Dwight D. Eisenhowerwhitehouse.gov
U.S. President #34
"I Like Ike"
Following the second World War, Americans wanted a president who would help things return to a normal, peaceful state. Eisenhower, commanding general of the victorious forces in Europe during World War II, fulfilled this role. He obtained a truce with Korea, worked to ease the tensions of the cold war, and pursued "modern republicanism." Eisenhower served 2 terms.
Federal-Aid Highway Actnationalatlas.gov
Eisenhower realized the advantages of a good transportation system, He considered it important to "protect the vital interest of every citizen in a safe and adequate highway system." In reality, this interstate highway system would make it easier to transport troops or missile devices incase of a national emergency. This first FederalAid Highway Act under Eisenhower was followed by a revision in 1956
Brown vs. Board of Education
The Big Four (U.S., France, Britain, Soviet Union) met in Geneva, Switzerland, seeking to end the Cold War. They discussed issues such as disarmament, unification of Germany, and increased economic ties. No agreements were actually reached, but the Geneva Summit was considered to be a step in the right direction for easing Cold War tension.
Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat on a bus in Montgomery, Alabama to a white man after the white only section had been filled. She was arrested and fined for refusing to move. Her action, or in this case, non-action, inspired the Montgomery Bus Boycott by African Americans, which lasted for 381 days, until the city was forced to lift segregational policies on public transportation.
Little Rock Ninestanford.edu
Minnijean Brown, Terrance Roberts, Elizabeth Eckford, Ernest Green, Thelma Mothershed, Melba Patillo, Gloria Ray, Jefferson Thomas, and Carlotta Walls became known as the Little Rock Nine as they attempted to integrate Central High School in LIttle Rock, Arkansas. They were met by descrimination and mobs. Federal troops were brought in to protect these students
Four African American college students asked to be served after sitting down at a lunch counter at Woolworth’s in Greensboro, North Carolina. They were refused service, but remained in their seats. Their non-violent protest inspired a youth movement to challenge southern equality with numerous more "sit-ins."
John F. Kennedywhitehouse.gov
U.S. President #35
JFK was the youngest man to ever be elected as president. Also the first Roman-Catholic president. Kennedy wanted to get America moving again and improve the economy, as well as working towards civil rights.
"Ask not what your country can do for you--ask what you can do for your country."
Congress approves Kennedy's legislation for the Peace Corps. The three main goals of the Peace Corps are:
1.Helping the people of interested countries in meeting their need for trained men and women.
2.Helping promote a better understanding of Americans on the part of the peoples served.
3.Helping promote a better understanding of other peoples on the part of Americans.
James Meredith was accepted to the University of Mississippi, but his admittance was withdrawn when they found out his race. His case made it to the supreme court, who ruled in his favor. However when arriving to enroll for his classes, he was blocked from entering the school.Riots errupted, and 500 U.S. Marshals were sent to the school. He became the first black student to enroll and graduate from Ole Miss.
Cuban Missile Crisisjfklibrary.org
An Ameroican U-2 spy plane had photographed Soviet Union missile sights being built in Cuba, only 90 miles off the coast of Florida.Kennedy and advisors decied to put a naval "quarantine " around Cuba. The threat of nuclear war was at large, and the two nation's leaders knew the dangers of this. USSR agreed to remove their missiles in Cuba, and the U.S. theirs in Turkey, ending the missile crisis
March on Washingtonhistory.com
More than 200,000 Americans gathered together in Washington D.C. for this historic political rally. It's purpose was to "designed to shed light on the political and social challenges African Americans continued to face across the country." The rally was concluded with Martin Luther King Jr.'s famous "I Have a Dream" speech.
Lyndon B. Johnsonwhitehouse.gov
U.S. President #36
Former Vice-President, gained presidency after Kennedy's assassination November 1963. His administration passed some of the most extensive legislateive programs in U.S. history. Johnson's "Great Society" program ushered aid to education, attack on disease, Medicare, urban renewal, beautification, conservation, and a wide-scale fight against poverty, among many other goals.
Kennedy was shot multiple times in the head and neck while driving down a street in Dallas, Texas, by Lee Harvey Oswald. Oswald was also shot and killed while being transfered to the county jail the next day. Kennedy was buried at Arlington on November 25.
Civil Rights Act[archives.gov](' >Kennedy, David., et al. The American Pageant. Thirteenth edition. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2006</a>
In 1964, congress under President Lyndon Johnson finally passed the long-awaited Civil Rights Act. This banned racial discrimination, strenghtened the government's power to end segregation, and created the EEOC to eliminate discrimination in hiring.
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution[http://www.history.com/topics/gulf-of-tonkin-resolution](history.com)
The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, which came following the controversal Gulf of Tonkin Incident, gave broad congressional approval for expansion of the Vietnam War. They were given permission to do whatever it took to defend the U.S..
Economic Opportunity Actpbs.org
This act, part of Johnson's Great Society, attempted to fight poverty. The bill created a Job Corps similar to the New Deal Civilian Conservation Corps; a domestic peace corps; a system for vocational training; and Head Start, a pre-school program designed to prepare children for success in public school. The bill also funded community action programs and extended loans to small businessmen and farmers.
Malcom X assassinatedhistory.com
Malcom X, one of the many voices of the Civil Rights movement was shot and killed by rival Black Muslims while addressing his Organization of Afro-American Unity at the Audubon Ballroom in Washington Heights.
U.S. Forces Increasehistorycentral.com
President Lyndon B. Johnson announced an increase of U.S. Forces in Vietnam from 75.000 to 125,000. He also announced a significant increase in the draft. This is part of American escalation in the war.
Voting Rights Act[ourdocuments.gov](' >Kennedy, David., et al. The American Pageant. Thirteenth edition. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2006</a>
The Voting Rights Act of 1965 outlawed literacy tests for voting eligibility and sent federal voter registrars into several southern states.
New Cabinet Offices<a href='' >Kennedy, David., et al. The American Pageant. Thirteenth edition. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2006</a>
Johnson prodded Congress into creating two new Cabinet Offices: the Department of Housing and Urban Development on September 9, 1965, followed by the Department of Transpoirtation October 15, 1966. In doing so he named the nation's first black cabinet secretary, Robert C. Weaver.
The Tet Offensivehistory.state.gov
The Tet Offensive was a coordinated attack of the North Vietnamese and the Communist Viet Cong launched against several targets in South Vietnam. Even though they suffered heavy losses, the U.S. and South Vietnamese forces were able to repel the communist attack. The Tet Offensive weakened U.S. public support for the war.
MLK AssassinatedMary Ferrell Foundation
Martin Luther King Jr. was shot and killed on the balcony of the Lorraine Motel in Memphis, Tennessee. He had come to Memphis to lead a peaceful march. The assassin was James Earl Ray.
Richard M. Nixonwhitehouse.gov
U.S. President #37
Nixon's goals included ending the war in Vietnam, and improving foreign relations (detente w/ USSR, China). He appointed more conservative Justices to the Supreme Court. Nixon also implemented many policies to improve home life in America.
U.S. Lands on the Moonnasa.gov
Astronauts Neil Armstrong, Michael Collins, and Buzz Aldrin were the first men to land on the Moon. Their doing so was a fulfillment of the challenge from JFK to land a man on the moon before the end of the decade (before 1970). They spent 21 hours on the moon. They did experiments and took pictures. They also brought back 46 pounds of moon rocks. This was a spectacular American feat.
South Vietnamese troops invade and attack Cambodia, pushing towards Vietcong bases. The U.S. launch a second attack two days later. Operations in Cambodia last for 60 days. Nixon later denies U.S. involvement in Cambodia.
The infamous Watergate scandal began as 5 men (part of CREEP) broke into theDemocratic Party’s National Committee offices at Watergate. They were caught and as it was investigated, a whole scandal involving President Nixon unfolded. He was found guilty of the obstruciton of justice and abuse of power. Nixon resigned to avoid impeachment August 8, 1974.
The last American combat troops are removed from South Vietnam. This signifies the end of U.S. involvement in the war.Through Vietnamization, the war had been gradually been handed over to the South Vietnamese. U.S. casualties included 58,000 dead, over 1,000 missing in action, and some 150,000 seriously wounded.
Gerald R. Fordwhitehouse.gov
U.S. President #38
Vice-President Ford took over the presidency in August of 1974 following Nixon's resignation brought on by Watergate. He was entirely not elected by the people, for he was appointed as vp following Agnew's resignation. He sought to curb inflation and continue with Nixon's Detente policies, despite the challenging circumstances under which he had been brought into the presidency.
Ford Pardons Nixonwatergate.info
President Ford pardoned Nixon for full, free, and absolute pardon unto Richard Nixon for all offenses against the United States which he had committed or may have committed or taken part in during the period from January 20, 1969 through August 9, 1974. Ford believed that this pardon was the only way the nation could heal the wounds of Watergate.
President Ford signed the Energy Policy and Conservation Act. This extended oil price controls ino 1979, which mandated automobile fuel economy standards, and also authorized the creation of a strategin petroleum reserve.