Haiti Timeline (1957- )

Timeline created by newsonline
In History
  • François Duvalier becomes president

    François Duvalier becomes president
    The military is in control of Haiti when its favoured candidate, Dr. François "Papa Doc" Duvalier, wins the presidential election in September.
    <br>
    VIDEO: Life and death in Duvalier's Haiti May 15, 1963 [26:59]<br>
    <a href='http://archives.radio-canada.ca/politique/international/dossiers/3677/ >Videos about the Duvaliers in the Radio-Canada Digital Archive</a> (in French)
  • Tonton Macoutes formed

    Their official name was the National Security Volunteers (VSN), but they are better known as the Tonton Macoutes (Tontons Makout), which roughly translates as "bogeymen." Clément Barbot was their first chief.
    <br>
    Duvalier creates the VSN after a failed coup attempt.
  • Clément Barbot killed

    Duvalier turns on his chief henchman, Clément Barbot, and throws him in jail. After his release in April 1963, Barbot sets out to get even. There was a belief that Barbot could escape Duvalier's men by turning himself into a black dog, so it is said that Duvalier ordered that all black dogs be shot.
  • François Duvalier becomes "President for Life"

    Duvalier has Haiti's constitution rewritten so that he can stay in office for life. After a referendum on the new constitution, Duvalier is officially named "President for Life."
  • Jean-Claude Duvalier succeeds his father

    Jean-Claude Duvalier succeeds his father
    Jean-Claude Duvalier, then 19, takes over as president a day after the death of his father, François Duvalier.
    <br>
    Transparency International estimates that while in office, 'Baby Doc' embezzled between $300 million US and $800 million US.
  • Pope John Paul II arrives in Haiti

    John Paul II is the first Pope to visit the country. During an outdoor mass at Port-au-Prince's airport, he tells Duvalier and the Haitian elite that they have a "serious and urgent responsibility with respect to their brothers and sisters." He also publicly endorses the slogan of the country's Eucharistic Congress: "Something must change here."
  • 'Baby Doc' Duvalier flees Haiti

    'Baby Doc' Duvalier flees Haiti
    The Duvalier family leaves Haiti on a U.S. cargo plane after riots break out across the country. A national council of civilian and military leaders takes control, with Gen. Henri Namphy as president.
    <br>
    Exiled Haiti ruler can reclaim $4.6M: Swiss court (Feb. 3, 2010)
  • Election day massacre

    After a very bloody campaign, elections are held but later suspended by the military. On voting day, at least 22 voters are shot dead and 67 wounded, mostly at polling stations. The military and Tontons Makout are believed to be responsible for the shootings.
  • "Elections" in Haiti

    Less than 10 per cent of voters turn out for a military-sponsored election, the first in Haiti since the Duvalier era. The winner, Leslie-François Manigat, is deposed in a military coup five months later. Namphy declares himself head of a military government and abolishes the 1987 constitution.
  • Jean-Bertrand Aristide elected

    Jean-Bertrand Aristide elected
    Jean-Bertrand Aristide wins a landslide presidential victory in internationally supervised elections, taking 67 per cent of the votes.
  • Military coup overthrows Aristide

    Military coup overthrows Aristide
    A military coup sends Aristide into exile, eventually in the U.S.
  • Military regime steps down

    Faced with the threat of a U.S. invasion, the military regime agrees to hand over power to Aristide, and the United Nations lifts sanctions against Haiti's military rulers. The U.S. then sends in troops to occupy Haiti, sanctioned by the UN.
  • Jean-Bertrand Aristide returns to Haiti

    Jean-Bertrand Aristide returns to Haiti
    Three years after he was overthrown, Aristide returns from exile to resume his presidency.
    <br>VIDEO: Battling poverty in Port-Au-Prince (Oct. 9, 1994)
  • Lavalas coalition wins parliamentary elections

    The Lavalas Platform, a three-party coalition endorsed by Aristide, is victorious in general elections. International observers report violations of election procedures, including unopened ballots, poor ballot distribution and lack of information for voters.
  • René Préval wins election

    René Préval wins election
    Aristide's hand-picked successor, René Préval, is elected president. Haiti's government soon lapses into disarray as a divided legislature is unable to approve government budgets or authorize distribution of foreign aid.
  • Aristide wins election

    Aristide is elected president for the second time, and his Lavalas Platform wins a majority of seats in both legislative houses. The international community questions fairness of elections and opposition parties boycott them.
    <br>
    Aristide wins overwhelming majority in Haiti vote
    <br>
    <a href='http://www.cbc.ca/world/story/2000/05/21/haiti_election000521.html' >Voting ends, counting begins in Haiti.
  • Aristide inaugurated president

    Aristide inaugurated president
    Aristide is sworn in as president; his political rivals deny the legitimacy of his government and continue to demand new elections. Amnesty International says human rights and the rule of law has diminished in Haiti, citing harassment of opposition politicians and attacks on journalists.
    <br>
    Haiti tense on presidential inauguration day
  • Coup attempt against Aristide fails

    Coup attempt against Aristide fails
    Heavily armed assailants seize the National Palace in the early hours. According to a report from the Organization of American States, they announced that "Aristide was no longer president and that Guy Philippe (photo) was the new commander." The coup, in which about five people died, is put down in a matter of hours.<br>
    Aristide unhurt in attempted coup
  • 200th anniversary of Haiti's independence

    200th anniversary of Haiti's independence
    Haiti marks the 200th anniversary of its independence from France; supporters and opponents of Aristide stage demonstrations.
    <br>
    Political division marks Haiti's bicentennial
  • Aristide announces parliamentary elections

    Aristide, facing violent street protests and charges of corruption from the opposition, announces that parliamentary elections will be held within six months.<br>
    Aristide's plan for parliamentary elections criticized
  • Rebels take control of major centres

    Four days of rioting cause as many as 40 deaths and widespread looting. Pressure is put on Aristide to resign. Aristide says he will serve out his term, which runs until 2006. The opposition is accused of mounting a coup to overthrow Aristide.
    Dozens of people are killed in riots in Gonaïves, St. Marc and Grand Goâve, where rebels set fires and block roads.
  • 50 U.S. marines land in Haiti

    Rebels capture Cap-Haïtien, the country's second-largest city. About 50 U.S. marines land in Haiti to protect the U.S. Embassy and other U.S. facilities.
    <br>U.S. marines land in Haiti<br>
    Coup d'état in motion, Haiti's PM warns<br>
    Canada kicks in $1 million for Haiti
  • Opposition rejects peace plan

  • Aristide goes into exile again

    Aristide goes into exile again
    Aristide resigns the presidency and flees Haiti as rebels approach the capital. The United Nations Security Council unanimously approves a multinational military force to restore order in the country.
    <br>
    Aristide leaves office, flees Haiti
    <br>
    UN backs U.S.-led force in Haiti
  • Aristide accuses US of forcing him out

    Aristide accuses US of forcing him out
    Jean-Bertrand Aristide, from exile in the Central African Republic, accuses the U.S. of forcing him out of office in a coup d'état. French troops arrive in Port-au-Prince as part of the UN-approved international force. Rebel forces enter the capital and its suburbs.
    <br><a
    href="http://www.cbc.ca/world/story/2004/03/01/newhaiti040301.html">Troops begin to restore order in Haiti</a>
    <br>The crisis in Haiti: Roots of revolution
  • Rebel leader Guy Philippe declares himself military chief

    Rebel leader Guy Philippe declares himself military chief
    Rebel leader Guy Philippe says he wants to rebuild and lead Haiti's military.<br>
    Haitian rebel leader declares himself military chief
    <br>
    PHOTO GALLERY: Anarchy in Port-au-Prince, by Stephen Puddicombe
  • Canada decides to send troops to Haiti

    Canada decides to send 425 troops to Haiti for a 90-day mission. The force includes three infantry platoons, six helicopters and members of India Company. They will help patrol, provide humanitarian assistance, assist police and provide protection.
    <br>
    Canada to send more soldiers to Haiti
    <br>Haitian rebels to lay down arms
  • Floods claim 1400 lives

    Two rivers on the border between the Dominican Republic and Haiti burst their banks because of torrential rains, causing floods that kill about 1,400 people in the two countries.
    <br>
    Death toll raised in Dominican Republic, Haiti flooding
    <br>Food, supplies shipped to Haiti aid effort
  • UN takes over security in Haiti

    The UN assumes responsibility for security in Haiti, forming a force of 8,000 army troops and police from 30 countries, to be led by Brazilian Gen. Augusto Heleno Ribeiro.
    <br>
    UN peacekeeping force arrives in flood-ravaged Haiti
  • Canada sends 100 police officers to Haiti

    Prime Minister Paul Martin announces that 100 Canadian police officers, mostly from the RCMP, will be stationed in Haiti for two years.
    <br>
    Canada sends 100 police to Haiti
  • Last Canadian troops leave Haiti

    The last contingent of Canadian troops, 82 soldiers from CFB Gagetown, N.B., and CFB Trenton, Ont., returns from Haiti. A handful of Canadian soldiers remains in Haiti to oversee the shipment of heavy equipment back to Canada.
  • Hurricane Jeanne claims more than 3,000 lives

    Hurricane Jeanne claims more than 3,000 lives
    Hurricane Jeanne strikes Haiti, causing flooding and mudslides in the northwest of the country, especially Gonaïves.
    <br>Tensions mount in aftermath of Jeanne
    <br>More than 1,000 dead in Haiti
    <br>
    PHOTO GALLERY: Haiti floods<br>
    PHOTO GALLERY: After the hurricane (Stephen Puddicombe)
  • UN peacekeepers swarm Cité Soleil

    UN peacekeepers swarm Cité Soleil
    Hundreds of UN peacekeepers swarm the Port-au-Prince slum of Cité Soleil in an attempt to re-establish law and order. The actions take place just days after interim prime minister Gérard Latortue (photo) met with Canadian Prime Minister Paul Martin in Montreal.
    <br>UN peacekeepers invade Haiti slum
    <br>Canada to help rebuild Haiti's judicial system
  • Hurricane Dennis strikes Haiti

    Hurricane Dennis strikes Haiti
    Hurricane Dennis strikes Haiti, causing at least 56 deaths and leaving 1,500 families homeless.<br>
    The same day a military operation by UN troops in Cité Soleil claims about 26 lives.<br>
    Haiti, Cuba tally hurricane deaths
    <br>
    Photo Gallery: Dennis in Florida
  • Hurricane Wilma kills at least 12 in Haiti

    Hurricane Wilma kills at least 12 in Haiti
    Hurricane Wilma, the most intense hurricane ever recorded in the Atlantic basin, leads to at least 12 deaths in Haiti.
    <br>
    Storm kills 10 before folding into Wilma<br>
    Wilma could grow into 'major' hurricane<br>
    Wilma helps 2005 storm season tie record
  • René Préval wins presidential election

    René Préval wins presidential election
    After four postponements, Haitians vote in the first presidential elections in six years. It will take more than a week to determine the outcome: René Préval is elected president for the second time.<br>
    Préval declared winner in Haiti
    <br>Key Players (Indepth: Haiti) <br>
    PHOTO GALLERY: Election Week
  • Préval says he will end the exile of former president Aristide

    Préval says he will end the exile of former president Aristide
    Haiti's president-elect, René Préval, says he's ready to end the exile of former president Jean-Bertrand Aristide. Aristide was forced to flee after a violent rebellion and says he's ready to come out of exile. Préval was once a protégé of Aristide.<br>
    Haiti's Préval ready to welcome Aristide back home<br>
    Jean-Bertrand Aristide (Indepth: Haiti)
  • Gov. Gen. Michaëlle Jean begins visit to Haiti

    Gov. Gen. Michaëlle Jean begins visit to Haiti
    Canadian Gov. Gen. Michaëlle Jean begins a four-day visit to Haiti, the country of her birth. She attends the inauguration of president-elect René Préval.
    <br>
    Governor General visits Haiti<br>
    PHOTO GALLERY: Governor General in Haiti
  • René Préval is sworn in as president of Haiti

    René Préval is sworn in as president of Haiti
    Two months after his election – and two years after the ouster of Jean-Bertrand Aristide – René Préval is sworn in as president of Haiti. It is the second time Préval holds the office.<br>
    Haitian president calls for peace as 4,500 troops patrol the streets
  • UN military incursion into Cité Soleil results in many deaths

    Responding to international pressure, Préval agrees to an assault on Cité Soleil by UN troops. About 20 people are killed. More military incursions take place in the Port-au-Prince slum over the following months.
    <br>
    At least 5 dead as UN moves against Haitian gangs
  • Food riots in Haiti

    The Haitian senate dismisses Prime Minister Jacques Edouard Alexis after more than a week of demonstrations over rising food prices.
    <br>
    UN soldier killed in Haiti:
    Senate ousts PM over handling of food crisis
    <br>
    AUDIO: The Current's Anna Maria Tremonti interviews journalist Guyler Delva and analyst Peter Hallward (April 15)
  • Tropical Storm Fay leaves at least 18 dead in Haiti

    Tropical Storm Fay lashes Haiti and the Dominican Republic with torrential rains and floods that kill at least 10 people in Haiti.
    <br>
    Tropical storm Fay bears down on Cuba, Florida Keys
  • Hurricane Gustav hits Haiti

    Hurricane Gustav hits Haiti
    Hurricane Gustav triggers floods and landslides that kill 59 people in Haiti.
    <br>
    Gustav claims 67 lives in Haiti and Dominican <br>
    1 dead as Hurricane Gustav slams Haiti
  • Hurricane Hanna leaves 529 dead in Haiti

    Hurricane Hanna leaves 529 dead in Haiti
    Hurricane Hanna drenches flood-plagued Haiti, leaving behind at least 529 dead.
    <br>
    Families in Gonaïves scramble onto rooftops and scream for help as UN peacekeepers and rescue convoys try in vain to reach the city.
    <br>
    Storm's impact on Haiti 'bad as it can be': UN
    <br>
  • Michèle Pierre-Louis becomes prime minister

    Michèle Pierre-Louis becomes prime minister
    Michèle Pierre-Louis becomes Haiti's prime minister. Her nomination is ratified by the Senate July 31, ending more than three months of political bickering and deadlock in parliament.
    <br>
    Haitian lawmakers ratify PM, end deadlock
  • Hurricane Ike adds to Haiti's woes

    Hurricane Ike adds to Haiti's woes
  • René Préval tells UN about the devastation in Haiti

    René Préval tells UN about the devastation in Haiti
    President René Préval tells the UN General Assembly that his country requires long-term reconstruction efforts, beyond immediate food and disaster relief.
    <br>
    "We have to break this paradigm of charity in our approach to international co-operation … because charity has never helped any country to get out of underdevelopment," he says.
    <br>
    Haiti needs long-term help after storms, says UN official
    <br>Haiti's food crisis deepens after floods
  • School collapses in Pétionville with children inside

    School collapses in Pétionville with children inside
    The collapse of La Promesse Collège Évangélique in the Port-au-Prince suburb of Pétionville kills at least 94 children and teachers. The preacher who owned and built the school is arrested Nov. 8 and charged with involuntary manslaughter.<br>
    More survivors under collapsed Haiti school<br>Owner of collapsed Haiti school arrested
    <br>
    2nd school collapses in Haiti
  • Gay march in Haiti

    Gay march in Haiti
    About 500 demonstrators march through St. Marc in western Haiti in what organizers call the Caribbean nation's first openly gay march. A dozen men wear T-shirts declaring "I am gay" and "I am living with HIV/AIDS." HIV programs have helped decrease Haiti's infection rate by two-thirds in the last decade. <i>(Associated Press photo)</i>
  • Very low turnout for first round of Senate elections

    Few voters turn out for Senate elections in which candidates from former President Jean-Bertrand Aristide's Fanmi Lavalas party are not allowed to run. "In Haiti clear-plastic ballot boxes were nearly as empty as Port-au-Prince's unusually deserted streets ," the Associated Press reports.<br>
    UN delegation praises Haitian party's fight to run Senate candidates (March 14)
  • Bill Clinton named UN special envoy to Haiti

    Bill Clinton named UN special envoy to Haiti
    UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon announces that former U.S. president Bill Clinton has been appointed the UN envoy to Haiti.
    <br>
    Clinton named UN envoy to Haiti<br>
    Haiti needs more foreign aid: Moon, Clinton (March 9)
  • Run-off elections for Senate, low turnout again

    Run-off elections for Senate, low turnout again
    Voters again stay away from the second round of Senate elections despite government efforts to improve the low voter turnout of the first round.
  • Canada cancels Haiti's $2.3M debt

    Canada cancels Haiti's $2.3M debt
    Canada forgives $2.3 million in debt owed by Haiti as part of a plan that aims to relieve the world's poorest countries of $1.3 billion in debt.
    <br>
    Canada cancels Haiti's $2.3M debt
    <br>VIDEO: Haiti struggles to rebuild. (Claude Adams reports, Oct. 11, 2009)
  • Jean-Max Bellerive to replace Pierre-Louis as prime minister

    Jean-Max Bellerive to replace Pierre-Louis as prime minister
    Haiti's Senate removes Prime Minister Michèle Pierre-Louis from office. President René Préval names Jean-Max Bellerive as his choice for PM. Bellerive takes office Nov.11.
    <br>
    Haitian prime minister removed by Senate<br>
    Un nouveau premier ministre
  • A devastating 7.0-magnitude earthquake hits Haiti

    A devastating 7.0-magnitude earthquake hits Haiti
    A 7.0 magnitude earthquake, whose epicentre is 25 km west of Port-au-Prince, hits at 4:53 p.m. ET.
    <br>
    FULL COVERAGE: Haiti earthquake
  • International Donors' Conference

    International Donors' Conference
    At the UN the International Donors' Conference Towards a New Future for Haiti raises $10 billion in pledges. Donors' Conference: The next challenge in Haiti
  • Cholera outbreak

    Cholera outbreak
    In October an outbreak of cholera began in the Artibonite region of Haiti and soon spread throughout the country. By Oct. 21 tests had confirmed to health professionals it was cholera. Cholera outbreak kills 194 in Haiti
  • Presidential elections

    Presidential elections
    The first round of Haiti's presidential elections took place amidst controversy. Turnout was very low, with Mirlande Manigat emerging as the first round leader. Haitians protest election results
  • 'Baby Doc' Duvalier returns to Haiti

    'Baby Doc' Duvalier returns to Haiti
    Former Haitian dictator Jean-Claude (Baby Doc) Duvalier returned to Haiti from France, 25 years after he fled. 'Baby Doc' to explain return to Haiti: wife