Algeria / France

Timeline created by Isabella1024
  • Étoile nord-africaine (North African star) – founded in Paris

    Étoile nord-africaine (North African star) – founded in Paris
    Étoile nord-africaine (North African star) was the first Algerian movement to claim for the Algerian independence from France. It was founded in France in 1926. However it didn't endure for the long time, they drew what originated the national flag that was adopted in 1962, the year of Algerian independence. (the drawing is attributed to Abd-el-Kader)
  • Manifesto of the Algerian People

    Manifesto of the Algerian People
    The “Manifesto of the Algerian People” was written by Ferhat Abbas (picture) - an exponent on the struggle for Algerian equal rights in front of the French - and introduced to the French and the Allied authorities in North Africa. It demanded an end to the French colonial ruling and aspired for Algerian self-determination and a constitution granting equal opportunities to all Algerians.
  • 8 May Massacre (Sétif and Guelma massacre)

    8 May Massacre (Sétif and Guelma massacre)
    When celebrations marking the end of the WWII took over the streets of the Algerian city of Setif, protesters joined the celebration to demand independence and more rights for the Algerians. The French army, however, violently smashed the demonstration. The repression spread throughout Setif and the neighbour city of Guelma. It ended in May 22nd, and, according to Algerian sources, 45,000 Algerian civilians were killed.
  • Creation of UN

    Creation of UN
    The creation of UN marked a moment that the world needed a worldwide organisation of countries. Aiming at keeping peace and dialogue among nations, it had an important role to end the Algerian War for independence.
  • Organic Statute of Algeria

    In 1947, in Paris, the French National Assembly passed the Organic Statute of Algeria. This statute proposed the establishment of an Algerian Assembly, which would have one house representing Europeans and "exemplary" Muslims and the other representing the rest of the 8 million Muslims. Settlers and muslims didn't agree to pass the Statute for the same reason: both thought it gave too much to the adversary.
  • "The Second Sex"

    "The Second Sex"
    The "holy book" of modern feminism, written by Simone de Beauvoir, contests patriarchy. It had an enormous impact in the social beliefs from the time. Some traditional part of society understood the book as pornography and was even put in Vatican's list of forbidden books.
  • Creation of FLN (National Liberation Front / Front de libération nationale

    Creation of FLN (National Liberation Front / Front de libération nationale
    Algerian nationalist movement which started the Algerian War for Independence. Created by dissidents of previous organisations that were believed to be too peaceful, they started the war on 1st of November 1954. (On the picture six founders of the FLN)
  • Bandung Conference

    Bandung Conference
    The Bandung (Indonesia) Conference was the meeting of 29 African and Asian countries to discuss this part of the world interests in the global context. It allowed the participation of African and Asian countries in the UN, which helped in the debate over the Algerian War for independence. It also led to the later creation of the Non-Aligned Movement, that is today the second largest international organisation of countries after the UN
  • May Crisis of 1958

    May Crisis of 1958
    The May Crisis of 1958 marked the end of the French 4th Republic and the beginning of the 5th. It also brought back to power General de Gaulle (he was absent from power since 1946). It started with demonstrations from European Algerians, who opposed the new government of Pierre Pflimlin (who was in favour of a negotiation with the FLN) and demanded more rights to the European French Settlers (known as pieds-noirs - literally "black feet").
  • De Gaulle recognises Algerian rights

    On a televised speech on 16 September 1959, de Gaulle recognised the right of Algerian self-determination. It caused him to be seen as a traitor by French Algerians.
  • Gerboise Bleue - 1st Nuclear French test in Algeria

    Gerboise Bleue - 1st Nuclear French test in Algeria
    On February 1960 France exploded its first nuclear test bomb in the Saharan Algeria. It was the first of 17 bombs that were tested.
    To this day the tests locations remain contaminated.
  • 1960 Algerian Demonstrations

    1960 Algerian Demonstrations
    The French president Charles de Gaulle was supposed to be in Algeria from 9 to 12 December 1960. In 11 December, uprisings from the colonised population popped up throughout Algeria, from elderly to women and children. Since the French army believed to have eliminated the political dissent in Algeria as for the end of the Battle of Algiers, these demonstrations were a surprise event that had a great impact on the process of the Algerian independence.
  • The Seine Massacre

    The Seine Massacre
    Thousands of Algerians gathered in different locations around Paris to protest a curfew imposed to "Algerian Muslim workers" in Paris. The Franco-Algerian war had been increasingly violent and the FLN had carried violent attacks on policemen in Paris. This demonstration, however, was supposed to be peaceful, but the French police received orders to violently suppress it. At the end, several people were killed and some thrown in the Seine river. Numbers vary from 50 to 300 Algerians killed.
  • Évian Agreement / Évian Accords

    Évian Agreement / Évian Accords
    Peace negotiations had started between France and the FLN (which led a provisional government in the Algerian Republic) already in 1961 - opposing the will of the European Algerians. The cease-fire was signed in the French city of Evian-les-Bains, with France granting independence to Algeria depending on a referendum to be done with the Algerians. The referendum was held in 1st of July 1962 and the great majority voted to approve the agreement.
  • Student Protests of May 1968

    Student Protests of May 1968
    Challenging the traditional social status quo, as well as the universities administration, students started a series of protests. They were from the start joined by teachers, and soon workers from other fields also engaged in the protests, refusing to work.
    It lasted from 6 May until 27 May, and on 30 May president Charles de Gaulle announced elections for June the same year and dismantled the National Assembly.
  • Black October - Protests in Algeria

    Black October - Protests in Algeria
    In 1988 mass dissatisfaction with the life conditions as well as with the government led to mass insurrections spread around Algeria.
    The result of these protests, although violent, eventually led to the allowance of multiple parties in politics and changes in the constitution in benefit of the Algerian people.
    Four years later, in 1992, Black October protests would resound back again.
  • Civil War

    Civil War
    When the FIS (Islamic Salvation Front) was about to win the elections against the ever ruling FLN, the army turned out to stop it by a coup that returned to power a member of the FLN. The reaction from the crowds escalated from protests to armed guerrillas, and a civil war devastated the country until its end in 2002. Consequences of it lasted and the emergency state was only lifted in 2011.
  • 23 February 2005 French law on colonialism

    A law approved by the National Assembly in France, had a controversial clause added to the bill, which stated that: "School courses should recognise in particular the positive role of the French presence overseas, notably in north Africa.". It caused great resentment from people that schools should teach the "positive aspects of colonialism", and under protest the then president Jacques Chirac repealed the aforementioned article in 2006.
  • Charlie Hebdo Terrorist Attack

    Charlie Hebdo Terrorist Attack
    The terrorist attack on the magazine Charlie Hebdo offices in Paris killed 12 and wounded 11 people.
    The attack originated from a series of cartoons made by the magazine about Mohammad, which had previously already caused the closing of embassies and schools in more than 20 countries for fear of retaliation.
    The attack caused commotion in France and worldwide, and the expression "Je suis Charlie" became a slogan of support to the victims.
  • Bouteflika's Resignation

    Bouteflika's Resignation
    Mass protests avoided the president Abdelaziz Bouteflika from running for his fifth term in a row.
    Not only Bouteflika had changed the constitution that only allowed two terms in a row, since 2013 the president rarely appeared in public for health issues. In addition to that, corruption charges has since long damaged the government's reliability.
    The president withdrew his nomination for the next elections and eventually was forced to resign.
  • Period: to

    Algerian War of Independence or the Algerian Revolution

    War against French colonisation in Algeria. It officially started when the FLN (National Liberation Front / Front de Libération Nationale) put in motion several attacks throughout Algeria in a war for independence.
  • Period: to

    Battle of Algiers

    Eleven months of Algerian guerrilla attacks and repression from the French army marked a violent period of the Algerian War for Independence. Through the use of torture and other abusive means, the French army eventually captured or killed all the FLN heads in Algiers, giving for a while the impression that the FLN was over.