History of Nicaragua (The Somoza Family's Rise to Power)

Timeline created by AlexSebold
In History
  • Jan 1, 1502

    Spanish Arrival

    Spanish Arrival
    Spanish explorers arrive in what is modern day Nicaragua and claim the land for Spain. Interestingly, the Spanish showed little interest in Nicaragua when compared to Mexico and Peru. As a result, the indigenous people of Nicaragua were enslaved and shipped to Peru for labor. An estimated 200,000 indigenous Nicaraguans were enslaved in this time period. http://countrystudies.us/nicaragua/5.htm
    This source originates from records found in the U.S. Library of Congress 1502-1520
  • A Tale of Two Elites: Leon vs. Granada

    A Tale of Two Elites: Leon vs. Granada
    Powerful elites were established in Leon and Granada. Landowners in Leon concentrated on cattle raising/animal exports while Granada was the center of agriculture. Those in Leon were liberal leaning and for free-trading while those in Granada were conservative protectionists. Their strong ideas would result in political clashes and violent conflicts. Both cities were created by the Spanish in the late 1500's. http://countrystudies.us/nicaragua/5.htm
    (Same origin as "Spanish Arrival")
  • Independence!

    Independence!
    Separatist feelings grow and after a 3 year civil war, the United Provinces of Central America are dissolved. Nicaragua formally declares independence as a nation on April 30th 1838.
    Independence came in stages: the first official declaration came on September 15th, 1821. This date has since become a national holiday in Nicaragua and is celebrated as "Independence Day".
    http://countrystudies.us/nicaragua/7.htm
    This source originates from records found in the U.S. Library of Congress
  • Jose Santos Zelya

    Jose Santos Zelya
    After 35 years of a relatively stable conservative government, Hose Santos Zelya would take control of Nicaragua in what would become a 16 year long dictatorship. His time in office was extremely controversial. Under his rule, Nicaragua would become nationalized and develop a professional army. His administration passed several constitutional revisions and reforms, including the abolition of the death penalty. http://countrystudies.us/nicaragua/9.htm Source Origin: U.S. Library of Congress
  • US Marines Deployed in Nicaragua

    US Marines Deployed in Nicaragua
    U.S. marines enter Nicaragua to assist in a conservative rebellion driving out President Zelaya, who had made poor relations with foreign governments. Zelaya took an anti-United States stance and was in negotiations with Germany to create a canal in the territory the U.S. desired. http://countrystudies.us/nicaragua/9.htm
    This source originates from records found in the U.S. Library of Congress
  • US withdraws marines from Nicaragua

    US withdraws marines from Nicaragua
    After domestic isolationist protests, the U.S. makes the decision to withdraw all troops from Nicaragua. Prior to their departure, they would help to establish a National Guard for the future protection of the country. At this time, Carlos Solórzano, a moderate conservative, had been elected to office. http://countrystudies.us/nicaragua/10.htm
    This source originates from records found in the U.S. Library of Congress
  • US Marines Return

    US Marines Return
    Marines sent back to Managua as a result of the Liberal versus Conservative civil war which had begun shortly after their departure. 6 years of guerrilla warfare would follow against Augusto César Sandino the leader of the liberal rebels. http://countrystudies.us/nicaragua/10.htm This source originates from records found in the U.S. Library of Congress
  • US Leaves - Somoza Garcia Fills the Power Gap

    US Leaves - Somoza Garcia Fills the Power Gap
    The United States leaves due to budget complications caused by the Great Depression, leaving Somoza Garcia to fill the power gap after the removal of Sardino. Garcia would take control of Nicaragua as both president and chief military director, leading to a four decade long military dictatorship... http://countrystudies.us/nicaragua/10.htm
    This source originates from records found in the U.S. Library of Congress
  • The Assassination of Somoza Garcia

    The Assassination of Somoza Garcia
    After having made many enemies, Somoza Garcia is shot by a civilian in the streets. His killer was an angry Nicaraguan poet. He died 8 days later. http://revolutions.truman.edu/nicaragua/bios.htm This information was gathered from a website providing biographies of influential figures in Nicaragua. Its information was collected from the Columbian Electronic Encyclopedia.
  • Luis Somoza Debayle succeeds the Presidency

    Luis Somoza Debayle succeeds the Presidency
    Garcia had changed the official policy for president selection so that the head of the National Guard would automatically assume the role. Subsequently, Garcia had appointed his first son Luis Somoza Debayle as Guard president. Unlike his father, Luis was relatively progressive and improved foreign relations though he never weakened the family's political power. https://www.britannica.com/biography/Luis-Somoza-Debayle The origin of this information is Britannica online, an online encyclopedia.
  • Anastacio Somoza Debayle Takes Power

    Using the National Guard, Anastacio Somoza Debayle, the second son of Somoza Garcia, would seize control of the Nicaraguan presidency from his brother. Lacking the political skills of his father, Debayle would govern through pure oppression. Despite his villainous nature, he would receive support from the United States due to his anti-communist stances. https://www.britannica.com/biography/Anastasio-Somoza-Debayle The origin of this information is Britannica online, an online encyclopedia.
  • The Destruction of Managua

    The Destruction of Managua
    An earthquake destroys the city of Manuaga. This would become a turning point in opposition against Debayle as he losses support of the middle,labor, and elite classes after using foreign aid for personal enrichment. The earthquake was of a 6.2 magnitude and left 250,000 Nicaraguans homeless. http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/earthquake-rocks-managua The origin of this information is history.com, a relatively reliable database on historical events.
  • Debayle Flees Nicaragua

    Debayle Flees Nicaragua
    Somoza Debayle flees Nicaragua after 2 years of violent revolution from the Sandinista National Liberation Front, a group of student liberal communists who gained support after the Earthquake in Managua. Members of the Sandinista storm Managua and are met with celebration following news of Debayle's resignation. http://web.stanford.edu/group/arts/nicaragua/discovery_eng/timeline/ The origin of this information is a timeline published by Stanford covering key events in Nicaraguan history.