History of Special Education 1800-2020

Timeline created by Kim McSherry
In History
  • American School for the Deaf

    American School for the Deaf
    ASD is the oldest school for the deaf in the U.S. It is the first recipient of state aid to education in America awarded by the Connecticut General assembly in 1818.
    https://www.ctmq.org/oldest-school-etc-for-deaf-in-us/#:~:text=things%20I%20learn.-,The%20American%20School%20for%20the%20Deaf%20(ASD)%20is%20the%20oldest,state%2Dsupported%20school%20in%201817.
  • Perkins Institution for the Blind

    Perkins Institution for the Blind
    Perkins was the first charter school for students who are blind. The institution advocates for other schools around the country, creating a new printing and reading embossed text, publish, and distributing books in this text.
    https://www.perkins.org/history/timeline/1800s
  • Compulsory Education Law of 1852

    Law Mandating Compulsory Education included school attendance laws, as well as minimum and maximum age limits. Parents are required to have their children attend school for a designated period of time between the ages of 6-16 depending on each individual state.
    https://nces.ed.gov/programs/statereform/tab5_1.asp
  • Gallaudet University, Columbia Institution of the Deaf, Dumb, and Blind

    Gallaudet University, Columbia Institution of the Deaf, Dumb, and Blind
    Columbia Institution was recognized by Congress to allowing individuals who have disabilities of deafness, dumbness, and blindness, to attending and obtain a college degree. During this time, Columbia Institution was the first facility in American history that allowed individuals to attend a school that was focused on those with disabilities who were able to obtain a college degree.
  • Department of Education was Formed

    Department of Education Act authorized the establishment
    of the U.S. Department of Education based on legislation signed into law by President Andrew Johnson. It was under the umbrella of the Department of the Interior with a budget of $15000 and 4 employees. It was established to help states effectively manage school systems. https://www2.ed.gov/policy/gen/leg/edpicks.jhtml
  • The Smith-Hughes Act of 1917

    The Smith and Hughes Act was created by the Federal Board of Education to establish Federal and State Programs in vocational education in which they had the authority and responsibility to disabled veterans to educate and train veterans through vocational rehabilitation.
    https://disabilitycenter.colostate.edu/awareness/disability-history/
  • Beattie vs. Board of Education

    This ruling historically went down as a loss for individuals with disabilities. In WI a student whose intellect was normal but had a disability that caused him to drool, have involuntary facial contortions, and a speech problem. He was expelled from school because of his disability. Wisconson Supreme Court ruled that school officials had the right to expel him. This ruling prompted the development of parent advocacy groups and educational reform for individuals with disabilities.
  • Smith-Blackhead Act

    Grants were authorized to states for vocational rehabilitation programs.
  • Council for Exceptional Children

    Council for Exceptional Children
    CEC was founded by Elizabeth E. Farrell. She was the President from 1922-1926. Farrell and a group of 11 other educators were the council member that created special education and devoted their lives to individuals with exceptional needs.
    https://exceptionalchildren.org/taxonomy/term/121
  • The Bradley Home

    The Bradley Home
    A residential type program within a hospital that focused on ensuring children who were unable to attend a regular classroom was able to learn at the same level as their grade-level peers.
    https://bradleyschool.org/about-us/history-bradley-schools
  • Cuyahoga Council for Retarded Citizens

    Cuyahoga Council for Retarded Citizens
    On the heels of the depression, as opportunities were becoming more abundant, parents with children with disabilities began to organize. In Ohio, in Cuyahoga County, The Cuyahoga Council for Retarded Citizens was established.
    https://mn.gov/mnddc/parallels/five/5a/2.html
  • National Association for Retarded Citizens

    National Association for Retarded Citizens
    Parent movements continued to grow with hopes and possibilities for individuals with disabilities. Efforts for advocacy of a few parent groups expanded across the nation. Due to the fact that little was known about developmental disabilities or it.s causes in the 1950s and there was still no support for families. The doctor's only answer to parents with loved ones with developmental disabilities was to institutionalize them. Due to frustration advocacy groups were formed like ARC.
  • Brown vs. Board of Education

    A group of five cases by the U.S. Supreme Court concerning segregation issues in public schools. Each case was different, the main complaint was the constitutionality of state-sponsored segregation in public schools. What does this have to do with individuals with disabilities? There was a violation of the "equal protection clause" of the 14th amendment. It was a civil rights issue. Individuals with disabilities were not given the opportunity for equal education due to their disability.
  • Education of Mentally Retarded Children Act (Public Law 85–926)and Films for the Deaf Act (Public Law 85–905)

    PL 85-926 authorized federal assistance
    for training teachers of the handicapped. PL 85-926 captioned authorized a loan service of captioned films for the deaf.
  • Vocational Education Act of 1963 (Part of Public Law 88–210)

    PL 88-210 increased federal support of vocational education schools; vocational work-study programs; and research, training, and demonstrations in vocational education.
  • Elementary & Secondary Education Act

  • Model Secondary School for the Deaf Act (Public Law 89–694)

    Model Secondary School for the Deaf Act (Public Law 89–694)
    PL 89-694 authorized the establishment and operation, by Gallaudet College, of a model secondary school for the deaf.
  • Education Professions Development Act (Public Law 90–35)

    PL 90-35 amended the Higher Education
    Act of 1965 for the purpose of improving the
    quality of teaching and to help meet critical
    shortages of adequately trained educational
    personnel.
  • Elementary and Secondary Education Amendments of 1968 (Public Law 90–247)

    PL 90-247 modified existing programs authorized support of regional centers for education of handicapped children, model centers and services for deafblind children, recruitment of personnel and dissemination of information on education of the handicapped; technical assistance in education to rural areas; support of dropout prevention projects; and support of bilingual education programs.
  • Handicapped Children’s Early Education Assistance Act (Public Law 90–538)

    Handicapped Children’s Early Education Assistance Act (Public Law 90–538)
    PL 90-538 authorized preschool and early education programs for
    handicapped children. The law provides model programs for preschool children who are handicapped and meeting those children's needs. Programs that were developed and implemented programs for defining, evaluating, and authorizing special education services. These programs were developed to included parents, communities, and professional educators
  • Vocational Education Amendments of 1968 (Public Law 90–576)

    PL 90-576 modified existing programs and provided for a National Advisory Council on Vocational Education and collection and dissemination of information for programs administered by the Commissioner of Education.
  • The Education of the Handicapped Act of 1970

    EHA replaced Title VI of the ESEA but continued to provide state funding and local grants to continue education for exceptional students. EHA also provides grants and funding for teacher training and higher education for teachers to work with and educate students with disabilities.
  • Pennsylvania Association for Retarded Children v. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania

    Pennsylvania Association for Retarded Children v. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania
    The lawsuit by PARC was the first right-to-education lawsuit in the country, to overturn the PA law and secure a quality education for all children. As settled, the result was agreed by the state that free public education for children with mental retardation must be established. This case laid the foundation for the education for All Handicapped Children Act (PL 94-142) that was enacted in 1975.
  • Mills vs. Board of Education of the District of Columbia

    The lawsuit states that all children who are residents of the District of Columbia and eligible for public education in the 1970-71 school year, will be excluded, suspended, expelled, or denied a public education for any period in excess of two days. The school board labeled "exceptional" students as behavioral problems, mentally handicapped, emotionally disturbed, or hyperactive denying them admission to public schools with no alternative placement or periodic review of their status
  • Education Amendments of 1972 (Public Law 92–318)

    PL 92-318 general aid for institutions of higher education federal matching grants for the state for the design, established, and conduct of postsecondary occupational education; and a bureau-level Office of Indian Education. Amends current U..S. Dept of Ed. programs to increase their effectiveness and better meet special needs. Prohibited sex bias in admission to vocational, professional, and graduate schools, and public institutions of undergraduate higher education.
  • Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973

    Section 504 is a federal law developed to protect the rights of individuals with disabilities. This would include individuals with disabilities in programs and activities that receive Federal financial assistance from the U.S. Dept. of Ed. Section 504 regulations require a school district to provide a "free appropriate public education" (FAPE). to each qualified student with a disability who is in the school district regardless of the severity of a disability.
  • Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) (20 U.S.C. PL 1232g; 34 CFR Part 99)

    The Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) (20 U.S.C. PL 1232g; 34 CFR Part 99) A Federal law that protects the privacy of student education records. Applies to all schools that receive funds under an applicable program of the U.S. Department of Education. FERPA gives parents certain rights with respect to their children's education records. Transfers to the student at the age of 18 or attend a school beyond the high school level.
  • Education for All Handicapped Children Act (Public Law 94–142) EHA

    PL 94-142 provided that all handicapped children have available to them a free appropriate education (FAPE) designed to meet their unique needs. EHA supported states in protecting the rights of and meeting the individual needs of, and improving the outcomes for infants, toddlers, children, and youth with disabilities and their families. This landmark law name changed to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, or IDEA, in 1990.
  • All Handicapped Children Act (PL 97-457)

    additional services that were added to PL 994-142 extend service to children three and under. PL 97-457 was an amendment that mandated that individual states provided services to families of children born with disabilities from the time of birth.
  • Youth Employment and Demonstration Projects Act of 1977 (Public Law 95–93)

    Youth Employment and Demonstration Projects Act of 1977 (Public Law 95–93)
    PL 95-93 established a youth employment training program that includes, promoting education-to-work transition, literacy training and bilingual training, and attainment of certificates of high school equivalency.
  • Board of Education of HHCD vs. Rowley

    A ruling that was based on the All Handicapped Children Act of
    1975. The Act requires that all schools provide "free and appropriate public education: to all handicapped students. The case involved Furnace Woods School and Amy Rowley. Amy was deaf, and the school refused to provide a sign language interpreter. The court ruled in Rowley's favor stating that Amy was unable to achieve her full potential because she was denied a sign language interpreter.
  • Education of the Handicapped Act Amendments (Public Law 98–199)

    PL98-199 added the Architectural Barrier amendment and
    clarified participation of handicapped children in private schools.
  • Carl D. Perkins Vocational Education Act (Public Law 98–524)

    PL 98-524 continued federal assistance
    for vocational education through FY 1989.
    The act replaced the Vocational Education
    Act of 1963. It provided aid to the states to
    make vocational education programs accessible
    to all persons, including handicapped
    and disadvantaged, single parents and homemakers,
    and incarcerated.
  • The Handicapped Children's Protection Act of 1985

    The Handicapped Children's Protection Act of 1985
    In this 1986 law, President Reagan authorized the award of reasonable attorney's fees, expenses, and costs to parents of handicapped children engaged in a civil suit under and Act to protect the child right to a free and appropriate education.
  • Augustus F. Hawkins-Robert T. Stafford Elementary and Secondary School Improvement Amendments of 1988 (Public Law 100–297)

    PL 100-297 reauthorized through 1993 major elementary
    and secondary education programs including:
    Chapter 1, Chapter 2, Bilingual Education,
    Math-Science Education, Magnet Schools,
    Impact Aid, Indian Education, Adult Education,
    and other smaller education programs.
  • Technology-Related Assistance for Individuals with Disabilities Act of 1988 (Public Law 100– 407)

    PL 100-407 provided financial assistance to states to
    develop and implement consumer-responsive
    statewide programs of technology-related assistance
    for persons of all ages with disabilities.
  • Children with Disabilities Temporary Care Reauthorization Act of 1989 (Public Law 101– 127)

    PL 101-127 revised and extended the programs established
    in the Temporary Child Care for Handicapped Children and Crises Nurseries Act of 1986.
  • Childhood Education and Development Act of 1989 (Part of Public Law 101–239)

    PL 101-239 authorized the appropriations to expand Head Start Programs and programs carried out under the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 to include child care services.
  • Americans with Disabilities Act

    The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) protects the civil rights of individuals with disabilities that provide the same civil rights to individuals on the basis of race, sex, national origin, and religion. It guarantees equal opportunity for individuals with disabilities in employment, public accommodations, transportation, State and local government services, and telecommunications.
    https://www2.ed.gov/about/offices/list/ocr/docs/hq9805.html
  • Civil Rights Act of 1991 (Public Law 102–166)

    PL 102-166 amended the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967, and the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, with regard to employment discrimination. Established the Technical Assistance Training Institute
  • Developmental Disabilities Assistance and Bill of Rights Act Amendments of 1996 (Public Law 104–1834)

    PL 104-1834 amended the Developmental Disabilities Assistance and Bill of Rights Act to extend the act, and for other purposes.
  • Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Amendments of 1997 (Public Law 105–17)

    PL 105+430amended the Individuals with Disabilities Education
    Act (IDEA) to revise its provisions and extend through fiscal year 2002 the authorization of appropriations for IDEA programs.
  • Assistive Technology Act of 1998 (Public Law 105–394)

    PL 105-394 replaced the Technology-Related Assistance for Individuals with Disabilities Act of 1988 with a new Act, authorized through fiscal year 2004, to address the assistive technology
    needs of individuals with disabilities.
  • Ticket to Work and Work Incentives Improvement Act of 1999 (Public Law 106–170)

    PL 106-170amends the Social Security Act to expand the availability of health care coverage for working individuals with disabilities and establishes a Ticket to Work and Self-Sufficiency Program in the Social Security Administration to provide such individuals with meaningful opportunities to work.
  • No Child Left Behind Act

    No Child Left Behind Act
    No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (Public Law
    107–110) provides for the comprehensive reauthorization
    of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965, incorporating specific proposals in such areas as testing,
    accountability, parental choice, and early reading.
  • IDEA Reauthorized 2004

    (IDEA) is a law ensuring services to children with disabilities throughout the U.S. IDEA governs how states and public agencies provide early intervention, special education, and related services to eligible infants, toddlers, children, and youth with disabilities. Infants and toddlers with disabilities (birth-2) and their families receive early intervention services under IDEA Part C. Children and youth (ages 3-21) receive special education and related services under IDEA
    Part B.
  • Public Law 114-95, the Every Student Succeeds Act, in December 2015.reauthorized the IDEA in 2004

    PL 114-95 Every Student Succeeds Act, is and an amendment to the 2004 IDEA The changes focus on Improving educational results for children with disabilities, ensuring equality of opportunity, full participation, independent living, and economic self-sufficiency for individuals with disabilities.
  • Part B Section 300.101 Free appropriate public education (FAPE).Part B Section 300.114 LRE requirements.

    Additions to: FAPE be available to children between the ages of 3 and 21, inclusive, including children with disabilities who have been suspended or expelled from school. LRE Children with disabilities are including in educated with children who are nondisabled. Removal of children with disabilities from the regular educational environment occurs only if the severity of the disability is such that education in regular classes with the use of supplementary aids.
    https://sites.ed.gov/idea/regs/b/b