Latin America Independence

Timeline created by SamaniegoP 9E
In History
  • THE INDEPENDENCE IN LATIN AMERICA

    THE INDEPENDENCE IN LATIN AMERICA
    The independence of Latin America was the historical process of the
    rebellion of its inhabitants against Spanish colonial rule and the formation of
    independent national states.
  • Influence of US independence and the French Revolution.

    Influence of US independence and the French Revolution.
    Napoleon
    imprisoned Charles IV and his
    son Ferdinand VII and forced
    them to abdicate in his favor.
  • THE LACK OF A KING, OCCASION OF AMERICAN BOARDS

    THE LACK OF A KING, OCCASION OF AMERICAN BOARDS
    Spanish America to proclaim, on August 10, 1809, a government of its own,
    not appointed by the Crown. Soon they would proclaim their meetings,
    immediately, throughout 1810, Caracas (19/04), Buenos Aires (25/05),
    Bogota (20/07), and Santiago de Chile (18/08).
    In Mexico, the priest Hidalgo would give in the town of Dolores (Guanajuato,
    16/08)
  • ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, AND URUGUAY

    ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, AND URUGUAY
    The first Junta de Buenos Aires (25-051810) organized three military campaigns
    to subdue the Spanish forces in the interior, but they were not successful.
    However, a revolution spontaneously broke out in Asuncion (14-05-1811), and
    the resulting government-held independent. This is how the Republic of Paraguay
    was created.
  • FROM THE BOARDS TO THE WARS OF INDEPENDENCE

    FROM THE BOARDS TO THE WARS OF INDEPENDENCE
    The Spanish authorities fiercely repressed the first of the cities to form a
    Sovereign Junta. They tried to prevent the contagion. The viceroys of Lima
    and Bogota immediately sent troops with the order to besiege Quito and not
    allow "a grain of salt" to enter.
  • INDEPENDENCE OF SOUTH AMERICA

    INDEPENDENCE OF SOUTH AMERICA
    When Fernando VII returned
    to the throne in 1814,
    patriotic military campaigns
    subsisted in Venezuela and
    the Río de la Plata. In the
    first, Simón Bolívar -Member
    of the Caraqueña boards of
    1811- was named new military
    leader, and in 1813 he liberated Mérida and Caracas in the so-called
    Admirable Campaign, cities that gave him the title of "Liberator", united
    forever to his first name.
  • INDEPENDENCE OF CHILE

    INDEPENDENCE OF CHILE
    San Martin was not discouraged and
    decided to continue with his plans,
    only now he first had to liberate
    Chile. For that he spent years
    making weapons, bullets and all
    kinds of equipment, and organizing
    the Army of the Andes. The
    crossing was epic, but, as they had
    planned, the six columns met less
    than a month later in the Aconcagua Valley and although it suffered a serious
    defeat in Cancha Rayada.
  • NEW GRANADA AND VENEZUELA

    NEW GRANADA AND VENEZUELA
    Morillo soon resumed control of Venezuela and New Granada. But, in 1817,
    Bolívar, Piar, Páez, and other Venezuelan leaders reactivated the war. Bolivar
    faced and defeated Morillo in Calabozo, in 1818. However, later, Morillo
    counterattacked and defeated Bolivar in the valley of Aragua. Then Bolívar
    crossed the Andes and defeated the royalists in the battle of Pantano de Vargas
    (25-07-1819). which sealed the independence of New Granada.
  • PERU

    PERU
    Together with O'Higgins, and with
    200,000 pesos that he obtained from
    Buenos Aires, San Martín managed to
    buy a naval squadron to attack the
    Spaniards in Peru by sea. San Martin
    sailed from Valparaíso (20-08-1820)
    with a fleet of eight warships and 16
    transport ships, and 4,500 men from
    the armies of the Andes and Chile.
  • INDEPENDENCE OF ECUADOR

    INDEPENDENCE OF ECUADOR
    Let us remember how the independence of
    Guayaquil was proclaimed (9-10-1820), the
    arrival of the patriot army commanded by
    Antonio José de Sucre, and its triumph in
    Pichincha (24-05-1822), which culminated
    the independence of the Great Colombia.
  • CENTRAL AMERICA

    CENTRAL AMERICA
    Guatemala with its provinces (Chiapas, Soconusco, El Salvador,
    Honduras, Nicaragua, Los Altos, and Costa Rica) declared its independence
    from the Spanish Crown (15-09-1821) and, shortly after, annexed Mexico to
    defend itself better from Spain.
  • SAN MARTIN AND BOLIVAR

    SAN MARTIN AND BOLIVAR
    In their meetings in Guayaquil (26 and 27- 07-1822), Bolivar, liberator, and
    president of Gran Colombia, and San Martin, protector of Peru, talked about what
    was missing to complete the freedom of America: the defeat of the last realistic
    bastion in Peru. Surprisingly, San Martin gave Bolivar the initiative of the war
    completely.
  • END OF THE WAR OF INDEPENDENCE

    END OF THE WAR OF INDEPENDENCE
    In 1823, Bolívar was authorized
    by the Congress of the Gran
    Colombia to take command of
    an expedition to Peru. In
    September of that year, he
    arrived in Lima and met with
    Sucre and the Peruvian leaders
    to plan the attack. Bolivar and Sucre defeated the Spanish army at the Battle
    of Junín (6-08-1824).
  • MEXICAN INDEPENDENCE

    MEXICAN INDEPENDENCE
    The command
    was taken by another priest, José Maria Morelos, who led the second stage
    of the revolution (1811-1815). He introduced a liberal state and agrarian
    reform. But he had him shot in 1815. Frustrated in their desire for autonomy
    and free trade, a group of conservative creoles proclaimed independence in
    1821, but only when Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna was proclaimed
    president of the Republic in 1833 Spain only recognized Mexican
    independence in 1839.
  • HAITI AND SANTO DOMINGO

    HAITI AND SANTO DOMINGO
    François Dominique Toussaint-Louverture took charge of a slave revolt on
    the French side of the island of Hispaniola and led it between 1793 and 1802.
    He faced Spanish, English, and French, until his capture, exile, and death in
    France. In 1803, Jean Jacques Dessalines finally defeated the French
    troops and, in 1804, declared the independence of Haiti. It was, thus, the
    second independent country in America, in this case, led by blacks.
  • THE CASE OF PUERTO RICO

    THE CASE OF PUERTO RICO
    On September 23, 1868, the scream of Lares, of independence against
    Spain, was produced. The rebellion is crushed in a short time. Puerto Rico
    continues within the Spanish system until the war between EE. UU and
    Spain.
  • BRAZIL: MONARCHICAL INDEPENDENCE

    BRAZIL: MONARCHICAL INDEPENDENCE
    When Napoleon invaded Portugal, Juan VI took refuge in Brazil (1807) and
    later promoted a legal reform (1815) by declaring Brazil as the territorial base
    of the "Empire of Brazil, Portugal, and the Algarve".
  • INDEPENDENCE OF CUBA

    INDEPENDENCE OF CUBA
    Martí dies in one of
    the combat actions
    (1895), but the revolutionary army continues to fight. The USA does not want
    to lose the possibility of taking over the largest island of the Antilles and, in
    1898, after the explosion of the battleship Maine in the port of Havana, he
    declares war on Spain. The intervention of EE. UU precipitated the Spanish
    defeat and Cuba proclaimed its independence in 1899, although it suffered
    the American occupation.