Timeline created by md1483
  • Early history of testing and accountability

    Horace Mann (the father of standardized testing) modeled testing measurements and standards after Prussian schools. This shows the early history of what we know now as standardized testing. History of Standardized Testing. (n.d.). Retrieved from
  • Elementary and Secondary Education Act (constitutional/statutory law)

    Enacted by President Lyndon Baines Johnson during the mid 1960s, this law ensured that students would be held accountable through testing. This also began the height of Johnson presidency where he advocated strongly for equal education opportunities for all children. Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965, H.R. 89, 115th Cong. § 1001 (1965)
  • Higher education act (constitutional/statutory law)

    This act also signed into action by President Johnson, was to ensure further the progression of equal education for all, but extending to college and universities. This also included financial aid. Higher education act. (n.d.). Retrieved from Higher Education Act of 1965, H.R. 89, 115th Cong. § 101 (1965)
  • FERPA (administrative law)

    The Family Educational and Privacy Rights act was enacted to protect the privacy and rights of student records. This also meant that a parent or student has the right to his/her information being released for public use. 20 U.S.C. § 1232g
  • The Education for All Handicapped Children Act (statutory law)

    This act ensured that students with either mental or handicapped disabilities would have the same equal access to education as everyone else. This follows the model of the elementary and secondary education act (1965). 20 U.S.C. § 1401 (1975)
  • No Child Left Behind (administrative law)

    Enacted by President George W. Bush this tied to the elementary and secondary education act of 1965 to further President Johnson agenda of continuing education. This law tied standardized testing to funding for schools and made standardized testing mandatory for all. No pass, no play is also introduced to tie grades to athletes for accountability purposes. 20 USC 6301 No Child Left Behind of 2001, H.R. 89, 117th Cong. § 107 (2002)
  • Background checks and hiring teachers in Texas (administrative/statutory law)

    Under Senate Bill 9 which passed to ensure backgrounds checks for teachers. This includes fingerprinting in conjunction with the Texas Education Agency (TEA) and the school districts. Also included is working with the (SBEC) to determine if the educator has the proper credentials. 22 U.S.C. § 7&9
  • Looking at accountability and testing

    Studies start being conducted looking into NCLB (2002) and how standardized testing is affecting student performance. Studies began to show that America is falling behind significantly compared to the rest of the world. Politicians and educators begin to come together and look at how to improve on test standards and scores, since data has shown English Language Learners and low-income students have a harder times succeeding.
  • House Bill 5 (Texas) (administrative/statutory law)

    This set the new standards for graduation requirements for future students. Students in 5th and 8th grade must still pass the STAAR test to continue to the next grade level. High school students must continue standardized testing requirements in order to graduate. Also, modified number of credits to earn to graduate as well. 19 TAC Ch. 74 Grad. Requirements
    20 U.S.C. § 74.11 (2013)
  • Final Thoughts

    In holding students accountable, the test data shows that not enough is being done to help students succeed. The low succeeding students are falling behind, while nothing is being done to help those students catch up. The standardized testing methods have not changed since Horace Mann and that's why those low succeeding students can't match up with everyone else. Steps are being taken like House Bill 5, but not fast enough as America is still behind.