Civil WarCivil war begins in the United States. (It lasts for 4 years) This war is between the Southern States (the Confederay) and the Northern States (the Union). Britian unofficially supported the Confederacy because of the threat of the North invading BNA.
Trent IncidentThe Trent, a Brtisih steamer, was seized by a Union warship when it entered open waters in the Gulf of Mexico.
This incident causes Britain to send troops to Canada and made them realize issues of defence in BNA.
The Great CoalitionBrown & Cartier (Tories) and Macdonald ("Clear Grits") unite to form the Great Coalition, due to political deadlock. This group had a positive impact on the development of Confederation.
Charlottetown ConferenceThe 4 Atlantic colonies met to discuss the idea of a Maritime Union, who were somewhat fearful of Confederation, thinking it would steal their heritage and money. Canadian representatives also came and impressed the Maritimers.
The result: agreement on a federal union.
Québec ConferenceMaritime delegates came to Québec City to meet with the others to disucss the terms of a federal union. John A. MacDonald directed and wrote most of the 72 Resolutions.
1. Parliamentary system of government
2. Ties to Britain would remain
3. Federal and provincial governments would exist
"A Mari usque ad Mare" = A Country from sea to sea
St. Albans Raid21 Confederate soldiers crossed into Vermont into St.Alban's, taking possession of the town, robbings the banks and killing one person.
The soldiers fled and were captured, but turned over to Canadian militia.
At trial, they were released, which made the Americans furious.
The threat of the USA was again evident. This event had a strong effect on the USA ending the Reciprocity Treaty.
A VoteConfederation debates occured throughout the years. French Canadians felt that their way of life would be threatened by Confederation, as they would be a minority. The 72 Resolutions were passed in a vote on March 11, 1865, but it showed a deep division in French Canadians. The Results of the Vote:
91 for, 33 against French Canadians:
27 for, 21 against
Reciprocity Treaty ENDSThe United States ends the Reciprocity Treaty with Canada after 12 years, hoping that this will economically cripple BNA. This also had a positive effect on the Maritimer's view of Confederation.
Confederation RevivedThe Maritimes were unsure about Confederation. Tilley, a leader in New Brunswick who supported it, lost an election in 1865, stalling Confederation. The British Government was not pleased so British banks would not support Smith, an anti-Confederate, who was trying to build a railway. Smith was forced to resign in April 1866 and Tilley became the new leader. The Fenians, an Irish group of rebels, began to invade Canada and this resulted in the Maritimes rejoning the push for Confederacy.
London ConferenceJohn A. MacDonald chaired this conference. The 72 Resolutions were reviewed with small changes made. On March 29, 1867, Queen Victoria signed the BNA Act: Canada, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia are united by law.
Canada's BirthdayTHE DOMINION OF CANADA EXISTS!