210218 June Young HEO - Historical Perspective of Artificial Intelligence

Timeline created by beyond1230
  • Invention of the programmable digital electronic computer

    Invention of the programmable digital electronic computer
    In 1941 an invention revolutionized every aspect of the storage and processing of information. That invention, developed in both the US and Germany was the electronic computer. The first computers required large, separate air-conditioned rooms, and were a programmers nightmare, involving the separate configuration of thousands of wires to even get a program running.
    The 1949 innovation, the stored program computer, made the job of entering a program easier, and advancements in computer theory le
  • "A Logical Calculus of the Ideas Immanent in Nervous Activity"

    Warren Sturgis McCulloch and Walter Pitts publish "A Logical Calculus of the Ideas Immanent in Nervous Activity" (1943), laying foundations for artificial neural networks.[26]
  • Vannevar Bush published As We May Think (The Atlantic Monthly, July 1945)

    Vannevar Bush published As We May Think (The Atlantic Monthly, July 1945) a prescient vision of the future in which computers assist humans in many activities.
  • John von Neumann (quoted by E.T. Jaynes) in response to a comment at a lecture that it was impossible for a machine to think

    John von Neumann (quoted by E.T. Jaynes) in response to a comment at a lecture that it was impossible for a machine to think: "You insist that there is something a machine cannot do. If you will tell me precisely what it is that a machine cannot do, then I can always make a machine which will do just that!". Von Neumann was presumably alluding to the Church-Turing thesis which states that any effective procedure can be simulated by a (generalized) computer.
  • Alan Turing proposes the Turing Test

    Alan Turing proposes the Turing Test as a measure of machine intelligence.
  • Claude Shannon published a detailed analysis of chess playing as search.

    Claude Shannon published a detailed analysis of chess playing as search.
  • Isaac Asimov published his Three Laws of Robotics.

    Isaac Asimov published his Three Laws of Robotics.
  • The first working AI programs were written

    The first working AI programs were written in 1951 to run on the Ferranti Mark 1 machine of the University of Manchester: a checkers-playing program written by Christopher Strachey and a chess-playing program written by Dietrich Prinz.
  • Arthur Samuel (IBM) wrote the first game-playing program

    Arthur Samuel (IBM) wrote the first game-playing program[28], for checkers (draughts), to achieve sufficient skill to challenge a respectable amateur. His first checkers-playing program was written in 1952, and in 1955 he created a version that learned to play.[29]
  • Newell and Simon developed The Logic Theorist, considered by many to be the first AI program.

    Newell and Simon developed The Logic Theorist, considered by many to be the first AI program.
    In late 1955, Newell and Simon developed The Logic Theorist, considered by many to be the first AI program. The program, representing each problem as a tree model, would attempt to solve it by selecting the branch that would most likely result in the correct conclusion. The impact that the logic theorist made on both the public and the field of AI has made it a crucial stepping stone in developing the AI field.
  • The first Dartmouth College summer AI conference is organized by John McCarthy, Marvin Minsky, Nathan Rochester of IBM and Claude Shannon.

    The first Dartmouth College summer AI conference is organized by John McCarthy, Marvin Minsky, Nathan Rochester of IBM and Claude Shannon.
  • John McCarthy regarded as the father of AI, organized a conference to draw the talent and expertise of others interested in machine intelligence for a month of brainstorming.

    John McCarthy regarded as the father of AI, organized a conference to draw the talent and expertise of others interested in machine intelligence for a month of brainstorming.
    In 1956 John McCarthy regarded as the father of AI, organized a conference to draw the talent and expertise of others interested in machine intelligence for a month of brainstorming. He invited them to Vermont for "The Dartmouth summer research project on artificial intelligence." From that point on, because of McCarthy, the field would be known as Artificial intelligence. Although not a huge success, (explain) the Dartmouth conference did bring together the founders in AI, and served to lay the
  • The name artificial intelligence is used for the first time as the topic of the second Dartmouth Conference, organized by John McCarthy

    The name artificial intelligence is used for the first time as the topic of the second Dartmouth Conference, organized by John McCarthy[30]
  • The first demonstration of the Logic Theorist (LT) written

    The first demonstration of the Logic Theorist (LT) written by Allen Newell, J.C. Shaw and Herbert Simon (Carnegie Institute of Technology, now Carnegie Mellon University). This is often called the first AI program, though Samuel's checkers program also has a strong claim.
  • the first version of a new program The General Problem Solver(GPS) was tested.

    In 1957, the first version of a new program The General Problem Solver(GPS) was tested. The program developed by the same pair which developed the Logic Theorist. The GPS was an extension of Wiener's feedback principle, and was capable of solving a greater extent of common sense problems. A couple of years after the GPS, IBM contracted a team to research artificial intelligence. Herbert Gelerneter spent 3 years working on a program for solving geometry theorems.
  • The General Problem Solver (GPS) demonstrated by Newell, Shaw and Simon.

    The General Problem Solver (GPS) demonstrated by Newell, Shaw and Simon.
  • McCarthy announced his new development; the LISP language, which is still used today.

    While more programs were being produced, McCarthy was busy developing a major breakthrough in AI history. In 1958 McCarthy announced his new development; the LISP language, which is still used today. LISP stands for LISt Processing, and was soon adopted as the language of choice among most AI developers.
  • John McCarthy (Massachusetts Institute of Technology or MIT) invented the Lisp programming language.

    John McCarthy (Massachusetts Institute of Technology or MIT) invented the Lisp programming language.
  • ohn McCarthy and Marvin Minsky founded the MIT AI Lab.

    ohn McCarthy and Marvin Minsky founded the MIT AI Lab.
  • James Slagle (PhD dissertation, MIT) wrote (in Lisp) the first symbolic integration program, SAINT, which solved calculus problems at the college freshman level.

    James Slagle (PhD dissertation, MIT) wrote (in Lisp) the first symbolic integration program, SAINT, which solved calculus problems at the college freshman level.
  • MIT received a 2.2 million dollar grant from the United States government to be used in researching Machine-Aided Cognition (artificial intelligence).

    MIT received a 2.2 million dollar grant from the United States government to be used in researching Machine-Aided Cognition (artificial intelligence).
    In 1963 MIT received a 2.2 million dollar grant from the United States government to be used in researching Machine-Aided Cognition (artificial intelligence). The grant by the Department of Defense's Advanced research projects Agency (ARPA), to ensure that the US would stay ahead of the Soviet Union in technological advancements. The project served to increase the pace of development in AI research, by drawing computer scientists from around the world, and continues funding.
  • John McCarthy who received the Turing Award for his major contributions to the field of Artificial Intelligence (AI).

    John McCarthy who received the Turing Award for his major contributions to the field of Artificial Intelligence (AI).
    John McCarthy received the Turing Award in 1971 for his major contributions to the field of Artificial Intelligence (AI). He was responsible for the coining of the term "Artificial Intelligence" in his 1955 proposal for the 1956 Dartmouth Conference and is the inventor of the Lisp programming language.
  • David Marr proposed new theories about machine vision

    David Marr proposed new theories about machine vision, for example, how it would be possible to distinguish an image based on the shading of an image, basic information on shapes, color, edges, and texture. With analysis of this information, frames of what an image might be could then be referenced. another development during this time was the PROLOGUE language. The language was proposed for In 1972.
  • David Marr published "Artificial intelligence: A personal view."

    David Marr published "Artificial intelligence: A personal view."
    (1976, March) "Artificial intelligence: A personal view." Technical Report AIM 355, MIT AI Laboratory, Cambridge, MA.
  • Over a hundred companies offered machine vision systems in the US, and sales totaled $80 million.

    Other fields of AI also made there way into the marketplace during the 1980's. One in particular was the machine vision field. The work by Minsky and Marr were now the foundation for the cameras and computers on assembly lines, performing quality control. Although crude, these systems could distinguish differences shapes in objects using black and white differences. By 1985 over a hundred companies offered machine vision systems in the US, and sales totaled $80 million.
  • US sales of AI-related hardware and software surged to $425 million.

    During the 1980's AI was moving at a faster pace, and further into the corporate sector. In 1986, US sales of AI-related hardware and software surged to $425 million. Expert systems in particular demand because of their efficiency. Companies such as Digital Electronics were using XCON, an expert system designed to program the large VAX computers. DuPont, General Motors, and Boeing relied heavily on expert systems Indeed to keep up with the demand for the computer experts, companies such as Tekno
  • Period: to

    The demand in AI systems decreased, and the industry lost almost a half of a billion dollars.

    The 1980's were not totally good for the AI industry. In 1986-87 the demand in AI systems decreased, and the industry lost almost a half of a billion dollars. Companies such as Teknowledge and Intellicorp together lost more than $6 million, about a third of there total earnings.
  • Due to project setbacks and unlikely success, the Pentagon cut funding for the project.

    The large losses convinced many research leaders to cut back funding. Another disappointment was the so called "smart truck" financed by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. The projects goal was to develop a robot that could perform many battlefield tasks. In 1989, due to project setbacks and unlikely success, the Pentagon cut funding for the project.
  • The movie 'A.I.' came out.

    The movie 'A.I.' came out.
    A.I. Artificial Intelligence, also known as Artificial Intelligence: A.I. or simply A.I., is a 2001 Academy Award nominated science fiction film directed, co-produced and co-written by Steven Spielberg. Based on Brian Aldiss' short story "Super-Toys Last All Summer Long", the film stars Haley Joel Osment, Frances O'Connor, Jude Law, Sam Robards, Jake Thomas and William Hurt. Set sometime in the future, A.I. tells the story of David, a child-like android programmed with the unique ability to love
  • Twenty-ninth SGAI International Conference on Artificial IntelligenceCAMBRIDGE

    AI-2009 is the twenty-ninth Annual International Conference of the British Computer Society's Specialist Group on Artificial Intelligence (SGAI), which will be held in the attractive surroundings of Peterhouse College in Cambridge. This is the leading series of UK-based international conferences on Artificial Intelligence and the longest running AI conference series in Europe.