THE INDEPENDENCE IN LATIN AMERICAThe independence of Latin America was the historical process of the
rebellion of its inhabitants against Spanish colonial rule and the formation of
independent national states.
Influence of US independence and the French Revolution.Napoleon
imprisoned Charles IV and his
son Ferdinand VII and forced
them to abdicate in his favor.
THE LACK OF A KING, OCCASION OF AMERICAN BOARDSSpanish America to proclaim, on August 10, 1809, a government of its own,
not appointed by the Crown. Soon they would proclaim their meetings,
immediately, throughout 1810, Caracas (19/04), Buenos Aires (25/05),
Bogota (20/07), and Santiago de Chile (18/08).
In Mexico, the priest Hidalgo would give in the town of Dolores (Guanajuato,
ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, AND URUGUAYThe first Junta de Buenos Aires (25-051810) organized three military campaigns
to subdue the Spanish forces in the interior, but they were not successful.
However, a revolution spontaneously broke out in Asuncion (14-05-1811), and
the resulting government-held independent. This is how the Republic of Paraguay
FROM THE BOARDS TO THE WARS OF INDEPENDENCEThe Spanish authorities fiercely repressed the first of the cities to form a
Sovereign Junta. They tried to prevent the contagion. The viceroys of Lima
and Bogota immediately sent troops with the order to besiege Quito and not
allow "a grain of salt" to enter.
INDEPENDENCE OF SOUTH AMERICAWhen Fernando VII returned
to the throne in 1814,
patriotic military campaigns
subsisted in Venezuela and
the Río de la Plata. In the
first, Simón Bolívar -Member
of the Caraqueña boards of
1811- was named new military
leader, and in 1813 he liberated Mérida and Caracas in the so-called
Admirable Campaign, cities that gave him the title of "Liberator", united
forever to his first name.
INDEPENDENCE OF CHILESan Martin was not discouraged and
decided to continue with his plans,
only now he first had to liberate
Chile. For that he spent years
making weapons, bullets and all
kinds of equipment, and organizing
the Army of the Andes. The
crossing was epic, but, as they had
planned, the six columns met less
than a month later in the Aconcagua Valley and although it suffered a serious
defeat in Cancha Rayada.
NEW GRANADA AND VENEZUELAMorillo soon resumed control of Venezuela and New Granada. But, in 1817,
Bolívar, Piar, Páez, and other Venezuelan leaders reactivated the war. Bolivar
faced and defeated Morillo in Calabozo, in 1818. However, later, Morillo
counterattacked and defeated Bolivar in the valley of Aragua. Then Bolívar
crossed the Andes and defeated the royalists in the battle of Pantano de Vargas
(25-07-1819). which sealed the independence of New Granada.
PERUTogether with O'Higgins, and with
200,000 pesos that he obtained from
Buenos Aires, San Martín managed to
buy a naval squadron to attack the
Spaniards in Peru by sea. San Martin
sailed from Valparaíso (20-08-1820)
with a fleet of eight warships and 16
transport ships, and 4,500 men from
the armies of the Andes and Chile.
INDEPENDENCE OF ECUADORLet us remember how the independence of
Guayaquil was proclaimed (9-10-1820), the
arrival of the patriot army commanded by
Antonio José de Sucre, and its triumph in
Pichincha (24-05-1822), which culminated
the independence of the Great Colombia.
CENTRAL AMERICAGuatemala with its provinces (Chiapas, Soconusco, El Salvador,
Honduras, Nicaragua, Los Altos, and Costa Rica) declared its independence
from the Spanish Crown (15-09-1821) and, shortly after, annexed Mexico to
defend itself better from Spain.
SAN MARTIN AND BOLIVARIn their meetings in Guayaquil (26 and 27- 07-1822), Bolivar, liberator, and
president of Gran Colombia, and San Martin, protector of Peru, talked about what
was missing to complete the freedom of America: the defeat of the last realistic
bastion in Peru. Surprisingly, San Martin gave Bolivar the initiative of the war
END OF THE WAR OF INDEPENDENCEIn 1823, Bolívar was authorized
by the Congress of the Gran
Colombia to take command of
an expedition to Peru. In
September of that year, he
arrived in Lima and met with
Sucre and the Peruvian leaders
to plan the attack. Bolivar and Sucre defeated the Spanish army at the Battle
of Junín (6-08-1824).
MEXICAN INDEPENDENCEThe command
was taken by another priest, José Maria Morelos, who led the second stage
of the revolution (1811-1815). He introduced a liberal state and agrarian
reform. But he had him shot in 1815. Frustrated in their desire for autonomy
and free trade, a group of conservative creoles proclaimed independence in
1821, but only when Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna was proclaimed
president of the Republic in 1833 Spain only recognized Mexican
independence in 1839.
HAITI AND SANTO DOMINGOFrançois Dominique Toussaint-Louverture took charge of a slave revolt on
the French side of the island of Hispaniola and led it between 1793 and 1802.
He faced Spanish, English, and French, until his capture, exile, and death in
France. In 1803, Jean Jacques Dessalines finally defeated the French
troops and, in 1804, declared the independence of Haiti. It was, thus, the
second independent country in America, in this case, led by blacks.
THE CASE OF PUERTO RICOOn September 23, 1868, the scream of Lares, of independence against
Spain, was produced. The rebellion is crushed in a short time. Puerto Rico
continues within the Spanish system until the war between EE. UU and
BRAZIL: MONARCHICAL INDEPENDENCEWhen Napoleon invaded Portugal, Juan VI took refuge in Brazil (1807) and
later promoted a legal reform (1815) by declaring Brazil as the territorial base
of the "Empire of Brazil, Portugal, and the Algarve".
INDEPENDENCE OF CUBAMartí dies in one of
the combat actions
(1895), but the revolutionary army continues to fight. The USA does not want
to lose the possibility of taking over the largest island of the Antilles and, in
1898, after the explosion of the battleship Maine in the port of Havana, he
declares war on Spain. The intervention of EE. UU precipitated the Spanish
defeat and Cuba proclaimed its independence in 1899, although it suffered
the American occupation.