History of English Literature

Timeline created by LuisaHernandez001
In History
  • Period:
    450
    to
    1066

    Old English

    Also known as the Anglo-Saxon period. Occurred when Germanic people ( Angles, Saxons, and Jutes) conquered England and Wales territory in the 5th century. The Anglo-Saxon language evolved and became what we know as the Old English language.
    The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. (2019, July 30). Anglo-Saxon. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/topic/Anglo-Saxon.
  • 731

    Ecclesiastical History of the English People

    Ecclesiastical History of the English People
    The Venerable Bede, in his monastery at Jarrow, completes his history of the English church and people. This book helped the national English identity establishment. This book presents the traduction of the Cædmon's Hymn, probably the oldest surviving English poem.
    British Library (n.d). The story of Cædmon's Hymn. Retrieved from: https://www.bl.uk/collection-items/the-story-of-caedmons-hymn.
  • 750

    Beowulf

    Beowulf
    It is a heroic poem written in the early 6th century. Considered the highest achievement of Anglo-Saxon literature. The poem was originally untitled and eventually named after the Scandinavian hero Beowulf.
    The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. (2020, September 23). Beowulf. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/topic/Beowulf
  • 871

    Anglo-Saxon Chroncle

    Anglo-Saxon Chroncle
    It is a chronological record of the events in Anglo-Saxon and Norman England. These Chronicles are the primary resource of England's early history.
    The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. (2011, September 21). Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/topic/Anglo-Saxon-Chronicle
  • 975

    Exeter Book

    Exeter Book
    It is a collection of old English religious poetry such as The Wanderer,” “The Seafarer,” “The Wife’s Lament,” “The Husband’s Message,” and “The Ruin”. The book is believed to be a copy of an earlier collection.
    The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. (2007, January 08). Exeter Book. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/topic/Exeter-Book
  • Period:
    1066
    to
    1500

    Middle English

    The Normands took over the aristocracy, the English language became the language of the lower classes and almost disappeared in its written form. In 1204 France lost power over England and after the Black Death and The Hundred Years of War, French was finally replaced for the language of the working class: English.
    History of English Language and Literature.(2017).Middle English period after Chaucer[Video]. Retrieved 28 September 2020, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=68NUGTGw8XU.
  • 1360

    Piers Plowman

    Piers Plowman
    The fist provincial English work. Written in colloquial and simple language but powerful imaginary by William Langland.
    The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. (2012, July 06). Piers Plowman. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/topic/Piers-Plowman
  • 1375

    The Bruce

    The Bruce
    The first major work of Scottish literature. An epic poem that tells the story of Scotland's struggle for freedom written by John Barbour.
    The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. (2020, March 09). John Barbour. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/biography/John-Barbour
  • 1386

    Confessio amantis

    Confessio amantis
    It is John Gower's greatest English work. It is a collection of exemplary love tale told with a tender and restrained narrative.
    The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. (2014, November 20). Confessio amantis. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/topic/Confessio-amantis
  • 1392

    The Canterbury Tales

    The Canterbury Tales
    The Magnus opus of English poet Geoffrey Chaucer. It is a collection of unfinished 24 stories told by a group of Pilgrims that can be moral, romantic, and comic. The tales are from different social class characters and stories. It is probably the first representation of the English sense of humor.
    History of English Language and Literature. (2017). The Age of Chaucer [Video]. Retrieved 28 September 2020, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=68NUGTGw8XU.
  • Period:
    1500
    to

    English Renaissance

    In this period, England assimilated Europe's Renaissance. It was an age of intellectual and religious revolution in England, the development of the printing press, and the establishment of England as a heaven for Protestants.
    Kemp, P., & Mullan, J. (2020, July 24). The Renaissance period: 1550–1660. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/art/English-literature/The-Renaissance-period-1550-1660
  • Period:
    1558
    to

    Elizabethan period

    Queen Elizabeth's reign. The Elizabethan age is also called the 'age of gold' for English literature since the poetry, prose, drama, historical chronicles and critical literacy flourished during this time period. The Elizabethan period was a time of prosperity not only for English literature but also for the England Empire as a whole.
    The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica.(2020, February 07). Elizabethan literature.Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/art/Elizabethan-literature
  • 1570

    The Schoolmaster

    The Schoolmaster
    Written by Roger Ascham, it is one of the foundations of English education and Roger's most famous work. These two books of pedagogical character explain the nature of a teacher and a student idealistically.
    Roger Ascham, The Schoolmaster (1570). (2016). In W. Engel, R. Loughnane, & G. Williams (Eds.), The Memory Arts in Renaissance England: A Critical Anthology (pp. 153-155). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/CBO9781316091722.029
  • 1582

    The Defence of Poesie

    The Defence of Poesie
    Written by Sir Philip Sidney, is considered to be the greatest work of literary criticism and introduced the critical ideas of Renaissance theorists to England. This word eloquently and masterfully suggests that literacy is a better teacher than philosophy and history.
    The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. (2020, March 27). The Defence of Poesie. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/topic/The-Defence-of-Poesie
  • Period: to

    William Shakespeare

    William Shakespeare produced two narrative poems, 154 sonnets, and 37 plays in his 24-year career. Making probably the greatest body of work in literature. His work fluctuates among comedies, histories, and tragedies.
  • Tamburlaine the Great

    Tamburlaine the Great
    It is the first of Christopher Marlowe's works. This work was the introduction of the black verse that influenced several authors after them including William Shakespeare. Marlowe published about 6 plays in his 6 years of career prior to his early death.
    Leech, C. (2020, May 26). Works. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/biography/Christopher-Marlowe/Works
  • The Faerie Queene

    The Faerie Queene
    Considered one of the greatest poems in English literature, written by Edmund Spenser. It is an epic poem that follows the adventures of medieval Knights. The poem uses several allegories of events of its context as Elizabeth's reign, critics of Tudor's dynasty, religious reforms by Mary and Elizabeth among others.
    The Faerie Queene by Edmund Spenser, 1590. (2015, November 20). Retrieved from https://www.bl.uk/collection-items/the-faerie-queene-by-edmund-spenser-1590
  • Astrophil and Stella

    Astrophil and Stella
    Sir Philip Sidney wrote what is considered the finest Elizabethan sonnet after Shakespeare's. It tells the story od Astrophil whose name means star-love and Stella whose name means star. Philip Sidney was the first in creating a longer sequence of sonnets that inspired several authors after him.
    Philip Sidney's Astrophil and Stella, 1591. (2017, February 10). Retrieved from https://www.bl.uk/collection-items/philip-sidneys-astrophil-and-stella-1591
  • Romeo and Juliet

    Romeo and Juliet
    One of the most influential Shakespeare's tragicomedies that tell the story of the struggle, romance, and eventual death of two young lovers of enemy families. This play has been reproduced in theater, movies, music, literature, and dance as the representation of star-crossed lovers.
    Bevington, D. (2020, September 15). Romeo and Juliet. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/topic/Romeo-and-Juliet
  • Of the Lawes of Ecclesiasticall Politie.

     Of the Lawes of Ecclesiasticall Politie.
    It is Richard Hooker's masterpiece. It is a prose and legal philosophy book that defends the Church of England against Roman Catholicism and Puritanism.
    Marshall, J. S. (2020, January 05). Richard Hooker. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/biography/Richard-Hooker
  • Every Man in His Humour

    Every Man in His Humour
    Written by Benjamin Jonson. This play established Jonson's reputation as the greatest dramatist of the Jacobean age, second to Shakespeare. Other highly rewarded comedies by Jonson are Volpone, or The Fox (1606), The Alchemist (1610), and Bartholomew Fair (1614).
    Leech, C. (2020, August 02). Ben Jonson. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/biography/Ben-Jonson-English-writer
  • Hamlet

    Hamlet
    It is a tragedy in five acts that tell the story of Prince Hamlet's fights to revenge his father against his uncle, his mother, and his own madness. This fight leads to the death of the three of them.
    Bevington, D. (2020, April 03). Hamlet. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/topic/Hamlet-by-Shakespeare
  • Othello

    Othello
    It is a tragedy in five acts that tell the story of Othello, a black heroic general that is led to believe that is wife is cheating on him with his chief lieutenant ending in him put of jealousy killing his wife and eventually himself after discovering his wife's innocence.
    Bevington, D. (2020, March 30). Othello. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/topic/Othello-by-Shakespeare
  • Period: to

    Jacobean Period

    King James I's reign. His reign was unstable with the germination of parliamentarian and puritan revolution. There is no major stylistic distinction between the Elizabethan and Jacobean ages other than the predominance of tragedy and pessimism.
  • The Malcontent

    The Malcontent
    John Marston's best-known work. It is a satiric tragi-comedy that exposes court corruption, lust, and greed.
    Malcontent. Oxford Reference. Retrieved 30 Sep. 2020, from https://www.oxfordreference.com/view/10.1093/oi/authority.20110803100128524.
  • King Lear

    King Lear
    A tragedy in five acts tells the story of King Lear who becomes mad after the betrayal of two of his daughters, exiled with two other nobles victims of injustice.
    Bevington, D. (2019, October 11). King Lear. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/topic/King-Lear
  • Macbeth

    Macbeth
    It is a tragedy in five acts and the shortest of Shakespeare's plays without any subplot. It follows Macbeth's rise to power and its unavoidable fall down being a victim of his own blind ambition and his poisonous wife.
    Bevington, D. (2019, December 12). Macbeth. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/topic/Macbeth-by-Shakespeare
  • The White Devil

    The White Devil
    One of John Webster's representative works. It is a dark drama based on historical events that occurred in Italy during the 1580s and it is considered as one of the finest of its age.
    The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. (2020, March 27). The White Devil. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/topic/The-White-Devil
  • The Changeling

    The Changeling
    The highly rewarded playwright and poet Thomas Middleton publish this tragic masterpiece a year after the publication of his previous acclaimed tragedy Woman beware woman. Middleton is one of the main representatives of the Jacobean age literature.
    The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. (2020, June 30). Thomas Middleton. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/biography/Thomas-Middleton
  • Period: to

    Carolingian Period

    King Charles's reign. He established an authoritarian government that ended with a civil war that led to his execution.
  • Anatomy of Melancholy

    Anatomy of Melancholy
    Robert Burton's masterpiece. It explores the mental afflictions of what we might call depression. The book was influential in philosophical and psychological ideas of its time.
    The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. (2020, February 04). Robert Burton. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/biography/Robert-Burton
  • Oliver Crownwell took the England throne

    Oliver Crownwell took the England throne
    The army declares Cromwell as 'Lord Protector' starting a period called 'The Protectorate' that ended up collapsing in 1958.
    BBC. (n.d). Oliver Crownwell. Retrieved from: https://www.bbc.co.uk/bitesize/guides/z8vdmp3/revision/4
  • Period: to

    Puritan period

    This was an age of religious fanaticism and restrictions in the name of religion. The grates expression from this time is the sermon. This age begins with the rise of Oliver Cronwell in the protectorate and the execution of Charles I.
  • Period: to

    Restoration Age

    Charles II restored the monarchy. This period meant the restoration of the Stuart dynasty. Literature in this age focused on moral strength and spiritual fervor. Charles II court was considered as 'shameless' which inspired several works of satiric comedy.
    History of English Language and Literature. (2017). The Age of Restoration [Image]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Lydg1egJkE4.
  • Period: to

    The Age of Dryden

    John Dryden was the most influential poet, dramatist, and literacy critic from its age creating a whole period after his name. He was England's first Poet Laureate.
  • Hudibras

    Hudibras
    Written by Samuel Butler. Considered as the most memorable burlesque poem in the English language. This work was written as opposed to the fanaticism and hypocrisy of puritanism. The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. (2017, February 13). Hudibras. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/topic/Hudibras-poem-by-Butler
  • Paradise lost

    Paradise lost
    John Milton's epic poem in black verse. Considered by many as the greatest poem of English literature. It is a Christian poem that describes the fall from grace of Adam and Eve.
    The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. (2020, March 09). Paradise Lost. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/topic/Paradise-Lost-epic-poem-by-Milton
  • Of Dramatick Poesie, an Essay

    Of Dramatick Poesie, an Essay
    It is a critical literary essay written by John Dryden. This is the first piece of modern criticism. This book is about a discussion among four contemporary writers, Dryden included.
    Sutherland, J. R. (2020, August 15). John Dryden. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/biography/John-Dryden#ref239551
  • Marriage à-la-Mode

    Marriage à-la-Mode
    This comedy was written by John Dryden. It is a heroic play focused on the battle of sexes.
    Sutherland, J. R. (2020, August 15). John Dryden. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/biography/John-Dryden#ref239551
  • The Country Wife

    The Country Wife
    Written by William Wycherley and his most successful work. This is a satiric comedy centered on exaggerated jealousy and the sexual duplicity of aristocracy during Charles II's reign.
    The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. (2020, March 30). William Wycherley. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/biography/William-Wycherley
  • History of Insipids

    History of Insipids
    Written by John Wilmot with his ironic poetry representative of the renaissance period. Other Wilmot works include A Satyr Against Mankind (1675), passages of the Life and Death of John, Earl of Rochester (1680), and The farce of sodom (1684).
    The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. (2020, July 22). John Wilmot, 2nd earl of Rochester. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/biography/John-Wilmot-2nd-earl-of-Rochester
  • Pilgrim's progress

    Pilgrim's progress
    Written by John Bunyan. This book is representative of the puritan religious outlook. This book became almost as popular as the bible in its time.
    Bauer, P., & Cregan-Reid, V. (2020, May 12). The Pilgrim's Progress. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/topic/The-Pilgrims-Progress
  • Period: to

    The 18th Century

  • Period: to

    Augustan literature

    In considered the greatest age of literacy expression. Also called Neoclassicism. In this time, poetry reached its highest point in literature and was directly influenced by classic Greek and Roman literature. Satire was very successful in this time period and the promotion of social awareness in literature.
    The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. (2017, May 18). Augustan Age. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/art/Augustan-Age-Latin-literature
  • An Essay on Criticism

    An Essay on Criticism
    Written by Alexander Pope. It is a didactic poem of literary criticism in which Pope sets the poetic rules that reflects Popes' epigrammatic style.
    The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. (2020, March 27). An Essay on Criticism. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/topic/An-Essay-on-Criticism
  • The Rape of the Lock

    The Rape of the Lock
    Alexander Pope's masterpiece. It is a mock-epic poem written in heroic couplets. The poem is rich in allegories and irony about the social world of its time.
    The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. (2017, February 08). The Rape of the Lock. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/topic/The-Rape-of-the-Lock
  • Gulliver’s Travels

    Gulliver’s Travels
    Written by Jonathan Swift. Considered one of the keystones of English literature and the work that gave shape to the novel form. This book is a satiric mockery of English traditions using the travel adventure narrative so popular in its time.
    Bauer, P., & Cregan-Reid, V. (2020, May 27). Gulliver's Travels. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/topic/Gullivers-Travels
  • Pamela

    Pamela
    This is a novel written by Samuel Richardson. This work is often attributed to being the first English novel. Richardson showed an innovative style in his work about the servant Pamela.
    The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. (2020, March 27). Pamela. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/topic/Pamela-novel-by-Richardson
  • Night Thoughts

     Night Thoughts
    Popular poem written by Edward Young. It is a long didactic poem on death written in black verse with a dramatic monologue. It was inspired by the author's personal losses.
    The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. (2020, April 01). Edward Young. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/biography/Edward-Young#ref268758
  • Joseph Andrews

    Joseph Andrews
    It is a novel, written by Henry Fielding, considered one of the fathers of the English novel. This novel was written with parodic intention and carries masterful irony and social criticism.
    The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. (2018, February 22). Joseph Andrews. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/topic/Joseph-Andrews
  • The Grave

    The Grave
    Written by Robert Blair, this long, uneven black verse poem reflects on human fragility and mortality. This poem was very influential in the graveyard school of poetry.
    The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. (2020, January 31). Robert Blair. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/biography/Robert-Blair#ref84713
  • Clarissa

    Clarissa
    Written by Samuel Richardson. This influential work is among the longest English novels ever written and carries a profound psychological insight. Richardson was a pioneer in the epistolary novel form expanding the dramatic possibilities of the novel.
    Cregan-Reid, V., & Towsey, D. (2017, May 31). Clarissa. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/topic/Clarissa-novel-by-Richardson
  • The Vanity of Human Wishes

    The Vanity of Human Wishes
    This is Samuel Johnson's most impressive poem. In this poem, Johnson describes the uselessness of human pursuit of greatness and happiness with a very rich imaginary and powerful conciseness.
    Folkenflik, R. (2020, September 14). Maturity and recognition. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/biography/Samuel-Johnson/Maturity-and-recognition
  • Period: to

    Age of sensibility

    This period is represented as the increasing awareness of feeling and emotion in arts, including literature giving birth to the English sentimental novel. Some characteristics of the sensibility novel were taken by romantic works.
  • An Elegy Written in a Country Church Yard

    An Elegy Written in a Country Church Yard
    This meditative poem was written by Thomas Gray. It is one of the most well-known elegies in the English Language, a meditation about the human potential exhibited in gentle melancholic tones.
    The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. (2017, August 16). An Elegy Written in a Country Church Yard. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/topic/An-Elegy-Written-in-a-Country-Church-Yard
  • The Female Quixote

    The Female Quixote
    This is Charlotte Lennox's most admired work. Charlotte Lennox's works were admired by great figures of her time including Samuel Johnson, Henry Fielding, and Samuel Richardson. Her work inspired Jane Austen's 'Northanger Abbey'.
    The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. (2020, January 01). Charlotte Lennox. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/biography/Charlotte-Lennox
  • Evelina

    Evelina
    It is a novel written by Fanny Burney. This novel was key in the development of the novel of manners, style eventually followed by authors like Jane Austen.
    The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. (2020, March 27). Evelina. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/topic/Evelina
  • Lyrical Ballads

    Lyrical Ballads
    It is a collection of poems written by Samuel Taylor Coleridge and William Wordsworth. This work is normally designated as the beginning of Romanticism. This contains the common-language poetry by Wordsworth supporting his theory that poetry should be written in the language used by men.
    The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. (2020, March 27). Lyrical Ballads. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/topic/Lyrical-Ballads
  • Period: to

    Romanticism

    This period is represented by the uprising of the novel as the most popular literary expression putting an end to its critical defamation. Women novelists were common and the main readers of romantic fiction were women.
  • The Lady of the Lake

    The Lady of the Lake
    The most successful work of the Scottish poet Sir Walter Scott. This work reflects Scott's practice of historical novel. The story retells the well-known legend of Ellen Douglas.
    The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. (2014, December 21). The Lady of the Lake. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/topic/The-Lady-of-the-Lake
  • Pride and Prejudice

    Pride and Prejudice
    This is one of Jane Austen's four works. This is a romantic novel that tells the love story of Elizabeth Bennet and Fitzwilliam Darcy. Told with Austen's modern portrayal of characters and satirical view of the world in her age.
    Dillon, S. (2020, August 21). Pride and Prejudice. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/topic/Pride-and-Prejudice
  • Biographia Literaria

    Biographia Literaria
    By Samuel Taylor Coleridge. This was the most important piece of literary criticism during the Romantic period. Combines philosophy, and literary criticisms in a lastingly influential way.

    Beer, J. B. (2020, July 21). Samuel Taylor Coleridge. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/biography/Samuel-Taylor-Coleridge.
  • Frankenstein

    Frankenstein
    Written by the romantic novelist Mary Shelley, it is one of the greatest exponents of the gothic novel and an early example of science fiction. Although it is her most known work, it's the futuristic novel The Last Man (1826) her best-acclaimed novel.
    Kuiper, K. (2020, August 26). Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/biography/Mary-Wollstonecraft-Shelley
  • Melmoth the Wanderer

     Melmoth the Wanderer
    Considered the las of the classic English Gothic romances. Written by Irish novelist Charles Robert Maturin. This work tells the adventures of an Iris Faust.
    The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. (2020, September 21). Charles Robert Maturin. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/biography/Charles-Robert-Maturin
  • Essays of Elia

    Essays of Elia
    Written by essayist and critic Charles Lamb. These are a collection of essays Lamb wrote for London Magazine under the pseudonym of Elia. These essays are an expression of the romantic movement.
    The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. "Charles Robert Maturin." September 21, 2020. https://www.britannica.com/biography/Charles-Robert-Maturin.
  • Don Juan

    Don Juan
    Lord Byron's most famous poem. Lord Byron was one of the grates exponents of the romantic movement. This satirical realistic poem exposes the hypocrisy of sexual conventions and the ambition and pretentiousness of humanity.
    Marchand, L. A. (2020, April 15). Lord Byron. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/biography/Lord-Byron-poet#ref91329
  • Sayings and Doings

    Sayings and Doings
    This is Theodore Hook's first work. He represents the fashionable life mixing fiction, social critique, and meta-fiction in this work. Esterhammer, A.(2020).Theodore Hook’s Sayings and Doings on the Page and the Stage: “A Curious Matter of Speculation”.In Print and Performance in the 1820s: Improvisation, Speculation, Identity(Cambridge Studies in Romanticism, pp. 112-142). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. DOI:10.1017/9781108656832.005
  • Period: to

    Victorian

    Queen Victoria's reign. Britains status as the most powerful empire in the world. This period is known for its double standard about sex that was not questioned until the last years of this age. Journalism and novels with complicated and entertaining plots dominated the Victorian literary culture.
    Steinbach, S. (2019, October 08). Victorian era. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/event/Victorian-era
  • A Christmas Charol

    A Christmas Charol
    One of the most famous Christmas stories of modern literature. Written by Charles Dickens, considered the greatest novelist of the Victorian era. Christmas carol is the most remarkable Christmas book to date.
    The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. (2019, November 10). A Christmas Carol. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/topic/A-Christmas-Carol-novel.
  • Jane Eyre

    Jane Eyre
    Written by Charlotte Brontë, the novel tells the conflicts of a woman with her social condition and natural desire. This novel gave a realistic portrayal of a woman and gave truthfulness to the Victorian novel.
    Cregan-Reid, V. (2020, May 12). Jane Eyre. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/topic/Jane-Eyre-novel-by-Bronte
  • Wuthering Heights

    Wuthering Heights
    Considered one of the greatest novels of English literature, written by Emily Brontë. It is a solid imagined, poetic, and dramatic novel that has not presented by the author and an unusual structure.
    Tompkins, J. M. (2020, July 26). Emily Brontë. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/biography/Emily-Bronte.
  • Vanity Fair

    Vanity Fair
    It is William Makepeace Thackeray's most famous novel. The novel is subtitled: 'A novel without a hero' representing its main subject which is human corruption, fragility, manners, and the human condition. The narrative, characterization, and descriptive power make this over one of the most outstanding of its time.
    The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. (2020, March 27). Vanity Fair. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/topic/Vanity-Fair
  • In Memoriam

    In Memoriam
    Written by Alfred Lord Tennyson, the Poet Laureate of the Victorian era. This poem reflects the Victorian feeling to reconnect with religious faith and traditions in an age of modern geology and the theories of evolution. This was Tennyson's big great success that brought him the friendship of Queen Victoria.
    The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. (2017, February 12). In Memoriam. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/topic/In-Memoriam.
  • Bleak House

    Bleak House
    Considered to be Charles Dickens's greatest work. This novel is a critic of England’s Court of Chancery which cases can last decades. The novel tells the story of the Jarndyce family and their long-running lawsuit in order to receive an inheritance.
    Bauer, P., & Haynes, D. (2020, February 11). Bleak House. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/topic/Bleak-House
  • Middlemarch

    Middlemarch
    This is a masterpiece written by George Eliot (pseudonym of Mary Ann Evans). This novel is a realist study of social class in the town of Middlemarch. In this work, Eliot escaped from the happy ending convention and described the reality of marriage, creatin a mature story with modernist tones.
    Cregan-Reid, V. (2020, March 27). Middlemarch. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/topic/Middlemarch
  • Treasure Island

    Treasure Island
    Considered to be the greatest exponent of the pirate's theme in a novel, written by Robert Louis Stevenson. It is a coming-of-age story that carries adventures and moral lessons for the young protagonist. The characterization, atmosphere, and narrative of this novel have made it so popular.
    Stewart, E. M., & Lowne, C. (2020, August 13). Treasure Island. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/topic/Treasure-Island
  • Jude the Obscure

    Jude the Obscure
    One of Thomas Hardy's finest and darkest novels. The novel presents a strong critique of marriage, the university system, and school. The sexual frankness of the novel made it so highly controversial at its time.
    The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. (2018, February 19). Jude the Obscure. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/topic/Jude-the-Obscure
  • Period: to

    Modern literature

    At this period the objective nature of novels lost strength such as external narrator, points of view, and clean-clear moral positions. The intricate plots were replaced with a more reflexing, aesthetic, and minimalist narrative. Literature became more experimental and innovative without taking into consideration the reader.
    History of English Language and Literature. (2017). Post-1945: Modernist Literature [Video]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=j0_ukw-3HXo.
  • The Soldier

    The Soldier
    This is a sonnet by Rupert Brooke. The sonnet is about an English proud soldier exclaiming his patriotism, sentimentality, and idealism about war. This poem was published in midst of WWI and its author died in the war.
    The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. (2017, August 04). The Soldier. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/topic/The-Soldier-poem-by-Brooke
  • Ulysses

    Ulysses
    This is James Joyce's masterpiece. This novel is written as a parallel of Homero's Odyssey. The book contains a deep character portrayal and the stream-of-consciousness narrative. Ulysses is considered by many scholars as the Modernist masterwork.
    Punter, David. "Ulysses." Encyclopædia Britannica. February 12, 2019. Accessed October 01, 2020. https://www.britannica.com/topic/Ulysses-novel-by-Joyce.
  • Mrs. Dalloway

    Mrs. Dalloway
    Written by Virginia Woolf. An essentially plotless novel that tells one day in the life of Clarissa Dalloway. The novel uses a stream-of-consciousness narrative. This novel, like many other Virginia Woolf novels, touch mental illness, in this case, PSTD.
    Lohnes, Kate. "Mrs. Dalloway." Encyclopædia Britannica. March 27, 2020. Accessed October 01, 2020. https://www.britannica.com/topic/Mrs-Dalloway-novel-by-Woolf.
  • To the Lighthouse

    To the Lighthouse
    It is the most successful of Virginia Woolf's stream-of-consciousness style. The main subject of the novel is the conflict between masculine and feminine principles in the universe.
    The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. "To the Lighthouse." Encyclopædia Britannica. March 27, 2020. Accessed October 01, 2020. https://www.britannica.com/topic/To-the-Lighthouse.
  • Period: to

    Post-Moderns

    Took place in the context of the second world war, the Hiroshima and Nagasaki nuclear bombs, the cold war, the iron curtain, and the USA as the dominant economy. Difficult times in England and the growth of different media sources. This age marks the end of heroic protagonists and an increasing celebration diversity.
    History of English Language and Literature. (2017). Post-1945: Post-Modern Age [Video]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=j0_ukw-3HXo.
  • A Clockwork Orange

    A Clockwork Orange
    It is Anthony Burgess's best-known work, the one that cemented Burges's reputation as a comic and mordant novelist. The novel follows the story of a morally corrupted teenager and the unsuccessful attempt to rehabilitate him.
    The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. (2020, February 21). Anthony Burgess. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/biography/Anthony-Burgess
  • The French Lieutenant's Woman

    The French Lieutenant's Woman
    It is John Fowles's best-known novel. The plot is set in the victorian age, toucher the victorian moral as its main subject. The novel is written using elements of Victorian novels and post-modernism
    The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. (2020, March 27). John Fowles. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/biography/John-Fowles
  • Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone

    Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone
    J.k Rowling's first release of the seven Harry Potter books. The Harry Potter franchise has evolved into a massive cultural movement since its first release.
  • White teeth

    White teeth
    This book is Zadie Smith's first novel that carries the author's distinctive savvy humor and eccentric characters. The book was a best-seller at its release and won several awards, it was so acclaimed that Zadie was compared with Charles Dickens by some critics.
    The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. (2020, July 29). Zadie Smith. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/biography/Zadie-Smith
  • Period: to

    Contemporary

  • Never let me go

    Never let me go
    Kazuo Ishiguro Novel-prize winning work. This work established Kazuo Ishiguro's influence as one of the most acclaimed contemporary novelists. The book is setten in a dystopian future where clones are genetically created to donate organs in a near future. It follows the story of three of those clones since childhood to their eventual death as organ donors.
    The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica.(2020, April 19). Kazuo Ishiguro. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/biography/Kazuo-Ishiguro