BUS 380 HIstory of Management

Timeline created by nrailefy
  • Scientific Management

    F.W. Taylor came up with the techniques of scientific managements, which consist in 4 principles. Basically, it consists in “the systematic study of relationships between people and task for the purpose of redesigning the work process to increase efficiency” (Jones); by 1910 Taylor’s techniques had become nationally known.
  • Ford's Assembly Line

    Henry Ford changes mass production by installing the first moving assembly line for the production of an entire automobile. This improved the effectiveness of the employees (A Timeline of Management)
  • Fordism

    In order to motivate his employees, Henry Ford reduced the length of the workday from nine hours to eight hours. He also doubled the workers’ wage. Ford became an internationally famous figure not for the assembly line, but for taking this approach (Jones).
  • Hawthorne Experiments

    A series of studies that determined what motivates workers. In contrast to what Taylor proposed, it was found that workers are not only motivated by wages, emotional needs should be addressed too. Group decision-making becomes more popular. (Tanz)
  • Bureocratic Management Theory

    Max Weber proposed that organizations develop detailed and comprehensive standard operating procedures for all tasks that are routinized. His main focus was on establishing stronger lines of authority and control by dividing organizations into hierarchies. (Jones)
  • Fair Labor Standards Act

    The FLSA stablished a national minimum wage, and introduced a maximum of hours per workweek. This made the managers have to take more decisions according to wages and workers available. (Department of Labor)
  • The International Organization of Standardization

    The “ISO has published more than 19500 International Standards covering almost every industry, from technology, to food safety, to agriculture and healthcare” (Home).
  • Sociotechnical Systems Theory

    A study of a coal mine in South Yorkshire by the London’s Tavistock Institute of Human Relations ended in the creation of the Sociotechnical Systems Theory which considers both the social and the technical aspects when designing jobs. It is composed by four categories: environment subsystem, social subsystem, technical subsystem, and organizational design. (A Timeline of Management)
  • SWOT Analysis

    It is a structured planning method used by managers to evaluate the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats. Also used in marketing planning.(SWOT)
  • The Practice of Management

    5 basic roles of managers are intruced by Peter Drucker. The first question in discussion now is: What is our business and what should it be? (A Timeline of Management)
  • Contingency Theory

    Tom Burns, and G.M. Stalker in Britain and Paul Lawrence and, Jay Lorsch in the U.S. proposed the Contingency Theory. It is “the idea that the organizational structures and control systems managers choose depend on (are contingent on) characteristics of the external environment in which the organization operates” (Jones).
  • Theory X & Y

    The first one consists in watching over workers to make sure they get work done. It is believed that employees work harder while being under supervision. The second one says that workers will work without supervision and stay on task; employees will try to accomplish what it is asked by the employer. (Jones)
  • The Open-Systems View

    It was developed by Daniel Katz, Robert Kahn, and James Thompson in the 1960s. It was a “system that takes in resources from its external environment and converts them into goods and services that are then sent back to that environment for purchase by custimers” (Jones).
  • The Equal Pay Act

    The EPA “[prohibited] discrimination on account of sex in the payment of wages by employers engaged in commerce or in the production of goods for commerce” (EEOC)
  • The Age Discrimination in Employment Act

    It prohibits age discrimination in employment by the employer (EEOC).
  • Occupational Safety and Health Act

    The OSHA assures “safe and healthful working conditions for working men and women; by authorizing enforcement of the standards developed under the Act” (Department of Labor). This forced the employers to arrange the work place and make decisions according to employees’ safety in the workplace.
  • Transfomation Leadership

    Now the new job for the leaders is to determine how the company and the employees can benefit society; it is not only about the money anymore. This idea was developed by James MacGregor in his book Leadership. (Tanz)
  • Pregnancy Discrimination Act

    Consisted in “to amend Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 to prohibit sex discrimination on the basis of pregnancy” (EEOC). This not also forced managers to have more gender equality, but it also enforced them to make decisions according to maternity leave, wages, and other decisions related to pregnancy.
  • American with Disabilities Act

    The ADA “prohibits discrimination against people with disabilities in employment, transportation, public accommodation, communications, and governmental activities” (Department of Labor). It forced managers to have a work place designed for people with disabilities. It also changed the way people manage because now people with disabilities had to be considered and involved.
  • Family Medical Leave Act

    Basically, “the FMLA entitles eligible employees of covered employers to take unpaid, job-protected leave for specified family and medical reasons with continuation of group health insurance coverage under the same terms and conditions as if the employee had not taken leave” (Department of Labor). Now managers have to pay employees even though if they are not working, which means they need manage how to cover that person’s work and wage with a substitute.