Music History Fall 2020

Timeline created by thechorUskid
In Music
  • 530

    Writing of the Rule of St. Benedict

    set of rules for the Office on running a monastery,
  • Period:
    768
    to
    814

    Reign of Charlemagne

    -Importance of monastery grew
    -under more centralized/stable gov't, the arts began to flourish
    -return to "Roman" ideals
  • 800

    Charlemagne crowned Emperor by Pope

  • Period:
    800
    to
    900

    Musica Enchiriadis

    9th century musical treatise, first surviving attempt to set up rules of performance in polyphony in western music
  • Period:
    800
    to
    900

    Scolica enchiridas

    9th century musical treatise and commentary (companion of Musica enchiriadis)
  • 850

    First definitive references to notation

    nuemues used to indicate melodic gesture for each syllable, served as reminders for the structure of the melody but could not be sight read, so learning was still done by ear
  • Period:
    850
    to
    890

    Organa from musica enchiriadis

    parallel organum and mixed/oblique organum (early polyphony)
  • 860

    Liber hymnorum

    examples of early sequences
  • Period:
    991
    to
    1033

    Guido of Arezzo

    elaborated the music notation system (4 lines, specific notes but no sense of absolute pitch), devised early sofege syllables to aid sight singing, developed "Guidonian hand" to train singers
  • 1014

    Last major item (Credo) added to Mass

  • 1025

    Tropes of Mass for Christmas Day copied into manuscript for abbey near Limoges

  • 1026

    Micrologus

    a practical guide for singers; covers notes, intervals, the 8 modes, melodic composition, and improvised polyphony; written by Guido of Arezzo
  • Period:
    1098
    to
    1179

    Hildegard von Bingen

    -One of the first known composers, the first of whom we have a large body of work for, and first WOMAN composer whose name we know
    -Abbess of S. German monastery
    -Wrote primarily antiphons and responsories for the Office and sequences for Mass
  • 1100

    Jublimeus, exultemus (aquitanian polyphony)

    versus in anquitanian polyphony; represents florid organum style; appears in score notation (lines up the notes of the two voices, creating first attempts at rhythm notation)
  • 1100

    Alleluia Justus ut palma from Ad organum faciendum

    note-against-note organum (early polyphony)
  • Period:
    1100
    to
    1200

    Troubadours/trouveres flourished

    (12th century)
  • Period:
    1100
    to
    1140

    Aquitanian polyphony used

    (early 12th century)
  • Period:
    1130
    to
    1200

    Bernart de Ventadorn

    one of the best known/most influential troubadours, brought troubadour traditions to the North to inspire trouveres
  • 1140

    First gothic buildings

  • Period:
    1150
    to
    1201

    Leonin

    first "named composer; known through "Anonymous IV"; worked and Notre Dame and nearby monastery, compiled Magnus Liber Organi (Great Book of Organum)
  • 1151

    Hildegard von Bingen writes "Ordo virtutum"

    earliest surviving music drama
  • Period:
    1157
    to
    1225

    Notre Dame school flourished

    (technically late 12th to early 13th centuries, during Leonin and Perotinus' time)
  • Period:
    1160
    to
    1230

    Perotin/Perotinus

    editied Magus Liber and made many better clauelae, wrote 3 and 4 voice organa (tripla, quadrupla)
  • Period:
    1170
    to
    1180

    Bernart De Ventadorn writes "Can vei la lauzeta mover"

    one of the widely know of his/and all troubadour songs, example of fine amour
  • Period:
    1170
    to
    1310

    Ars antiqua

    Ars antiqua, also called ars veterum or ars vetus, is a term used by modern scholars to refer to the Medieval music of Europe during the High Middle Ages (covers the Notre Dame school of polyphony and early development of the motet)
  • 1183

    First Mass at Notre Dame

  • 1198

    Perontinus writes "Viderunt omnes"

    combined organum and discant styles, compositional devices gave sections in organum coherence and variety
  • Period:
    1250
    to
    1280

    Ars cantus mensurabilis, Franco of Cologne

    Summarized the 6 rhythmic modes being used at the time.
  • 1257

    University of Paris founded

  • 1258

    Notre Dame cathedral finished

  • Period:
    1265
    to
    1321

    Dante Alighieri

    Italian poet, prose writer, literary theorist, moral philosopher, and political thinker; best known for the monumental epic poem La commedia, later named La divina commedia (The Divine Comedy).
  • Period:
    1270
    to
    1290

    Cantigas de Santa Maria compiled by Alfonso the Wise

    collection of poems in Galician-Portugese language with musical notation, monophonic songs all involving the Virgin Mary, example of the multi ethnic/religious count Alfonso held
  • 1285

    Magnus Liber Organi

    collection of organa/treatise; contained 2 voice settings of solo portions of responsorial chants; intended for use at Notre Dame
  • Period:
    1291
    to
    1361

    Philippe de Vitry

    wrote music in Roman de Fauvel, credited with starting Ars Nova period
  • Period:
    1300
    to
    1377

    Guillame de Machaut

    most important composer/poet of French Ars Nova period, work copied multiple times in manuscripts (great preservations), wrote first hand accounts of how he worked/what happened in his life
  • Period:
    1300
    to
    1399

    The Trecento

    14th century Italian cultural history; largest surviving body of music was secular polyphony (composed/sung as refined entertainment for literate audiences in courts/cities)
  • Period:
    1304
    to
    1374

    Francesco Petrarca (Petrarch)

    Italian scholar and poet during the early Italian Renaissance, and one of the earliest humanists; rediscovery of Cicero's letters is often credited with initiating the 14th-century Italian Renaissance and the founding of Renaissance humanism; wrote Il Canzoniere
  • 1307

    The Divine Comedy

    Dante Alighieri
  • Period:
    1310
    to
    1377

    Ars Nova

    Developments in notation allowed notes to be written with greater rhythmic independence, shunning the limitations of the rhythmic modes which prevailed in the thirteenth century; secular music acquired much of the polyphonic sophistication previously found only in sacred music; and new techniques and forms, such as isorhythm and the isorhythmic motet, became prevalent. (ended with death of Machaut)
  • 1317

    Roman de Fauvel, manuscript with music

    allegorical poem that satirizes corrupt politicians/church officials, contains first examples Ars Nova written by Philipe de Vitry, example of music/poetry/art being used for protest
  • 1320

    Ars Nova notandi

    ars nova treatise, Philippe de Vitry
  • Period:
    1325
    to
    1297

    Francesco Landini

    leading composer of ballate and foremost Italian musician of the Trecento; "created"/popularized the landini cadence
  • Period:
    1337
    to
    1453

    The Hundred Years War

  • Period:
    1347
    to
    1350

    The Black Death pandemic

  • Period:
    1348
    to
    1353

    The Decameron, Giovanni Boccaccio

    frame story containing a hundred tales told by a group of ten young men and women sheltering in a villa just outside Florence to escape the Black Death, which had struck the city; shows how people used art/music to cope with hardship
  • Period:
    1360
    to
    1420

    Ars Subtilior

    Ars subtilior is a musical style characterized by rhythmic and notational complexity, centered on Paris, Avignon in southern France, and also in northern Spain at the end of the fourteenth century. The style also is found in the French Cypriot repertory. Rhythmic complexities made possible by new notational signs/practices (vertical combinations of different mensurations)
  • Period:
    1365
    to
    1397

    Francesco Landini at San Lorenzo in Florence

  • Period:
    1378
    to
    1417

    Great Schism (Western Schism)

    The Western Schism, also called Papal Schism, Great Occidental Schism and Schism of 1378, was a split within the Catholic Church lasting from 1378 to 1417 in which two men simultaneously claimed to be the true pope, and each excommunicated the other.
  • Period:
    1387
    to
    1400

    The Canterbury Tales, Geoffrey Chaucer

  • Period:
    1410
    to
    1415

    Squarcialupi Codex

    illuminated manuscript compiled in Florence in the early 15th century. It is the single largest primary source of music of the 14th-century Italian Trecento
  • Period:
    1562
    to
    1563

    Council of Trent bans tropes and most sequences