Toffler's Waves and the Development of Educational Technologies

Timeline created by marlenekent
  • Toffler's 1st Wave - Ag - 1700 to 1899

    Toffler's 1st Wave - Ag - 1700 to 1899
    http://wavesofthefuture.net/first-wave-neolithic-new-stone-age-agricultural-revolution-renewable-energy-powered-pre-global-warming-and-fossil-fuel-era.php
    Toffler's First Wave began approx 10,000 years ago - the end of the Old Stone Age (the Paleolithic)and the beginning of the New Stone Age or the Neolithic. This is approx when the Agricultural Revolution started - clearing & tilling land and domesticating animals and herding of cattle.
  • Period: to

    Toffler's 1st Wave - Agricultural Revolution

  • Toffler's 2nd Wave - Indus 1780-1950

    Toffler's 2nd Wave - Indus 1780-1950
    http://wavesofthefuture.net/second-wave-industrial-revolution-economic-growth-expansion-unemployment-fossil-fuel-powered-era-global-warming-and-carbon-emission-beginning.php
    Toffler's 2nd Wave was the Industrial Revolution - from the late 18th to the early 20th century and brought with it mechanization as well as new production techniques such as the assembly line. During that period, the scale of manufacturing activity dramatically increased, giving rise to what we call today, mass production.
  • Period: to

    Toffler's Second Wave - Industrial Revolution

  • 1896-1910 Dewey Experimental lab school

    1896-1910 Dewey Experimental lab school
    http://www.ul.ie/~philos/vol1/dewey.html
    How to Think, Scientific approach, experiemtnal lab school, community experiences for students
    from 1896-1910
  • 1900-1909 Decade of Inventions

    1900-1909 Decade of Inventions
    http://inventors.about.com/od/timelines/a/twentieth.htm
    1900-1909 Decade of Inventions
    Plastics, sonar, model T, vacuum diode, , gyrocompass, helicopter, Wright Bros
  • 1900-1909 The Modern State

    1900-1909 The Modern State
    http://www.michaelariens.com/legalhistory/timeline.htm
    The Supreme Court decides Plessy v. Ferguson, (1898) which upholds "separate but equal" treatment of blacks against an Equal Protection challenge, Pres. McKinley shot by anarchist,
    T. Roosevelt begins conservation of forest, Roosevelt asserts U.S. right to intervene in Latin America , NAACP founded, 16th amendment – federal income tax, millions of European immigrants arrive in US
  • 1900-1909 Technology Inventions/Advances - Radar & Plastics

    1900-1909  Technology Inventions/Advances -  Radar & Plastics
    http://www.radarworld.org/huelsmeyer.html
    Christian Hulsmeyer - The first radar system used in shipping (1904) - On the 30th April 1904, Christian Huelsmeyer in Duesseldorf, Germany, applied for a patent for his 'telemobiloscope' which was a transmitter-receiver system for detecting distant metallic objects by means of electrical waves (1904) and Leo Baekeland - Inventor of plastic
  • Thorndike's Theory of Connectionism

    Thorndike's Theory of Connectionism
    http://tip.psychology.org/thorn.html
    1901 applkication of the quantitative measurement at Columbia Univeristy; 1912 Technology of Instruction - Educational Psychology (self-activity, interest, prep, individualization, socialization)
  • Henry Ford Assembly Line changes the world

    Henry Ford Assembly Line changes the world
    http://www.eyewitnesstohistory.com/ford.htm
    Ford mass production and a new era in industrial history had begun - the car came to the worker who performed the same task of assembly over and over again. With the introduction and perfection of the process, Ford was able to reduce the assembly time of a Model T from twelve and a half hours to less than six hours.
  • 1910-1919 The decade that America was first considered a world leader, WWI

    1910-1919 The decade that America was first considered a world leader, WWI
    http://kclibrary.lonestar.edu/decade10.html
    was a decade of great change for America with the escalation of immigration and poverty, labor & monopoly battles, work safety and child labor problems. World War I - the first 'war to end all wars' raged. Also, characterized by the passage of 18th amendment (prohibition), the decade which began with America's efforts to reform itself and ended with its efforts to reform the world.
  • 1910-1919 The Progressive Era

    1910-1919 The Progressive Era
    http://en.citizendium.org/wiki/U.S._Progressive_Party_1912 T Roosevelt runs for President as nominee of Bull Moose Party (Progressive). TR and Taft split Republican vote, and Wilson wins, 1st Dem Pres since Grover Cleveland-1892; World War I begins, the Communists take over Russia; the War to End All Wars ends, Germany is treated poorly in the Treaty of Versailles embittering Hitler;18th (prohibition) ratified.19th Amendmt, (women right to vote), Selective Service Act creates draft
  • 1910-1919 Inventions - Radio wave regeneration, Edison & music

    1910-1919 Inventions - Radio wave regeneration, Edison & music
    http://world.std.com/~jlr/doom/armstrng.htm
    Edwin Howard Armstrong invented the regenerative circuit (patented in 1914)
    Edison records music on cylinders with a diamond stylus for better acoustics
  • John B Watson Behaviorist Revolution

    John B Watson Behaviorist Revolution
    http://psychclassics.yorku.ca/Watson/commentary.htm
    In 1913, Watson published the article "Psychology as the Behaviorist Views It" — sometimes called "The Behaviorist Manifesto". In this article, Watson outlined the major features of his new philosophy of psychology, called "behaviorism"
  • Eight Hour Act Approved by the US Supreme Court

    Eight Hour Act Approved by the US Supreme Court
    http://www.answers.com/topic/adamson-acthttp://www.answers.com/topic/adamson-act
    The US Supreme Court approved the Eight-Hour Act under the threat of a national railway strike.
    By 1905 the vast majority of Americans worked 12-14 hour days. On Jan 5, 1914, the Ford Motor Company took the radical step of doubling pay to $5 a day and cut shifts from nine hours to eight, resulting in the increase in Ford's productivity, most soon followed suit.The US Adamson Act in 1916 established an eight-hour day with OT
  • Kilpatrick's Project Method

    Kilpatrick's  Project Method
    http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/4954/
    The child-centered method asked teachers to position each child at the center of the learning process by focusing activities around the interests of the pupil. William H. Kilpatrick, a professor at Teachers College, outlined the theory of “wholehearted purposeful activity” by a child as the pinnacle of postwar progressive education in the following, widely-read essay, initially published in the Teachers College Record in 1918.
  • 1920-1929 Roaring 20’s, Jazz Age, prohibition, mass consumer economy, Black Tuesday

    1920-1929 Roaring 20’s, Jazz Age, prohibition, mass consumer economy, Black Tuesday
    http://www.besthistorysites.net/USHistory_Roaring20s.shtml
    Characterized by feelings of disillusionment and alienation. A sense of rebellion developed and the Victorian idea of decency was considered hypocritical. Writers began to write frankly about sexuality. Women voted, KKK, evolution debates, stock market crash, gangsters, racketeering, murder (Al Capone)
  • 1920-1929 A Return to Normalcy

    1920-1929 A Return to Normalcy
    http://www.infoplease.com/askeds/promising-chicken-every-pot.html This decade is known as the Roaring 20’s, more Americans live in cities than in rural areas; the first Red Scare takes place; Supreme Court holds minimum wage law unconstitutional in Adkins v. Children's Hospital. H Hoover is elected on the promise of "a chicken in every pot, a car in every garage." 1929-In October, the stock market crashes, and the Great Depression begins.
  • 1920-1929 Technology Inventions - TV, Loudspeakers

    1920-1929 Technology Inventions - TV, Loudspeakers
    http://inventors.about.com/od/xzstartinventors/a/Zworykin.html
    The television or iconoscope (cathode-ray tube) invented by
    Vladimir Kosma Zworykin
    Rice & Kellogg at General Electric established the basic principle of the direct-radiator loudspeaker with a small coil-driven mass-controlled diaphragm in a baffle with a broad midfrequency range of uniform response.
  • Washburne & Parkhurst - Individualized Instruction Plans

    Washburne & Parkhurst - Individualized Instruction  Plans
    http://www.jacweb.org/Archived_volumes/Text_articles/V14_I1_Holt.htm
    Washburne & Parkhurst Winnetka & Dalton Plans
    The Winnetka Plan was an educational experiment, inspired by John Dewey's work in the University of Chicago Laboratory School, the plan attempted to expand educational focus to creative activities and emotional and social development.Children participating in the Winnetka Plan might be working in several grades at once.
  • Coal Miners union massacred in CO

    Coal Miners  union massacred in CO
    http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,731219,00.html
    Picketing coal miners marching under the banner of the Industrial Workers of the World were massacred in the Columbine mine massacre in the company town of Serene, Colorado.
  • Piaget - The Child's Conception of the World

    Piaget - The Child's Conception of the World
    http://tip.psychology.org/piaget.html
    Issues discussed by Piaget: What conceptions of the world does the child naturally form at the different stages of its development and what is their sense of reality?
  • 1930-1939

    1930-1939
    http://lcweb2.loc.gov/ammem/afctshtml/tsme.html
    In the Great Depression the American dream had become a nightmare. What was once the land of opportunity was now the land of desperation. What was once the land of hope and optimism had become the land of despair. Americans were questioning all the maxims on which they had based their lives - democracy, capitalism, individualism.
  • 1930 – 1939 The New Deal Landslide

    1930 – 1939 The New Deal Landslide
    http://www.sagehistory.net/deprnewdeal/NewDealSummary.htm
    FDR is inaugurated as President. Although FDR campaigns on a platform of balancing the budget, he begins his First 100 Days by closing the banks, engaging in deficit spending & beginning the New Deal. Hitler becomes Chancellor of Germany with unlimited power. The Supreme Court holds unconstitutional aspects of the New Deal, and a state minimum wage law. FDR is reelected by a landslide; World War II begins when Germany invades Poland
  • 1930-1039 Technology Inventions - electron microscope and tape recorders

    1930-1039 Technology Inventions - electron microscope and tape recorders
    http://www.wired.com/science/discoveries/news/2009/04/dayintech_0420
    Germans Max Knott and Ernst Ruska co-invent the electron microscope and
    Joseph Begun invents the first tape recorder for broadcasting - first magnetic recording
  • Ralph Tyler's The Eight-Year Study Plan

    Ralph Tyler's The Eight-Year Study Plan
    http://www.coe.uh.edu/courses/cuin6373/idhistory/8year.html
    The study had been designed in response to postwar pressures to revise the prevailing college preparatory high school curriculum in order to meet the needs of increasing numbers of students who in earlier years would not have gone beyond elementary school - continuous evaluation within the process of creating instruction designed to produce specific outcomes.
  • Bagley "Education & the Eergent Man", Essentialism movement

    Bagley "Education & the Eergent Man", Essentialism movement
    http://education.stateuniversity.com/pages/1780/Bagley-William-C-1874-1946.html#i
    Bagley argued against the determinist viewpoint, held by people such as Thorndike, that education played little or no role in the improvement of a person's intelligence. Instead, Bagley asserted that the recently created intelligence tests actually measured the educational opportunity experienced by students rather than their innate ability.
  • Ban on Child Labor and establishment of 40 hour week

    Ban on Child Labor and establishment of 40 hour week
    http://www.bls.gov/opub/cwc/cm20030124ar03p1.htm
    The Wages and Hours (later Fair Labor Standards) Act is passed, banning child labor and setting the 40-hour work week. The Act went into effect in October 1940, and was upheld in the Supreme Court on 3 February 1941. </a>
  • 1940-1949 WWII, US isolationism shattered by Japan bombing of Pearl Harbor

    1940-1949 WWII, US isolationism shattered by Japan bombing of Pearl Harbor
    http://www.teacheroz.com/WWIIHomefront.htm
    The 1940's were dominated by World War II. European artists and intellectuals fled to the United States from Hitler and the Holocaust, bringing new ideas created in disillusionment. War production pulled us out of the Great Depressions. Women were needed to replace men who had gone off to war, and so the first great exodus of women from the home to the workplace began
  • 1940-1949 Rise of Money Politics

    1940-1949 Rise of Money Politics
    http://www.besthistorysites.net/WWII.shtml
    Japanese bomb Pearl Harbor & the US declares war against Japan. At the end of April, Hitler commits suicide. US out of depression. FDR dies, and is succeeded by Truman. In August, the US drops two atomic bombs & Japanese surrender ending WWII. The Cold War between US and the Soviet Union begins; China falls to the Communists. Truman defeats Dewey. The Soviet Union exploded an atomic bomb. The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) treaty became law.
  • 1940-1949 Technology Inventions - 1st computer, 1st computer controlled by software

    1940-1949 Technology Inventions - 1st computer, 1st computer controlled by software
    http://inventors.about.com/library/weekly/aa050898.htm
    John Atanasoff and Clifford Berry built the first electronic digital computer (1942)
    Konrad Zuse's Z3, the first computer controlled by software (1941) http://www.idsia.ch/~juergen/zuse.html
  • The AFL agrees no strikes in defense-related industry plants during wartime

    The AFL agrees no strikes in defense-related industry plants during wartime
    http://www.dartmouth.edu/~socy/pdfs/MDD_Limit_Labor_07.pdf
    The AFL pledges that there will be no strikes in defense-related industry plants for the duration of the war.
  • Smith & Tyler - Evaluation Manual, Tyler's Basic Principles of Curriculum & Instruction

    Smith & Tyler - Evaluation Manual, Tyler's Basic Principles of Curriculum & Instruction
    http://my-ecoach.com/project.php?id=12152&project_step=28184
    (1942) Smith and Tyler provide evaluation manual which dominates educational evaluation for next quarter century
    (1949) Ralph Tyler publishes Basic Principles of Curriculum and Instruction
  • Edgar Dale - Cone of Experience

    Edgar Dale - Cone of Experience
    http://www.willatworklearning.com/2006/05/people_remember.html
    Edgar Dale developed the Cone of Experience. The purpose of the cone was to provide a visual example of various teaching levels and materials.(1946)
  • Toffler's 3rd Wave - Info - 1950-2005

    Toffler's 3rd Wave - Info - 1950-2005
    http://wavesofthefuture.net/second-wave-industrial-revolution-economic-growth-expansion-unemployment-fossil-fuel-powered-era-global-warming-and-carbon-emission-beginning.php
    Toffler's 3rd Wave is the Information Age. It arose as a result of advances in computer technology and the advent of the internet. We all have a pretty good idea of what this is about. In 1980 when he published his book, The Third Wave, computers were for the most part bulky mainframe units
  • 1950-1959 The Baby Boomers

    1950-1959 The Baby Boomers
    http://www.america.gov/st/educ-english/2008/June/20080610231344eaifas0.6864108.html
    The end of World War II brought thousands of young servicemen back to America to pick up their lives and start new families in new homes with new jobs. With an energy never before experienced, American industry expanded to meet peacetime needs. Americans began buying goods not available during the war, which created corporate expansion and jobs. Growth everywhere. The baby boom was underway.
  • 1950-1959 Cold War Politics

    1950-1959 Cold War Politics
    http://www.thecorner.org/hist/europe/coldwar.htm
    McCarthyism rooting out the Communists. Korean war. Rosenbergs, are convicted of spying & sentenced to death. Eisenhower wins presidency. US Supreme Court decides Brown v. Board of Education, holding separate but equal is inherently unequal in public education and mandates desegregation - Rosa Parks is arrested, Martin Luther King leads boycott.
  • 1950-1959 Technology Inventions/Advances - Optic Fiber & 1st Video Tape Recorder

    1950-1959 Technology Inventions/Advances - Optic Fiber & 1st Video Tape Recorder
    http://web.mit.edu/invent/iow/ginsburg.html
    Charles Ginsburg invented the first video tape recorder (VTR) (1952) and
    Optic fiber invented (1956) by Narinder Singh Kapany http://www.buzzle.com/articles/inventions-of-the-1950s.html
  • Period: to

    Toffler's 3rd Wave - info - 1950-2005

  • Skinner - The Science of Learning and the Art of Teaching

    Skinner - The Science of Learning and the Art of Teaching
    http://internettime.com/itimegroup/Is%20it%20Time%20to%20Exchange%20Skinner%27s%20Teaching%20Machine
    B.F. Skinner, the father of operant conditioning, is usually credited with the development of programmed instruction. In his classic 1954 article, The Science of Learning and the Art of Teaching, Skinner described the conditions of the typical classroom as particularly adverse to learning. A single teacher can not individually and appropriately reinforce thirty or more students at the same time.
  • Bloom Taxonomy: Knowledge-Comprehension-Application-Analysis-Synthesis-Evaluation

    Bloom Taxonomy: Knowledge-Comprehension-Application-Analysis-Synthesis-Evaluation
    http://www.coe.uh.edu/courses/cuin6373/idhistory/bloom_taxonomy.html
    In 1956 Benjamin Bloom and co-authors published their Taxonomy of Educational Objectives for the Cognitive Domain. Initiated as a support for cognitive assessment, the Taxonomy was to prove extremely valuable in the specification and analysis of instructional outcomes and the design of instruction to attain them.
  • The Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) method invented

    The Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) method invented
    http://www.netmba.com/operations/project/pert/
    designed to analyze and represent the tasks involved in completing a given project.
  • Japan product quality soars

    Japan product quality soars
    http://www.referenceforbusiness.com/encyclopedia/Pro-Res/Quality-Circles.html
    100,000 quality circles in Japan - problem-solving groups in assembly line productions by the WORKERS, dramatic improvements in the quality and economic competitiveness of Japanese goods in the post-World War II years
  • 1960-1969 The decade of youth and change, Silent Spring by Rachel Carson-1962

    1960-1969 The decade of youth and change, Silent Spring by Rachel Carson-1962
    http://www.pbs.org/moyers/journal/09212007/profile.html
    The sixties were the age of youth, as 70 million children from the post-war baby boom became teenagers and young adults. The movement away from the conservative fifties continued and resulted in revolutionary ways of thinking and real change in the cultural fabric of American life. The changes affected education, values, lifestyles, laws, and entertainment.
  • 1960-1969 The Era of Civil Revolt

    1960-1969  The Era of Civil Revolt
    http://www.public.iastate.edu/~rjackson/webbibl.html JFK is elected Pres. A minor conflict in Asia becomes the Vietnam War. Civil rights advocates-Freedom Riders-begin riding buses across the south. TV images show peaceful advocates brutally beaten. Cuban Missile crisis between US & the Soviet Union; JFK assassinated; the 1st major civil rights bill since reconstruction. King and R Kennedy both assassinated. Riots tear apart cities. Demonstrations against the Viet Nam War; the hippie movement.
  • 1960-1969 Technology inventions/Advances - Hand held calculators, 1st Compact audio-cassette

    1960-1969 Technology inventions/Advances -  Hand held calculators, 1st Compact audio-cassette
    http://www.ideafinder.com/history/inventions/handcalculator.htm
    The first handheld calculator invented (1966) Fascinating facts about the invention of Hand-held Calculaors by Jack St. Clair Kilby, Jerry D. Merryman and James H. Van Tassel in 1966
    The Philips Company of the Netherlands invented and released the first compact audio-cassette in 1962 http://inventors.about.com/od/audiowaxrecordstomp3/a/Cassette_Tape.htm
  • Gagne - The Conditions of Learning

    Gagne - The Conditions of Learning
    http://www.coe.uh.edu/courses/cuin6373/idhistory/1960.html
    In 1965, Robert Gagne published The Conditions of Learning, a milestone that elaborated the analysis of learning objectives and went on to relate different classes of learning objectives to appropriate instructional designs.Gagne introduced the idea of task analysis to instructional design. Through task analysis, an instructional task could be broken down into sequential steps - hieracrchical relationship of tasks and subtasks.
  • Bruner - Process of Education and Discovery Learning

    Bruner - Process of Education and Discovery Learning
    http://www.infed.org/thinkers/bruner.htm
    (1966) Jerome Bruner’s model of Discovery Learning, publishes Toward a Theory of Instruction
  • 1969-1978 Piaget Genetic Epistemology

    1969-1978 Piaget Genetic Epistemology
    http://tip.psychology.org/piaget.html
    Principles:1. Children will provide different explanations of reality at different stages of cognitive development.
    2. Cognitive development is facilitated by providing activities or situations that engage learners and require adaptation
    3. Learning materials and activities should involve the appropriate level of motor or mental operations for a child of given age
  • Total Quality Management - Problem-solving to the base worker

    Total Quality Management  - Problem-solving to the base worker
    http://www.brecker.com/quality.htm
    Juran and Deming go to Japan and learn Quality Management strategies, Blue collar workers problem solve using Quality Circles, Statistical Analysis of production lines.
  • 1970-1979 Viet Nam War, unrest, disillusionment of government, civil rights and women’s movement, drug culture

    1970-1979 Viet Nam War, unrest, disillusionment of government, civil rights and women’s movement, drug culture
    http://www.americansc.org.uk/Online/Vietnam_Civil_Rights.htm
    Major trends included a growing disillusionment of government, advances in civil rights, increased influence of the women's movement, a heightened concern for the environment, and increased space exploration. Anti-war, anti-materialism, busing & violence
  • 1970 – 1979 Seeds of Corruption

    1970 – 1979 Seeds of Corruption
    http://www.enotes.com/1970-government-politics-american-decades/people-news Nixon reelected & resigns after Watergate. The US leaves Vietnam. Roe v. Wade is decided. SCt - death penalty unconstitutional. Oil crisis - long gas lines. Rioting occurs in SBoston after school busing for integration. Jimmy Carter; SCt reinstates death penalty. Chavez’s UFW signs agreement with Teamsters Union. Iranians take Amer hostage in Teheran. Inflation reaches its highest rate since 1946.
  • 1970-1979 Taechnology Inventions/Advances - cell phones & microprocessors

    1970-1979 Taechnology Inventions/Advances - cell phones & microprocessors
    http://www.thepcmuseum.net/timeline.php
    Cell phones invented (1979) March 1979 Cellular phones introduced in Chicago (AT&T) and Japan
    The microprocessor invented by Faggin, Hoff and Mazor (1971) http://inventors.about.com/od/mstartinventions/a/microprocessor.htm
  • Robert Mager - Criterion Referenced Instruction (CRI)

    Robert Mager - Criterion Referenced Instruction (CRI)
    http://tip.psychology.org/mager.html
    CRI is based upon the ideas of mastery learning and performance-oriented instruction.
  • Vygotsky - Mind in Society

    Vygotsky - Mind in Society
    http://www.uky.edu/~eushe2/quotations/vygotsky.html
    "Learning is more than the acquisition of the ability to think; it is the acquisition of many specialized abilities for thinking about a variety of things."
    Vygotsky investigated child development and how this was guided by the role of culture and interpersonal communication.
  • Quality Circles and Total Quality Control in US Industries

    Quality Circles and Total Quality Control in US Industries
    http://www.brecker.com/quality.htm
    by 1980, over one-half of firms in the Fortune 500 had implemented or were planning on implementing quality circles. By the early 1980s, General Motors Corp. had established about 100 quality circles among its Buick, Oldsmobile, Cadillac, Chevrolet, and Fisher Body divisions.
  • 1980-1989 The Me! Me! Me! generation of status seekers.

    1980-1989 The Me! Me! Me! generation of status seekers.
    http://kclibrary.lonestar.edu/decade80.html
    1980s became Binge buying and credit became a way of life and 'Shop Til you Drop'. During the 1980s, hostile takeovers, leveraged buyouts, and mega-mergers spawned a new breed of billionaire. Baby-boomers were the 'splurge generation.' Video games, aerobics, minivans, camcorders, and talk shows became part of our lives. The decade began with double-digit inflation, Reagan declared a war on drugs.
  • 1980-1989 The Reagan Revolution

    1980-1989 The Reagan Revolution
    http://www.colorado.edu/AmStudies/lewis/2010/decline.htm
    Reagan defeats Carter, proposes Star Wars defense & increases military spending, Reagan is shot, war on drugs, Sandra Day O'Connor is 1st woman to be named to the S Court. Dow Jones Av falls over 500 points in one day, Berlin Wall comes down, the Cold War ends. George Bush succeeds Reagan as President.
  • 1980-1981 Technology Inventions/Advances - MS-DOS & 1st IBM-PC

    1980-1981 Technology Inventions/Advances - MS-DOS & 1st IBM-PC
  • Merrill - Component Display Theory

    Merrill - Component Display Theory
    http://www.nwlink.com/~Donclark/hrd/learning/id/component_display.html
    (1983) MD Merrill established The Component Display Theory. Component Display Theory specifies four primary presentation forms: rules, examples, recall and practice as well as prerequisites, objectives, helps, mnemonics, and feedback.
  • Howard Gardner - Multiple Intelligences

    Howard Gardner - Multiple Intelligences
    http://www.pz.harvard.edu/PIs/HG.htm
    Gardner's theory argues that intelligence, particularly as it is traditionally defined, does not sufficiently encompass the wide variety of abilities humans display. In his conception, a child who masters multiplication easily is not necessarily more intelligent overall than a child who struggles to do so. The second child may be stronger in another kind of intelligence
  • Technology in the workplace - Robotics in the assembly lines, online access to purchasing

    Technology in the workplace - Robotics in the assembly lines, online access to purchasing
    http://www.answers.com/topic/educational-technology
    Since 1990, educational technology has undergone rapid changes, with a significant impact on historical research and learning
  • 1990-1999 The Electronic Age, World Wide Web 1992

    1990-1999 The Electronic Age, World Wide Web 1992
    http://public.web.cern.ch/public/en/About/Web-en.html
    100 million people on the internet, US played the role of world policeman, Gulf War,
  • 1990 – 1999 The Call for Reform

    1990 – 1999 The Call for Reform
    http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/gulf/
    Pres Bush nominates 2nd black Amer Clarence Thomas to S Ct. Clinton becomes Pres. The Internet becomes much more accessible to ordinary Americans, sparking an internet and "dot.com" boom. The government shuts down due to a spat between Pres Clinton and the Rep majority in Congress. Clinton becomes the 1st Dem to be reelected since FDR in 1936, Clinton is impeached & acquitted. Gulf War, welfare reform, budget in surplus.
  • 1990-1999 Technology Inventions/Advances - Web TV & JAVA

    1990-1999 Technology Inventions/Advances -  Web TV & JAVA
  • Gloria Gery - EPSS E;ectronic Performance Support System

    Gloria Gery - EPSS E;ectronic Performance Support System
    Gery, G. (1990b). "Performance Support Systems: Concepts and Development Issues." Handout for the 8th Annual
    https://www.msu.edu/~sleightd/epss_copy.html
    Computer-Based Training Conference and Exposition. Gery Associates, Inc., Tolland, MA and Electronic Performance Support Systems. (1991) Weingarten Publications, Boston.
  • 4th Wave - Seimens' Connectivism, 1997-future

     4th Wave - Seimens'  Connectivism, 1997-future
    which includes communications, social networking, and collaboration - started 1997 with SixDegrees.com
    Reference:
    Siemens, G. (2008, January 27). Learning and knowing in networks: Changing roles for educators and designers. Paper presented to ITFORUM. Retrieved from [http://it.coe.uga.edu/itforum/Paper105/Siemens.pdf ](<a href='http://it.coe.uga.edu/itforum/Paper105/Siemens.pdf )' >http://it.coe.uga.edu/itforum/Paper105/Siemens.pdf
    </a>
  • Period: to

    4th Wave - Communications/Social Networking

  • Reigeluth Elaboration Theory

    Reigeluth Elaboration Theory
    http://www.learning-theories.com/elaboration-theory-reigeluth.html
    Charles Reigeluth breaks ground with his paper on Elaboration Theory. According to Reigeluth, Elaboration Theory, instruction should be organized in increasing order of complexity for optimal learning.
  • 2000-2010 9/11, reality TV, energy & conservation

    2000-2010 9/11, reality TV, energy & conservation
    http://www.artandpopularculture.com/2000s_%28decade%29
    International trade and growing concern over energy supplies, the explosion in telecommunications, further integration and dependence on technology, concerns with international terrorism and war, an escalation of the social issues of the 1990s and the debate over how to address global warming.
  • 2000-2010 Recession, war on terrorism, unemplyment

    2000-2010 Recession, war on terrorism, unemplyment
    http://www.nacs.net/~georgez/recession7908.pdf
    Stock market crashes. The dot.com boom becomes a bust. Terrorists from Al Queda, 9/11, nearly 3,000 persons die. The US attacks the Taliban and the Al Qaeda network in Afghanistan, and a war on terrorism is declared. NASDAQ bottoms out at slightly above the 1000 mark & US is in a recession. US sends troops to Iraq and captures & deposes Saddam Hussein. Economy starts heating up, recession, unemployment above 10%.
  • 2000-2010 Technology Inventions/Advances - iPods & Virtual Keyboard

    2000-2010 Technology Inventions/Advances - iPods & Virtual Keyboard
    http://inventors.about.com/od/istartinventions/a/iPod.htm
    On October 23, 2001 Apple Computers publicly announced their portable music digital player the iPod, created under project codename Dulcimer (2001)
    Virtual keyboard invented by Canesta and VKB (2002) http://www.extremetech.com/article2/0,3973,539778,00.asp
  • David Wiley - LODAS - Learning Object Design and Sequencing Theory

    David Wiley - LODAS - Learning Object Design and Sequencing Theory
    http://opencontent.org/docs/dissertation.pdf
    David Wiley, develops Learning Object Design and Sequencing Theory (LODAS). LODAS is the result of combining Elaboration Theory (Reigeluth, 1999), Work Model Synthesis (Gibbons, et al., 1995), Domain Theory (Bunderson, Newby, & Wiley, 2000), and the Four-Component Instructional Design model (van Merriënboer, 1997) with new work.
  • AgileAlliance formed - software development

    AgileAlliance formed - software development
    http://www.agilealliance.org/
    2001 AgileAlliance formed to promote "lightweight" software development projects - they emphasize close collaboration between the programmer team and business experts
  • Ruth Clark - Efficiency in Learning

    Ruth Clark - Efficiency in Learning
    http://www.cognitivedesignsolutions.com/Instruction/LearningTheory.htm#Gagne
    "Learning requires an active processing of lesson content in such a way that it becomes integrated with existing knowledge in memory...Some examples of popular instructional methods are examples, analogies, practice exercises, and graphics." Building Expertise (2003)