Computer Language

Timeline created by Tyler Emory
  • Plankalkül

    Plankalkül is a computer language designed for engineering purposes by Konrad Zuse between 1943 and 1945. It was the first high-level non-von Neumann programming language to be designed for a computer. Also, notes survive with scribblings about such a plan calculation dating back to 1941.
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    Known for her discovery of a moth in a relay of the Mark I computer in 1945 which lead to the term "computer bug", Grace Hopper develops the first computer compiler which is called A-0, in 1951. In 1949 Hopper joined the Eckert-Mauchly Computer Corporation as a Senior Mathematician where she worked with John Eckert and John Mauchly on the UNIVAC computer. While there, she designed an improved compiler, a program which translated a programmer's instructions into computer codes.

    FORTRAN or formula translation was the first high level programming language invented by John Backus for IBM in 1954, and released commercially in 1957. Fortran is still used today for programming scientific and mathematical applications.
  • RPG

    RPGRPG is one of the few languages created for punched card machines that is still in common use today. This is because the language has evolved considerably over time. It was originally developed by IBM in 1959. The name Report Program Generator was descriptive of the purpose of the language: generation of reports from data files, including matching record and sub-total reports.
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    The original COBOL specification supported self-modifying code via the infamous "ALTER X TO PROCEED TO Y" statement. X and Y are paragraph labels, and any "GOTO X" statements executed after such an ALTER statement have the meaning "GOTO Y" instead. Mostcompilers still support it, but it should not be used in new programs as it was deprecated in COBOL 1985.
  • Lisp

    Lisp was invented by John McCarthy in 1958 while he was at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.McCarthy published its design in a paper in Communications of the ACM in 1960, entitled "Recursive Functions of Symbolic Expressions and Their Computation by Machine, Part I"He showed that with a few simple operators and a notation for functions, one can build a Turing-complete language for algorithms.
  • BASIC ( Beginner's All Purpose Symbolic Instruction Code)

    BASIC was written (invented) in 1963, at Dartmouth College, by mathematicians John George Kemeny and Tom Kurtzas as a teaching tool for undergraduates. BASIC's popularity was spread by both Paul Allen and William Gates, in 1975.It was the first product Microsoft sold. Later Gates and Microsoft wrote versions of BASIC for the Apple computer, and IBM's DOS which Gates provided came with its' version of BASIC.
  • LOGO

    Logo was created in 1967 for educational use, more so for constructivist teaching, by Daniel G. Bobrow, Wally Feurzeig, Seymour Papert and Cynthia Solomon. The name is derived from the Greek logos meaning word, emphasising the contrast between itself and other existing programming languages that processed numbers.It can be used to teach most computer science concepts, as UC Berkeley lecturer Brian Harvey does in his Computer Science Logo Style trilogy.
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    C is a general-purpose programming language initially developed by Dennis Ritchie between 1969 and 1973 at AT&T Bell Labs. Its design provides constructs that map efficiently to typical machine instructions, and therefore it found lasting use in applications that had formerly been coded in assembly language, most notably system software like the Unix computer operating system.
  • Pascal

    Pascal, named in honor of the French mathematician and philosopher Blaise Pascal, was developed by Niklaus Wirth.Initially, Pascal was largely, but not exclusively, intended to teach students structured programming. A generation of students used Pascal as an introductory language in undergraduate courses. Variants of Pascal have also frequently been used for everything from research projects to PC games and embedded systems. Newer Pascal compilers exist which are widely used.
  • SQL

    SQL was initially developed at IBM by Donald D. Chamberlin and Raymond F. Boyce in the early 1970s. Initially called SEQUEL (Structured English Query Language), was designed to manipulate and retrieve data stored in IBM's original quasi-relational database management system, System R, which a group at IBM San Jose Research Laboratory had developed during the 1970s. The acronym SEQUEL was later changed to SQL because "SEQUEL" was a trademark of the UK-based Hawker Siddeley aircraft company.
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    ML is a general-purpose functional programming language developed by Robin Milner and others in the early 1970s at the University of Edinburgh, whose syntax is inspired by ISWIM. Historically, ML stands for metalanguage: it was conceived to develop proof tactics in the LCF theorem prover. It is known for its use of the Hindley–Milner type inference algorithm, which can automatically infer the types of most expressions without requiring explicit type annotations.
  • B

    B B is a computer language designed by D. M. Ritchie and K. L. Thompson, for primarily non-numeric applications such as system programming. These typically involve complex logical decision-making, and processing of integers, characters, and bit strings.B programs are usually much easier to write and understand than assembly language programs, and object code efficiency is almost as good.Implementation of simple TSS subsystems is an especially appropriate use for B.
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    AdaThe Ada language is the result of the most extensive and most expensive language design effort ever undertaken. Up until 1974 half of the applications at The Department of Defense were embedded systems. An embedded system is one where the computer hardware is embedded in the device it controls.Because of this, software was rarely reused. For these reasons, the Army, Navy, and Air Force proposed to develop a high-level language for embedded systems.
  • C++

    Stroustrup set out to enhance the C language with Simula-like features. C was chosen because it was general-purpose, fast, portable and widely used. Besides C and Simula, some other languages that inspired him were ALGOL 68, Ada, CLU and ML.
  • Delphi

    Delphi was initially known as Appbuilder before its release. It was being developed as a confidential project in Borland. Danny Thorpe who was the developer of Delphi, chose the code name of the project itself which was Delphi. The main agenda for Delphi was to create connectivity between programmers. Hence they boiled down to the name of the project as Delphi. Anders Hejleberg was considered to be the chief architect of Delphi programming language.
  • Java

    James Gosling, Mike Sheridan, and Patrick Naughton initiated the Java language project in June 1991. Java was originally designed for interactive television, but it was too advanced for the digital cable television industry at the time. The language was initially called Oak after an oak tree that stood outside Gosling's office; it went by the name Green later, and was later renamed Java, from Java coffee, said to be consumed in large quantities by the language's creators.
  • Visual Basic

    VB 1.0 was introduced in 1991. The drag and drop design for creating the user interface is derived from a prototype form generator developed by Alan Cooper and his company called Tripod. Microsoft contracted with Cooper and his associates to develop Tripod into a programmable form system for Windows 3.0, under the code name Ruby.
  • Python

    Python is a general-purpose, high-level programming language whose design philosophy emphasizes code readability.Python was conceived in the late 1980s and its implementation was started in December 1989 by Guido van Rossum at CWI in the Netherlands as a successor to the ABC language capable of exception handling and interfacing with the Amoeba operating system.
  • JavaScript

    JavaScript is an open source client-side scripting language commonly implemented as part of a web browser in order to create enhanced user interfaces and dynamic websites.JavaScript was originally developed in Netscape, by Brendan Eich. Because Java was a competitor of C++ and aimed at professional programmers, Netscape also wanted a lightweight interpreted language that would complement Java by appealing to nonprofessional programmers, like Microsoft's Visual Basic.
  • PHP

    PHPPHP development began in 1994 when the developer Rasmus Lerdorf initially created a set of Perl scripts he called "Personal Home Page Tools" to maintain his personal homepage. The scripts performed tasks such as displaying his résumé and recording his web-page traffic.Lerdorf initially announced the release of PHP on the comp.infosystems.www.authoring.cgi Usenet discussion group on June 8, 1995.