INDEPENDENCE OF CUBAJosé Martí organizes the
Party and looks for the old
leaders of the revolution,
unifies the different
currents, builds a small
army, and disembarks in
Cuba. Martí dies in one of
the combat actions
(1895), but the revolutionary army continues to fight. The USA does not want
to lose the possibility of taking over the largest island of the Antilles and, in
THE CASE OF PUERTO RICOOn September 23, 1868, the scream of Lares, of independence against
Spain, was produced. The rebellion is crushed in a short time. Puerto Rico
continues within the Spanish system until the war between EE. UU and
Spain. After the defeat of this, the island of Puerto Rico happens to be
administered by EE. UU and is currently an associated free state of that
country. Consequently, it is not an independent country.
END OF THE WAR OF INDEPENDENCEIn 1823, Bolívar was authorized
by the Congress of the Gran
Colombia to take command of
an expedition to Peru. In
September of that year, he
arrived in Lima and met with
Sucre and the Peruvian leaders
to plan the attack. Bolivar and Sucre defeated the Spanish army at the Battle
of Junín (6-08-1824).
SUCRE WAS FORCED TO GIVE BATTLE AND DESTROYED THE LAST BASTION OF THE SPANISHarmy at the battle of Ayacucho (9-12-1824) ,
which put an end to Spanish rule in South America.
Sucre went to Alto Peru in 1825, where there was no resistance, and made it
independent as a sovereign state that adopted the name of Bolivia in honor of
SAN MARTIN AND BOLIVARIn their meetings in Guayaquil (26 and 27- 07-1822), Bolivar, liberator, and
president of Gran Colombia, and San Martin, protector of Peru, talked about what
was missing to complete the freedom of America: the defeat of the last realistic
bastion in Peru.
SAN MARTIN GAVE BOLIVARr the initiative of the war
completely. He returned to Lima, resigned from the government of Peru (20-09-1822), and returned to his home in Mendoza, Argentina (01-1823). A year later,
discouraged by the death of his wife and the internal fights between Unitarians
and Federals, he emigrated to Europe, where he died in 1850.
CENTRAL AMERICAGuatemala with its provinces (Chiapas, Soconusco, El Salvador,
Honduras, Nicaragua, Los Altos, and Costa Rica) declared its independence
from the Spanish Crown (15-09-1821) and, shortly after, annexed Mexico to
defend itself better from Spain. One year later, Guatemala and its provinces
formed an independent state, of federal character, with the name of United
Provinces of the Center of America, being its capital city of Guatemala.
However, local oligarchies promoted separation.
THE INDEPENDENCE OF THE REALISTA REGIMENT NUMANCIAintegrated by Venezuelans and Quiteños - opened the doors of Lima to San Martin (July 5, 1821), and forced the viceroy La Serna to leave the city and enter
the mountains, with an army still very numerous. San Martin declared
independence (28-07-1821) and was appointed Protector of Peru with full civil
and military authority.
WAR REGULARIZATION TREATY(27-11-1820), which ends the "War to Death" period. A
few months later, the royalist army was defeated in the battle of Carabobo, the
final victory of Venezuela's independence (June 25, 1821). Let us remember how the independence of
Guayaquil was proclaimed (9-10-1820), the
arrival of the patriot army commanded by
Antonio José de Sucre, and its triumph in
Pichincha (24-05-1822), which culminated
the independence of the Great Colombia
PERUTogether with O'Higgins, and with
200,000 pesos that he obtained from
Buenos Aires, San Martín managed to
buy a naval squadron to attack the
Spaniards in Peru by sea. San Martin
sailed from Valparaíso (20-08-1820)
with a fleet of eight warships and 16
transport ships, and 4,500 men from
the armies of the Andes and Chile.
NEW GRANADA AND VENEZUELAMorillo soon resumed control of Venezuela and New Granada. But, in 1817,
Bolívar, Piar, Páez, and other Venezuelan leaders reactivated the war. Bolivar
faced and defeated Morillo in Calabozo, in 1818. However, later, Morillo
counterattacked and defeated Bolivar in the valley of Aragua. Then Bolívar
crossed the Andes and defeated the royalists in the battle of Pantano de Vargas
(25-07-1819). which sealed the independence of New Granada
INDEPENDENCE OF CHILESan Martin was not discouraged and
decided to continue with his plans,
only now he first had to liberate
Chile. For that he spent years
making weapons, bullets and all
kinds of equipment, and organizing
the Army of the Andes. The
crossing was epic, but, as they had
planned, the six columns met less
than a month later in the Aconcagua Valley and although it suffered a serious
defeat in Cancha Rayada (19-03-1818).
MEXICAN INDEPENDENCEThe priest Miguel
Hidalgo was placed in
front of the Indians and
peasants and launched,
as we saw, the "cry of
independence" in the
town of Dolores.
Throughout three years,
it obtained triumphs with
its army and occupied several cities of Mexico, but was defeated in
Guadalajara and executed by the realistic authorities in 1811.
FROM THE BOARDS TO THE WARS OF INDEPENDENCEThe Spanish authorities fiercely repressed the first of the cities to form a
Sovereign Junta. They tried to prevent the contagion. The viceroys of Lima
and Bogota immediately sent troops with the order to besiege Quito and not
allow "a grain of salt" to enter. After the defeat, the armies of Lima and
Bogota occupied the city, and a year later, on August 2, 1810, they murdered
300 patriots and citizens, which shook entire America.
ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, AND URUGUAYThe first Junta de Buenos Aires (25-05-1810) organized three military campaigns
to subdue the Spanish forces in the interior, but they were not successful.
However, a revolution spontaneously broke out in Asuncion (14-05-1811), and
the resulting government-held independent. This is how the Republic of Paraguay
In the Banda Oriental, the rural population rose against the Spanish authorities in
THE LACK OF A KING, OCCASION OF AMERICAN BOARDSWhen proclaiming the Sovereign Boards, the
South American Creoles held three theses:
The rejection of Napoleon's claims to
America, the loyalty to Ferdinand VII and,
most importantly, the illegitimacy of both
Joseph Bonaparte and the colonial
authorities appointed by the Spanish king,
who no longer had any power.
Quito was to be the first in the history of
Spanish America to proclaim, on August 10, 1809, a government of its own, not appointed by the Crown. Soon they would proclaim their meetings
CAUSES OF LATIN AMERICA INDEPENDENCEEconomic. The Bourbon reforms drowned the economy of the
colonies by preventing intraregional trade and imposing excessive
Social. was resentment over the prerogatives of the Spaniards. The
disputes between Spaniards and creoles for management positions
extended to all areas.
Ideological. The forerunners of independence became aware of the
differences between the colonies and the metropolis, highlighted the
value of their own and raised .
INFLUENCE OF US INDEPENDENCE AND THE FRENCH REVOLUTION. NAPOLEON NAMES KING OF SPAINNapoleon names king of Spain
To the causes, we must add
the events that precipitated the
independence. One of them is
that on May 5, 1808 Napoleon
imprisoned Charles IV and his
son Ferdinand VII and forced
them to abdicate in his favor.
Then, he named his brother,
José Bonaparte, king of Spain.In many Spanish cities were organized
Autonomous Boards that promised to govern until the return of
Fernando VII to the throne, but were dissolved by the French.
BRAZIL: MONARCHICAL INDEPENDENCEWhen Napoleon invaded Portugal, Juan VI took refuge in Brazil (1807) and
later promoted a legal reform (1815) by declaring Brazil as the territorial base
of the "Empire of Brazil, Portugal, and the Algarve". Thus, Rio de Janeiro
becomes the seat of an absolute monarchy as well as those of Europe, and no longer a colony. In 1821, Juan VI returned to Portugal, leaving his son Pedro de Braganza as governor of Brazil, but the following year he proclaimed himself emperor of Brazil.
INDEPENDENCE OF SOUTH AMERICAWhen Fernando VII returned
to the throne in 1814,
patriotic military campaigns
subsisted in Venezuela and
the Río de la Plata. In the
first, Simón Bolívar -Member
of the Caraqueña boards of
1811- was named new military
leader, and in 1813 he liberated Mérida and Caracas in the so-called
Admirable Campaign, cities that gave him the title of "Liberator", united
forever to his first name.