Helena Franco López_G&H_4oC

Timeline created by h2000
In History
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    Modern History

    Modern History started with the discovery of America by Colon in 1492 and ended with the French Revolution. It is the history of the world beginning after the Middle Ages, refering to the history since the Enlightenment in the 17th and 18th centuries and the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, that took part mostly in England.
    -The first face on the $1 Bill wasn't George Washington.
  • John Kay's flying shuttle

    John Kay's flying shuttle
    During the industrial revolution, the textile and iron industries were the dominant forces.
    In the textile industry, in the 18th century there was a large volume of import from indianas and hand-printed cotton fabric from India.
    A mechanisation process also took place in which one of key events was the John Kay's flying shuttle.
    Additional material:
    -Educative video
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    First Industrial Revolution

    It interconnected changes (parallel revolutions) driven by innovation and pioneered by Great Britain (mid-18th century).
    Some of the factors that triggered it were the increase in food production and population, new machinery, the railway and the creation of a large domestic market and new systems for financing companies and facilitating payments. Additional material:
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    Enclosure acts

    The British Parliament authorised the Enclosure Acts due to the rise in grain prices.
    It had consequences like the concentration of land ownership, improvement in farming techniques (rise of production) and the production aimed at the market (abolition of personal consumption). But, poor farmers had to sell their property and they had two options: become labourers in exchange for a wage or move to the cities.
    Additional material:
  • James Watt's steam engine

    James Watt's steam engine
    In 1769, it had many applications.
    For example, in the industrial machinery, it mechanisated the textile industry, and this led to a rise in productivity and total production, having lower costs and sale prices. In transport, it lead to a large domestic market and faster transatlantic crossing. But, it benefited also the agriculture, mines and mills.
    Additional material:
    -3D model
  • Adam Smith publishes The Wealth of Nations

    Adam Smith publishes The Wealth of Nations
    In 1776, Adam Smith published The Wealth of Nations, probably the most influential economics book on market.
    Later on, he published "The Theory of Moral Sentiments" (1759) and it was based in looking at human's nature and ethics.
    Additional material:
    -Adam Smith: An inquiry concerning the nature and causes of the wealth of nations
  • Invention of the power loom

    Invention of the power loom
    The power loom, which used water power to speed up the weaving processes, was invented by Cartwright. In 1785 he patented it.
    He also created a wool combing machine(1789) and a cordelier(1792). He also designed a steam engine that used alcohol instead of water.
    The ideas were licensed firstly by Grimshaw of Manchester who built a small steam-powered weaving factory in Manchester.
    Additional material:
    -Video of Edmund Cartwright
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    Contemporary History

    Contemporary History started with the French Revolution in 1789 and it continues in the present.
    Many horrible events happened in this period, such as World War I (1914-1918), World War II (1939-1945) and the discovery of the atomic bomb.
    -100 imposters claimed to be Marie Antoinette's dead son, because a Bourbon restoration was still a possibility.
    -President Abraham Lincoln is in the Wrestling Hall of Fame.
    -Napoleon was once attacked by a horde of bunnies.
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    French Revolution

    The French Revolution was a long and complex process with different phases and political groups.
    The phases were the Constitutional Monarchy (1789-1792), the Social Republic (1792-1794) and the Conservative Republic (1794-1799).
    Additional material:
    -Video of the causes of the French Revolution from TED-Ed (00:00-4:15).
    -Funny engraving of the French Revolution.
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    Constitutional monarchy

    The Constituent Assembly, formed by the moderate bourgeoisie, negociated with the king and privileged classes to establish a parlimentary monarchy in France.
    In August 1789 they approved the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen.
    In September 1791 they approved the first French constitution which included the formation of a Legislative Assembly with new laws to implement liberalism.
    Additional material:
    -Video (12:09-16:38).
  • Estates-General meeting

    Estates-General meeting
    The Estates-General meeting was convened due to the problematic situation that France was suffering.
    This assembly was divided in three different estates and it was just an advisory body with no power.
    During these meetings, the Third Estate was expelled from the assembly, because they demanded a vote per representative, rather than a vote per estate.
    Additional material:
    -Film: "La Révolution française" with English subtitles (23:03-25:47)
  • Tennis Court Oath

    Tennis Court Oath
    On the 20th of June 1789, Louis XVI closed the door of the Estates-General meeting, trying to expell the Third Estate and their supporters of the assembly. But they didn't give up and went to the Tennis Court Oath (Jeu de Paume) in Versailles and proclaimed themselves the National Assembly of France and promised to draft the constitution.
    Additional material:
    -Film: "La Révolution française" with English subtitles (21:21-23:03).
  • Storming of Bastille

    Storming of Bastille
    The Assembly's proposals got more supporters in Paris, tensing the situation and causing the storming of the Bastille.
    In the summer of 1789, the revolution spread to the countryside, triggering the Great Fear against nobles.
    Eventually, in autumn of 1789, the king accepted the National Assembly and France became a constitutional monarchy.
    Additional material:
    -Film: "La Révolution française" with English subtitles (39:29-40:49).
  • Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen

    Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
    This Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen was established in the Constitutional Monarchy. Finally, it abolished the feudal values.
    Moreover,12 million women were not included and they had no rights. In this sense, Olympe de Gouges wrote the Declaration of the Rights of Women and of the Female Citizen.
    Additional material:
    -Oldest predecessor: Cyrus Cylinder https://files.ondemandhosting.info/data/www.humanrights.org/files/cyrus_cylinder_0_es.jpg
  • Women's March on Versailles

    Women's March on Versailles
    Women contributed to french revolution in many ways. Before the revolution, they requested social rights to the king in the Cahiers de doléances.
    During the Enlightenment, the salonnières also participated in cultural meetings.
    They also marched on Versailles to force the king to move to the Tuileries Palace.
    Additional material:
    -Film: "La Révolution française" (1:09:29-1:15:05).
  • First French constitution

    First French constitution
    The first French constitution drafted the new liberalism's laws: abolition of guilds, creation of the National Guard and, eventually, the end of the financial crisis by legal equality of social groups, the nobility had to pay taxes and the church's properties were confiscated and sold.
    In July 1790 appeared the Civil Constitution of the Clergy.
    Additional material:
    -Approval of the constitution
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    Social Republic

    The Social Republic was the second phase of the Revolution. It started as a consecuence of the military invassion of Prussia and Austria (absolute monarchies) and the betrayal of the king when he tried to escape from Paris.
    All these facts, increased republican feelings among the sans-culottes and in 10th August 1792 they stormed Tuileries Palace and imprisioned the royal family, declaring a republic
    Additional material:
    -Video (1:45-17:46)
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    Girondin Convention

    In the Girondin Convention there was a new assembly elected by universal male suffrage (National Convention).
    They also executed the royal family and this led to a formation of an absolutist coalition in Europe to fight against revolutionaries. Therefore there were counter-revolutionary revolts in the countryside and royalists plots by privileged classes.
    Additional material:
    -Film: "La Révolution française"
    Arrest of the Girondins
  • Storm of Tuileries Palace

    Storm of Tuileries Palace
    During the Constitutional Monarchy, the sans-culottes stormed Tuileries Palace and imprisioned the royal family, declaring a republic in France. This led to the next phase of the revolution, the Social Republic as a consequence of the betrayal of the king and the military invasion of Austria and Prussia (absolute monarchies).
    Additional material:
    -Film: "La Révolution française" with English subtitles (2:37:14-2:43:01).
  • War of the First Coalition

    War of the First Coalition
    In 1792 the War of the First Coalition began. Its causes were that Louis XVI had asked the other European powers to help him stop the revolution. Austria and Prussia (absolute monarchies) aceeded, but only because they were afraid about the revolution spreading in their reigns. This war lasted 5 years and it finished with the Treaty of Campo Formio.
    Additional material:
    -Europe's map
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    Jacobin Convention

    In June 1793 the Jacobins seized power starting the most extreme revolution phase, their constitution included popular sovereignty and social equality.
    The Comittee of Public Safety was the executive power.
    They also neutralized enemies by the mass levy and the imposition of the Reign of Terror. Moreover, they created social laws to satisfy the sans-culottes.
    Additional material:
    -Film: "La Révolution française" with subtitles (2:07:39-2:09:55).
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    Reign of terror

    It was imposed during the Jacobins' government. They also executed a lot of people under the Law of Suspects. Besides that, they wanted an equal method of execution for everyone, more human. The doctor Joseph Ignace Guillotin created the Guillotin.
    Additional material:
    -Other resources
  • Execution of Louis XVI

    Execution of Louis XVI
    Louis XVI was executed during the Girondists government, because he was a symbol of the French Ancien Régime. Marie Antoinette was also executed the 16th of October 1793. Nowadays, we have some testemonies about this historical event, such as Louis-Sébastien Mercier's novel in which he talks about the kings' execution.
    Additional material:
    -Film: "La Révolution française" with English subtitles (39:48-45:17).
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    Conservative Republic

    In July 1794 a coup ended the dictatorial Jacobin government and Robespierre and their supporters were executed.
    Moderate bourgeoisie seized power, cancelled the Jacobins' laws and drafted the Constitution (1795) which included the census suffrage. The executive power was granted to the Directory, but despite this, the system was unstable, due to the opposition of the aristocracy and common people.
    Additional material:
    -Video (17:47-21:58)
  • Napoleon crowned emperor

    Napoleon crowned emperor
    The 9th November of 1799, Napoleon Bonaparte organised a coup (Coup of 18th Brumaire) supported by large part of the bourgeoisie and started an authoritatian rule. This event ended the French Revolution completely. It happened as a consecuence of the unstable situation in the Directory, due to the opposition of the aristocracy and the common people.
    Additional material:
    -National Geographic's Napoleon's photography album.
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    The Consulate

    The Consulate began with an autocratic and authoritatian government which had the following objectives: abolishment of the political instability of the Revolution, the consolidation of some of the revolutionary principles and the economic recovery through a government that represented the interest of the bourgeoisie.
    Additional material:
    -Video about the Napoleonic Wars (0:00-3:00)
  • Coup of 18th Brumaire

    Coup of 18th Brumaire
    In the context of crisis that France was suffering, Napoleon Bonaparte organised the Coup of 18th Brumaire which was supported by a large part of the bourgeoisie. It started Napoleon's authoritatian rule. This event also finished the French Revolution.
    This happened due to the opposition of the aristocracy and the common people to the Conservative Republic and the unstable situation with the Directory.
    Additional material:
    -History Channel's video:
  • Constitution of 1800

    Constitution of 1800
    Napoleon was named consul in 1799 and the Consulate (1799-1804) began.
    This Consulate established the Constitution of 1800 which included a new political system. This system abolished the separation of powers and declaration of rights, there were also very limited liberties and the public opinion was censured. Eventually, the states were organized in departments, ruled by prefects.
    Additional material:
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    The Napoleonic Empire

    In 1803, Napoleon began his conquest of Europe and was crowned emperor by the pope in 1804. He also defeated most European monarchies, due to the large army and new military tactics he developed.
    After Austerlitz, French troops seemed unstoppable.
    In 1808, Spain was invaded and Joseph Bonaparte was made king. In 1811 Napoleonic Empire reached its zenith. France controlled most of Europe.
    Additional material:
    -Video about the Napoleonic Wars(3:00-8:10)
  • Invasion of Spain and Joseph Bonaparte crowned king

    Invasion of Spain and Joseph Bonaparte crowned king
    During the Consulate, in 1808, Spain was invaded by Napoleon and Joseph Bonaparte was crowned as the new king of Spain. Eventually, in 1812, there were revolts in Spain against him, because the spaniards were experiencing a strong nationalistic sentiment, just like other countries: Poland, Germany and Italy.
    Additional material:
    -Fun fact: Napoleon's brother was nicknamed "Pepe Botella" while he was king of Spain.
  • Congress of Vienna

    Congress of Vienna
    The Congress of Vienna was organized by the Austrian Chancellor Metternich. Countries like Prussia, Russia, Britain and France also participated. The main objetives of this Congress were to stop the revolution and restore the absolute monarchy.
    To achieve their objetives, they had the following principles: legitimacy of absolutist monarchs, denial of national sovereignty, balance of power and the right of intervetion.
    Additional material:
    -BBC's speech
  • Holy Alliance Treaty

    Holy Alliance Treaty
    The Holy Alliance Treaty was one of the consequences of the Congress of Vienna, Prussia, Austria and Russia, they would unite if there were any threat of liberal revolution.
    In Europe, the four great powers (Britain, Austria, Russia and Prussia) reshaped the European map to their advantage and France returned to the 1792's borders, while they divided the Napoleonic Empire.
    Additional material:
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    The Restoration of Absolutism

    In 1814, the Restoration of the Absolutismin Europe started, but they profoundly failed. They tried to restablish it through the Congress of Vienna, however, the 1830 and 1848 revolutions ended the restoration.
    Additional material:
  • Battle of Waterloo

    Battle of Waterloo
    The fall of Napoleon began in 1808 with his failure of the Russia invassion.
    Later, in 1812, there were revolts in Spain against Joseph Bonaparte and, eventually, in 1815, the imperial army was defeated in Waterloo by Britain and Prussia.
    A little bit later, Napoleon abdicated and he was exiled to Saint Helena island.
    Additional material:
    -Dutch Belgian carabiniers at Waterloo.
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    Greek War of Independence

    Greece was part of the Ottoman Empire, however, greeks had to pay high taxes and they were excluded from state
    administration jobs. They were also dominated by people with different ideology.
    In 1822, greeks declared their independence.
    Later on, in 1827, greeks won thanks to France's and Britain's help.Finally, in 1830, the turks recognized Greece's independence.
    Additional material:
  • Stephenson’s steam locomotive

    Stephenson’s steam locomotive
    Stephenson's steam locomotive appeared and it carried more passengers and goods, needed less time and had a lower cost.
    Its name was Rocket and it was one of the first's steam locomotives with 0-2-2 wheels. It was constructed for the Rainhill's Tests, where it was declared the winner.
    Additional material:
    -Replication of the Rocket
  • Revolutions of 1830

    Revolutions of 1830
    The Congress of Vienna wasn't respectful with the liberal principles or the nationalistic aspirations of the Europeans. As a consecuence, two main forces appeared: Nationalism and Liberalism.
    The movement began, and, meanwhile in France, they were sucessful, in Poland, were harshly supressed.
    Additional material:
    -Situation's map:
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    The Age of the revolutions

    In 1848, many uprisings were supressed, but democratic reforms and many nationalistic aspirations were consolidated in 2nd half of the 19th century, they also demonstrated the importance of workers as a political force, the democrats defended popular sovereignty by universal male suffrage and they extended the collective rights (assembly and association).
    Additional material:
    -Didactive map:
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    The Belgian Revolution

    In 1815, the Congress of Vienna created the Kingdom of Netherlands which consisted of the Kingdom of Holland (protestant and absolutist) and Belgium (catholic and protestant).
    During 1830-1839 there was an armed conflict after Belgium's declaration of independence.
    Eventually, in 1839, they recognized Belgium's independence and the country became a liberal monarchy ruled by Leopold I.
    Additional material:
  • Zollverein

    In the process of the unification of Germany, in 1834, Prussia cretaed a customs union which was called Zollverein.
    Additional material:
    -Situation map:
  • Revolutions of 1848

    Revolutions of 1848
    The Spring of Nations started in 1848, people lived under the rule of an empire or were fragmented into various states. The uprising of liberalism and the expansion of nationalism caused an independent sentiment from absolutist empires.
    Many uprisings were supressed, but from 1830 to 1848 revolutions ended the absolutism, they also represented democratic ideals and the political importance of workers.
    Additional material:
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    French Second Republic

    During the Spring of Nations, in 1848, France experienced a popular uprising for the Second Republic. They also adopted some democratic measures, such as universal male suffrage, press freedom, abolition of death penalty and certain rights for workers.
    Additional material:
  • Invention of the Bessemer converter

    Invention of the Bessemer converter
    It is one of only three converters left in the world and was brought to the Sheffield Industrial Museum in 1978 as an example of the revolutionary steelmaking process which first took off in Sheffield. The Bessemer process (conversion of iron into steel) was invented and patented by Henry Bessemer in 1856.
    Additional material:
    -Manufacture of steel by Bessemer Process
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    Italian Unification Process

    Austria had annexed Lombardy-Venetia .
    In 1859, Kingdom of Piedmont, ruled by the liberal monarchy of Savoy with Cavour as Prime Minister, started the unification.
    They declared the war on Austria and annexed Lombardy.
    There was a popular uprising led by Garibaldi overthrew the absolute monarchies in central and southern Italy.
    Victor Manuel II of Savoy was proclaimed king of Italy. In 1866 Austria finally left Venetia.
    Additional material:
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    Germany Unification Process

    Prussia and Austria were competing for power in the German Confederation.In 1834, Prussia created the Zollverein union. In 1848, the 1st freely elected Parliament of Germany offered the crown to the king of Prussia, who refused it. In 1861, new political figures in Prussia appeared, King Wilhelm I and Otto von Bismarck as chancellor. In 1871, they proclaimed the Second German Empire (or Reich) with Wilhelm I as Kaiser
    Additional material: