister
    During the March on Rome an organized mass demonstration to seize control of major cities, the existing prime minister Luigi Facta wished to declare a state of siege and have Mussolini arrested, but this was overruled by King Victor Emmanuel III. Mussolini convinced the King to appoint him as Prime Minister. This gave Mussolini real authority in Italian politics contributing to his success. This image is significant as it shows Mussolini and the Blackshirts during the march.
  • Acerbo Law Passed

    Acerbo Law Passed
    This reform gave the party with the largest amount of votes ⅔ of the seats in Parliament. This enabled the Fascists to take control of Parliament, further imposing a dictatorship. This image is significant as it portrays how the law works overall and how the Fascists used it to their benefit.
  • Corfu Incident

    Corfu Incident
    Mussolini encouraged the invasion of Corfu, Greece because of Greece's refusal to pay 50 million lire for their murder of an Italian general in Greece. This eventually led to Greece paying the fine. Mussolini was seen as a hero by Italians, which aided him in his success with being a dictator. This image is significant as it shows the soldiers invading Corfu.
  • Matteotti Crisis

    Matteotti Crisis
    Socialist Giacomo Matteotti was murdered in June 1924 after publicly condemning fascist violence during elections and threatening to provide evidence of result fraud. This led many Italians to stop supporting Mussolini’s regime. This is significant as the public became more aware of the violent tactics used by the fascists and Mussolini. This political cartoon is significant as it demonstrates Mussolini’s relation to the Matteotti murder and his disappointment with the controversy it started.
  • Aventine Secession

    Aventine Secession
    During the Matteotti crisis, 150 deputies, withdrew from the Chamber of Deputies in protest of the murder because fascists were implicated in the crime, so opposition deputies left to work on overthrowing Mussolini. This is significant as it provides a perspective on the side opposite to Mussolini, in a country of strong fascist propaganda at the time. This shows a change in his support as this marks a great blow to Mussolini’s image, which is negative when trying to hold power.
  • Battle for Grain

    Battle for Grain
    The Battle for Grain was an initiative set by Mussolini to reduce how much the country relied on global imports for bread. With this, Mussolini placed high tariffs on importing bread so that his country would increase production on their own. This is highly important because this gives the positive perspective that the Battle for Grain would have been a smart move on Mussolini's part to increase nationalist views. Although it would have been a smart move, it failed in the long run.
  • Locarno Treaty signed

    Locarno Treaty signed
    The Locarno Treaty was a pact in which Germany, France, Belgium, Britain, and Italy agreed to guarantee peace in Western Europe. This stated that the German-Belgian and Franco-German frontiers set in the Treaty of Versailles would remain unchanged and that there would be no violence between these countries unless in an act of defense. Since this treaty explains that territory will remain unchanged, it contrasts Mussolini’s motivations.
  • Battle for Land and Battle for the Lira

    Battle for Land and Battle for the Lira
    The battle for land was an attempt to increase usable farmland. Marshes were drained to allow for small farms to be established and farms were publicly funded, so unemployment decreased. The battle for the lira was an attempt to increase its value in other countries. The lira was revalued so Italy’s prestige could hold and they could still import coal and iron. The battle for land only reclaimed some marshes and the battle for lira led to unemployment because there weren't many exports.
  • Battle for Births

    Battle for Births
    This was a policy that had the intent to increase Italy’s population to prepare for a larger future army. Marriage was encouraged and rewarded, and it was emphasized that women should refrain from work. This event is important as it gives Mussolini’s perspective on certain demographics: women and children. By holding back a certain group to enforce his beliefs, his power could be better sustained. Therefore, this decision would have accentuated the fascist ideals he wanted to instill.
  • Kellogg-Briand Treaty signed

    Kellogg-Briand Treaty signed
    This was a peacekeeping effort post-WWI that tried to eliminate war as an instrument of national policy, created in hopes of creating alliances that would prevent Germany from resurging in aggression. The importance in this is that it displays the effect of WWI on the relationships between power countries in Europe and the rest of the world. This is also important because even though it was stressed to handle things peacefully, the treaty was not enforced, allowing conflict to arise during WWII.
  • Lateran Treaty with Pope

    Lateran Treaty with Pope
    The Lateran Treaty was one of the three Lateran agreements. In this, the government took papal sovereignty over Vatican City. This is highly significant as it ended the conflict between church and state. This was beneficial for Mussolini as his power could be further solidified among a larger group. Of course, there were benefits for the church as well (Roman Catholicism would be the national religion), but from a fascist perspective this strengthens their need for independence and nationalism.
  • Stresa Front

    Stresa Front
    This was a coalition of France, Britain, and Italy. It formed in opposition of Adolf Hitler’s goal to rearm Germany against the Treaty of Versailles. This is significant as it displays the consequence of Germany’s loss of WWI and how it was not enforced properly. Although the Stresa Front soon dissolved, it still shows the great contrast between the goals of the treaties and the choices of Adolf Hitler.
  • Rome-Berlin Axis Treaty signed

    Rome-Berlin Axis Treaty signed
    A coalition formed between Italy and Germany that would be extended to Japan and they would become known as the Axis Powers. This agreement is significant as it solidifies the relationship between Italy and Germany. Both had the common interest of destabilizing the European order. Additionally, it reveals the way Europe’s alliances changed due to the League of Nations.
  • Munich Conference

    Munich Conference
    An agreement between Britain, France, Germany, and Italy that allowed Germany to annex the Sudetenland. The Sudetenland which was a region in western Czechoslovakia which had 3 million German speakers. This was a result of the threat of war from Germany. The Munich Conference is significant because it shows the tension in Europe as well as the fear of Hitler which demonstrates how the powers were willing to appease totalitarian states.
  • Italy enters WWII on side of Germany

    Italy enters WWII on side of Germany
    Italy joined WWII on the side of the Axis due to the surrender of France. Thus, Mussolini declared war on France and Britain as he thought that the conflict would end soon. He joined the war in hopes of gaining colonies in North Africa by taking from France and Britain. This is significant since it shows how Italy is willing to do anything for land to better itself even by turning on its own neighbor.
  • Mussolini brought down by coup during WWII

    Mussolini brought down by coup during WWII
    Mussolini was voted out of power by his Grand Council. This was a result of the meeting of the Grand Council the night before. Dino Grandi suggested that the power should be transferred to the King and the motion was passed. Mussolini was not able to react and when he left he was immediately arrested. This is significant as it shows Mussolini's failure.
  • Mussolini killed

    Mussolini killed
    Mussolini was executed by an Italian partisan in the village of Giulino di Mezzegra in northern Italy. This was caused by him running from Milan in an attempt to make it to the Swiss border; however, he was stopped. He and his mistress were shot and their bodies were dragged to a suburban square where their bodies were beaten and hit. This is significant as it demonstrates the HAtred toward Mussolini.
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    Abyssinian Crisis

    This was a diplomatic crisis between Italy and Ethiopia (Absyssinia) due to Italy’s aggressive policy. This crisis was caused by the Welwel incident. The League of Nations ruled for economic sanctions which were against Italy. Italy ignored the sanctions, left the League, and made special deals with France and Britain which led to the annexation of Abyssinia. This is significant as it undermines the credibility of the League and causes Italy to side with Germany.
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    Italian involvement with Spanish Civil War

    Mussolini supported the Nationalists by providing bombers. At first, France tried to support the Republican Army; however, they were pressured by Britain’s right-wing cabinet. As a result, this led to the agreement in Europe where no country was allowed to intervene in the Spanish Civil War including Italy. Italy continued to provide aid to the Nationalists through weapons and troops. This is significant as it shows Mussonlini’s desire to secure Facist control in the Mediteranean.
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    Italy invades Albania

    A military campaign by Fascist Italy to occupy Albania due to Mussolini's imperialist policies. Albania was aware of the invasion and prepared by sending out troops; however, they did not know when it would occur. Italy arrived on the coast and attacked all of Albania’s ports which led them to be under Italy’s control. Consequently, Albania surrendered all of Albania by April 10 and the invasion ended on April 12. This is significant because it demonstrates Mussolini's desire for land.