1301 timeline project

Timeline created by ChristinaHa
In History
  • -500 BCE

    the dark ages(Catholic)

    the dark ages(Catholic)
    During the Dark Ages, the Roman Catholic Church became organized into an hierarchy with the pope of the church as the head in Europe.They church controlled religion, philosophy, art and education in the western world .The Catholic Church was also served to guide people through life and serves as their government as well. In the middle age, or the dark age, people began to have a sense of religion and they felt a need to be with Jesus Christ and his followers and they wanted become closer to God.
  • 1300


    The Aztecs were a group of Native American in Tenachtitlan,or modern day Mexico city. They had the largest population in mexico, with twenty million people.Human sacrifice was very common for the Aztecs and many scholars now believed that the human sacrifice was performed in honor of the gods.They also followed a strict caste system, which individuals were grouped into the classes, like nobles, commoners, serfs, and slaves. The nobles were rich people, like priest and the serfs were poor people.
  • 1347

    the black death

    the black death
    As the merchants were traveling across the ocean in their ships to trade,they got the plague from the rodents (like black rats) and flies, who were the original carrier of the plague disease, that were on their boats and passed it on to people in the Mediterranean and Europe.The Black Death killed about forty to fifty percent of European's total population.In total,the plague disease reduce the world from about 450 million people down to about 350 to 375 million people in the fourteenth century.
  • 1440

    The Renaissance (the printing press)

    The Renaissance (the printing press)
    The printing press was invented by Johannes Gutenburg, a goldsmith in 1440. The printing press allowed books to be printed quickly and efficiently.It also quickly spread literature works around and transformed Europe and the rest of the world and was one of the most influential events in the century.The priest of the Catholic church hated it because it was challenging him because people were now able to print out the bible in different languages so other people can read and understand the bible.
  • Oct 12, 1492

    the 4 Voyages(Christopher Columbus)

    the 4 Voyages(Christopher Columbus)
    Christopher Columbus made four trip across the Atlantic Ocean from Spain.In the first voyage, he went west to find the fastest route to Asia, but found the land known as Bahamas,Cuba and Hispaniola today. He returned with 1000 Spaniard with him on his second voyage, and sent 500 slaves to the queen.Columbus was sent arrested and returned to Spain for mismanaging the colonist.In his last voyage, he made it to modern-day Panama and returned to Spain, where he thought he reached Asia when he died.
  • 1494

    Treaty of Tordesillas

    Treaty of Tordesillas
    The treaty of Tordesillas was an agreement between two country (Spain and Portugal) and it settled an argument over lands that was newly discovered by the 15th century explorer, Christopher Columbus and other explorers at that time. Pope Alexander the sixth, made the compromise of splitting the newly discovered lands between Spain and Portugal. Portugal got Brazil from the Treaty of Tordesillas and Spain was given the rights to all the discovered and undiscovered lands that was west of the line.
  • 1500

    The Middle Passage

    The Middle Passage
    The Middle passage was the passage where millions of Africans were packed onto boats and were traded as slaves in the triangular trade. It brought slaves from West Africa to West Indies in three week. More than ten percent of the African slaves died on the voyage.About two million Africans died during the Middle Passage. In return for the slaves, Europe traded manufactured goods to the African markets. Many slaves threw themselves overboard and refused to eat as a way to resist becoming slaves.
  • 1500

    Upper South

    Upper South
    In the upper south, or Virginia, Chesapeake, the African slaves replaced indentured servants,which were men and women who signed a contract or a covenant,which they agreed to work without pay in exchange for transportation.In the upper south,the African slaves were divided into groups.the groups were assigned a specific tasks to do that day & would work from dawn to dusk under the supervision by white overseer.The slaves in the upper south were treated better than the slaves in the lower south.
  • 1519

    Conquest of the Aztecs

    Conquest of the Aztecs
    Hernan Cortez,a conquistador,led an expedition from Spain to the new world because there was a tale going around that there was gold in the new world.He quickly became allies with the Aztecs enemies and was responsible for the Aztec empire fall.The Aztec emperor,Montezuma the second,invited the Spanish conquistadors into their land and was really friendly with them.The Spaniards made Montezuma their prisoner. Montezuma was later killed by his own people as he tries to get them to stop attacking.
  • Virginia Colony(John Smith)

    Virginia Colony(John Smith)
    John Smith was a soldier,adventurer,& an Admiral of the Chesapeake Colonies.Smith was a leader of the Virginia colony in Jamestown.He led an exploration along the rivers of Virginia and Chesapeake Bay.He also negotiated treaty with the local Natives Americans and establish trades with them.While seeking for food along the Chickahiminy River,he was captured by the Powhatan tribe & was taken to meet the chief.He was later release without being harm with the help of the chief's daughter,Pocahontas.
  • Plymouth Colonies(Mayflower Compact)

    Plymouth Colonies(Mayflower Compact)
    The Mayflower Compact was the first government document of the Plymouth Colony. It was written by the male passengers of the Mayflower,a ship that transported the Puritans,or pilgrims, from England to the New World.It was signed by the puritans as they were sailing to the new world.The Mayflower Compact made the puritan's settlement legal.It also made a government for the settlers,while still loyal to the crown.It also made rules and regulation for the settlers,in order to survive the new world.
  • Massachusetts Bay Colony (John Winthrop)

    Massachusetts Bay Colony (John Winthrop)
    John Winthrop was a puritan lawyer & took part in finding the Massachusetts Bay Colony.He led a large group of immigrants from England in 1628.He also served as governor for twelve of the colony's first twenty years.He guided the colonists as they were trying to organized towns,each built around churches or town center. He also had conflict with Anne Hutchinson,who was trying to control his Boston church & tries to convert the whole colony to puritans. He led a counterattack against her and won.
  • Carolinas

    Proprietors wanted to name the Carolina after king Charles,the second. They founded the Carolina Colony as a buffer between Spanish Florida and prevent their northward expansion. It was also founded to make King Charles,the second,profit by collecting the taxes from the English colonies that settled in Carolina and used the money they collected to start a government and the government would lead the colony. It was also founded as a storage colony,where other colonies would set up for the colony.
  • Pennsylvania Colony

    Pennsylvania Colony
    The Pennsylvania colony was founded by William Penn on March 4, 1681. William Penn wanted a religion refuge for the Quakers.King Charles, the second, granted him a charter, which gave Penn and the Quakers, the land west of New Jersey because he owned a large debt to William Penn. William Penn also had mandate a fair deal with the Native Americans in the area and it led to a better relationships with the local tribes than most other New England colonies had with the local Natives American tribes.
  • Glorious Revolution

    Glorious Revolution
    After Mary and her husband,William,invaded England and ousted her father,James the second,who was the first catholic monarch in England in over a hundred years,they signed the English Bill of Rights.The bill of rights excluded Catholics from being a monarch in England.It also protected the basic rights of the people,like no excessive bail,no cruel or unusual punishment.The English Bill of rights would later influenced the first ten amendments of United States Bill of Rights and the constitution.
  • Salem witch trial

    Salem witch trial
    the Salem witch trial began after a group of young girls in Salem Village said that they were possessed by witchcraft and accused several women in the village of being a witch and signed the book of death. The Salem witch trial ended with 20 people executed. After realizing that they made a mistake, the colony apologized to the family of the people that were executed and the saying in the court, "innocent until proven guilty" was created because of the innocent lives that were lost at the trial.
  • The Enlightenment (Georgia)

    The Enlightenment (Georgia)
    The Enlightenment era have helped found a new colony, Georgia, named after King George, the Second. King George,the Second, sent prisoners and the people who owe debt to the new colony to work to pay off their debt and time at Georgia. Georgia was founded as a buffer colony, standing in between South Carolina and Spanish Florida. The leader,James Oglethorpe,wanted to followed the ideals of the Enlightenment era,seeing the colony as a place for Great Britain's "worthy poor" to have a fresh start.
  • The Enlightenment(John Locke)

    The Enlightenment(John Locke)
    John Locke was an English Philosopher who was one of the most influential in the Enlightenment era. He developed an idea which would later influenced the Declaration of Independence & gave many people their freedom.The idea was that people had natural rights.These rights are "Life,liberty, & property." His idea later was later changed to "Life,Liberty & the Pursue of Happiness," which gave people the unalienable rights,the right which stated that all men are created equal & cannot be taken away.
  • Fort William Henry

    Fort William Henry
    The Siege of Fort William Henry was carried out by French General Montcalm against the British army that was guarding the fort. After several days of bombardment, British Lieutenant Colonel George Monro,surrendered to General Montcalm. The terms of the surrendered were that the British had to removed their forces in Fort Edward, and that the French army would protect the British from the Native Americans they removed from the area, but the Indians broke their agreement and attacked the British.
  • The Battle of Fort Duquesne

    The Battle of Fort Duquesne
    the Battle of Fort Duquesne was a British attack on the French Fort, which is located in modern-day Pittsburgh on September 14th,1758. The British sent army and militia,led by General John Forbes,to take control of the Ohio territory & steer way for the invasion of Quebec & Montreal in Canada.The French army retreated after the fort was set on fire.After the British captured Fort Duquesne from France,they renamed it Fort Pitt after the British Prime minister William Pitt, who ordered the attack.
  • Treaty of Paris 1763

    Treaty of Paris 1763
    The treaty of Paris ended the Seven Years' war,also known as the French and Indian War,where Britain,France and Spain fought for territory in the new world.It gave Britain control over modern-day Quebec & other french-Canadian cities they captured from France during the French and Indian War. It also gave Britain the east side of the Mississippi, which France had to give up.In return of France giving up its mainland in North America,Britain gave back West Indian Islands of Guadeloupe to France.
  • Boston Massacre

    Boston Massacre
    A crowd of the colonist in Boston were harassing the British soldiers, the Redcoats,after the king issued the Townshend Act on the colonies & it ended with 5 colonist dead. After the confrontation incident,Paul Revere wrote about the confrontation in his article & made the incident seem worse than it actually was.Paul Revere's fictitious account was the first example of American Propaganda as many of the colonists that read his article were outrage and wanted to rebel against British authority.
  • Boston Tea Party

    Boston Tea Party
    a group of drunk Bostonians dressed up as Indians,boarded on the ships that contained the shipment of tea sent by the East India Company & threw 340 chests of tea into the Boston Harbor.It was a protest against the Tea Act, which allow the British India Company to sell tea from China to the colonies without paying taxes beside the Townshend Act. As a result of the rebellion, Parliament issued a Coercive Act, which closed part of Boston from trade & restricted Massachusetts political institution.
  • The Battle of Lexington

    The Battle of Lexington
    After Paul Revere and Samuel Prescott informed the colonist and militia about the British plans, the militia met the British soldiers, also known as the "Red Coats," in Lexington, Massachusetts.The first shots that was fired just before sunrise at the Battle of Lexington became known as "the shot heard around the world," but who fired the first shots is still unknown.The militia was defeated by the British army and the British soldiers marched up to Concord soon after the victory at Lexington.
  • Olive Branch Petition

    Olive Branch Petition
    the Olive Branch Petition was the final attempt by the colonist to not go to war with England during the American revolution. In the petition, the colonist hoped for peace and pledged their loyalty to the crown and declared their rights as citizens of Great Britain. It was written on July 5, 1175, but was not signed until July 8th. After it was written and signed, the continental congress sent the petition to King George the third, but he refused to read it and declared the colonist as traitors.
  • Declaration of Independence

    Declaration of Independence
    The Declaration announce that the thirteen colonies would declare themselves as a united and independence states,no longer under British rule. It was drafted by Thomas Jefferson, who was chosen by John Adams, who made helped with changes of the document, along with Benjamin Franklin.Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, and Benjamin Franklin later became known as the "Founding Fathers" of the United States of America.The document was completed on July 2nd, 1776, but was signed by the congress on July 4.
  • The Battle of Saratoga

    The Battle of Saratoga
    The Battle of Saratoga was a turning point of the war and a major victory for the American colonies in the American Revolutionary war. British General John Burgoyne led an army southward in Canada,hoping to merge army with another British force in New York, but was denied. After general Burgoyne found himself trapped by the American militia,he surrendered there on October 17.Soon after the American victory,the French now support American effort and combining troops and navy with the colonies.
  • Articles of Confederation

    Articles of Confederation
    The Articles of Confederation was the U.S. first constitution, or government, and it was written during the time where Americans feared of having a strong national government (like a monarchy), but it was a very weak government because it did not give the confederation congress and the national government enough power. The Articles of Confederation gave the confederation congress to pass laws, but no power to enforce the law, so if the states did not support the law, they could simply ignore it.
  • Treaty of Paris-1783

    Treaty of Paris-1783
    The treaty of Paris 1783 ended the American Revolutionary War.It was signed at a hotel in Paris on September 3,1783.The treaty forced Britain to recognized United States as independent and sovereign. It also establish the northern border with the British empire in North America & the United States.The western term were that the United States were given the land east of the Mississippi River, north of Florida,and south of Canada. It also gave the British merchants & loyalists their property back.
  • Shay's Rebellion

    Shay's Rebellion
    Shay's rebellion was an uprising in western Massachusetts in 1786 to 1787. It was led by American Revolutionary War veteran, Daniel Shays, with four thousands farmers, or Shay-sites, following him. They were rebelling against taxes that the government put on farmers to pay for the revolutionary war debt. The rebellion was important because it showed Americans that the states could not control themselves and needed a stronger federal government. The rebellion led to writing the U.S. Constitution.
  • Virginia Plan

    Virginia Plan
    Virginia Plan, also known as the Large-state plan, was a proposal for the reformation of the U.S. government.Virginia wanted a two house legislature,a lower house & a upper house. They wanted to get rid of the Articles of Confederation.They also wanted States with large population to have more representation than the states with smaller population.The states with large population supported this plan, but the smaller states disapprove of this plan and made their own proposal, the New Jersey plan.
  • New Jersey Plan

    New Jersey Plan
    The New Jersey plan, also known as the Small State plan,was a proposal made by the smaller states for the reformation of the government & was presented in the constitutional convention.The smaller states wanted a modified version of the Article of Confederation,instead of getting rid of it,which larger states wanted to do.They also wanted to have a single legislature & the legislature would be supreme law of the land.They wanted to have an executive elected by congress & less powerful Judiciary.
  • the Connecticut Plan

    the Connecticut Plan
    the Connecticut plan, also known as the Great Compromise, was a compromise between the Virginia plan and the New Jersey plan.It stated that there would be a bi-cameral legislature,the house of representative(the upper house) and senates (the lower house), where each states would have one representative 40,000 residents, counting the slaves as three-fifths of those residents. There would also be a three man executive, and one single man,or the president, would be elected by the people of the U.S.
  • The Great Debate(federalist)

    The Great Debate(federalist)
    In the Great Debate with anti-federalist, the Federalists fought for more powerful central government.They also were against the Bill of Rights & argued that the Constitution did not need it because the people of the United States were given the powers that were not given to the central government & the Bill of Rights would only limit the rights of the people,instead of protecting them.They also wanted checks and balance,which makes sure no governments(central & states)were given too much power.
  • The great debates (Anti-federalist)

    The great debates (Anti-federalist)
    The anti-federalists paper was written by the Founding Fathers who were stating their concerns about the United States Constitution. They fought for a less powerful central government because they though that having a stronger central government would be like having a monarch in the United states.They argued that the Constitution have failed to protect people rights and wanted the Bill of Rights. In the end of the great debate, the federalist wins and the Constitution became the law of the land.
  • Election of 1788

    Election of 1788
    The Election of 1788 was the first U.S. presidential election under the United States Constitution.It was held on December 15th, 1788 to January 10th, 1789.George Washington was everyone's choice because they saw him as a God-like figure.George Washington was elected the President of the United States for two terms.John Adams,who won second place in the Election of 1788, became the first vice president of the United States, since there was no running mates for the vice president in the election.
  • Whiskey rebellion

    Whiskey rebellion
    The Whiskey Rebellion was a protest on tax on whiskey in 1791.The Pennsylvania and Kentucky farmers were protesting against the whisky tax because whiskey was economically important to them as they were earning large profit from selling whiskey.Six thousands farmers threaten to attack Pittsburgh and was quickly defeated by the United States' army led by president George Washington.The Whiskey rebellion was important because it was the first major domestic test of the United States' Constitution.
  • Jay's Treaty

    Jay's Treaty
    The Treaty of Amity, Commerce, and Navigation, also known as Jay's treaty, was a treaty between the United States of America and England that avoided another war and solved the issue they still had after the Treaty of Paris of 1783. The treaty was negotiated by John Jay and fulfill many of the American goals.The Jay's treaty was signed on November 19, 1794 in London and took effect on February 29,1794.Many republicans were outrage with the treaty because they saw the federalists as pro-Britain.
  • The Pinckney's Treaty

    The Pinckney's Treaty
    The Pinckney's Treaty, also known as Treaty of San Lorenzo, was a treaty between Spain and the U.S. in 1795. It was signed on October 27th, 1795 and took effect on August 3rd, 1796. The treaty sets boundary between the United States and Spanish Florida, which ended the border dispute. The treaty also gave the United States access to Mississippi. It also reopened New Orleans as a port, where Americans could transfer goods without paying a fee when they carried materials from one boar to another.
  • The XYZ Affair

    The XYZ Affair
    the XYZ Affair was named for the three French representative who tried to bribe American diplomats to avoid conflict caused by the French attack of American boats.President John Adams sent Charles Pinckney,John Marshall & Elbridge Gerry to negotiate with French minister,Charles Maurice De Talleyrand-Perigord. After the XYZ Affair, President Adams tried further negotiation, and this time, France took America seriously. The Affair showed the world that the U.S. demanded to be treated with respect.
  • The Alien And Sedition Acts

    The Alien And Sedition Acts
    The Alien and Sedition Acts were passed by the Federalists in 1798 and signed as a law by President John Adams.The Alien Act made it difficult for immigrants to become a citizen of the U.S.It also gave government power to deport the foreigners,or the "aliens." The Sedition Act made it illegal for people to say bad things against the government.The Sedition Act were used against republicans by the Federalist because they thought that they made an alliance with France against their own government.
  • The Yeoman Farmers

    The Yeoman Farmers
    The Yeoman farmers were considered the second highest, or the middle class in the south.About seventy five percent of the Yeoman farmers did not own slaves.The Yeoman farmers would usually hire their family to work in their lands in the south. Some of the farmers relied on planters for land,while some resented the planters. The Yeoman farmers created a southern militia and caught the southern slaves who were trying to runaway and go to the north and guarded the south against any slave rebellion.
  • Louisiana Purchase

    Louisiana Purchase
    Lewis, the secretary of Thomas Jefferson, was chosen by Jefferson himself, to examine the new land that Jefferson just bought from Napoleon (Louisiana purchase). Clark, an army officer, was chosen by Lewis and he made maps for the expedition. The expedition started in Saint Louis and went upstream on the Missouri River. Along the way, they negotiated treaties with the Native Americans and Sacagawea helped translate for them.She also helped and taught the explorers how to survived the expedition.
  • Marbury Vs. Madison

    Marbury Vs. Madison
    Marbury Vs. Madison was one of the most important supreme court case.President John Adams issued William Marbury a job as the justice of peace,but the Secretary of State,James Madison, decline it. Marbury then sued Madison to take the position.Chief justice John Marshall ruled that Marbury would be entitled to the position as the the justice of peace.He also established the Judicial review,which gave the power to declare legislative and executive law unconstitutional to the United States courts.
  • Technological benefits of war of 1812 (Cotton Gin)

    Technological benefits of war of 1812 (Cotton Gin)
    The cotton gin was invented by Eli Whitney in 1794. The invention made it easy to removed seeds from cotton and revolutionized cotton production. The Cotton gin also increased slavery as the south became more dependent on slaves to produce cotton. Black slave labor from the south was providing about two-thirds of the supply of cotton and about eighty percent of British market. The Cotton gin has transformed cotton as a crop and transformed the South into the world's first agriculture powerhouse.
  • The British Strategy(War of 1812)

    The British Strategy(War of 1812)
    In 1814,British Troops marched down to Washington D.C. & burned the white house as revenge for the US attack on the British troop in city of York, or modern day Ontario,Canada. When the British troop arrived at the white house,they found that president James Madison and his wife,Dolley,have abandoned it & went to Maryland.After James Monroe was elected president, he had the white house,formally known as the President's mansion, white to hide the burn marks and it became known as the white house.
  • the Hartford Convention

    the Hartford Convention
    The Hartford Convention was a meeting held in Hartford Connecticut.The convention was called by the Federalist party as they threaten to break away from the Union.They wanted to strengthen New England's political position & they wanted to repeal the three-fifth compromise,which gave the slaves states more power in the Congress and required a two-third votes for an admission of a new states, created laws restricting trades.They also complained about the Louisiana purchase and the Embargo of 1807.
  • Battle of New Orleans

    Battle of New Orleans
    The Battle of New Orleans was a battle fought between the British army led by general Sir Edward Pakenson & the U.S. army led by general Andrew Jackson on January 8th, 1815.General Jackson defeated the British Army with his bi-racial ragtag army.The battle of New Orleans was the last battle of the War of 1812.In the end of the battle,the war of 1812 was considered a draw and didn't solve the diplomatic issue.The U.S. General Andrew Jackson became a household name soon after the battle was over.
  • Nicholas Biddle

    Nicholas Biddle
    Nicholas Biddle was appointed by President James Madison to be the president of the second Bank of America in 1816. During the Election of 1832, Henry Clay told him to apply to renew the charter of the second bank of America earlier, instead of waiting to make a compromise with President Jackson's administration, hoping to make the bank an issue in the election. Biddle applied for the renewal of the charter of the second Bank of the U.S. on January 6, 1832, four years before the charter expired.
  • Panic of 1819

    Panic of 1819
    Panic of 1819 was an economic boom after the war of 1812 & was one of the worst depression in U.S. History.The second Bank of the United States have failed,which caused many banks around New England to foreclose on mortgages on people's homes,business properties and farms.The financial problem have left many people bankrupted and unemployed. It also caused prices of products to rise.Many people were blaming the second Bank of U.S.'s policies for starting the economic crisis,or the panic of 1819.
  • The Underground Railroad

    The Underground Railroad
    The Underground railroads was a secret routes and a safe house that the slaves would escape to.After she escaped from slavery, Harriet Tubman made thirteen missions to help slaves escape the south and go to the North,using the Underground railroad.After the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 was issued to help bring the slaves back to the south,she helped the fugitive slaves go farther north and helped them find jobs there.She also helped John Brown plan & recruit people for the attack on Harpers Ferry.
  • The Temperance Movement

    The Temperance Movement
    The Temperance Movement was a movement against the consumption of alcohol in the United States. Alcohol consumption became really bad in the late-seventeenth century as people would drink all day long. People in the movement would encourage to get rid of alcohol beverages completely, saying that alcohol affects people's health, personality & family life.The Temperance movement have reduced the number of alcohol consumption. Some States banned alcohol to reduce the consumption of alcohol.
  • the Second Great Awakening (education)

    the Second Great Awakening (education)
    In the Second Great Awakening, educations were reformed. Grades were now assigned to students, and teachers were now teaching from textbooks. Education also must be provided by teachers who were trained. Attendance was also mandatory in public schools. There was many backlash as many people feared that changing the education system would caused them to pay higher taxes for education. Roman Catholics also feared the protestant's new education because they were now able to learn in public schools.
  • Missouri Compromise

    Missouri Compromise
    The Missouri Compromise was a temporary solution that solve the conflict of the number of slave states and free states after Missouri applied for admission to become a slave state.The Missouri Compromise balanced out the number of the slave states and the free states.The compromise drew an imaginary line at thirty six degree longitude and thirty degree latitude. The states that are below the imaginary line would a slave state & the states that are above the imaginary line would be a free state.
  • the Election of 1824

    the Election of 1824
    The Election of 1824 was held on October 26th, 1824 and ended on December 2nd, 1824. John Quincy Adams, Andrew Jackson,William Crawford & Henry Clay were the candidates. Andrew Jackson won the popular vote, but John Quincy Adams was elected president by the House of Representative.Jackson believed that the speaker of the House of Representative, Henry Clay, convinced the Congress to elect Adams and in return, Adams would make Clay his secretary of States, which was known as the "Corrupt Bargain"
  • Election of 1828

    Election of 1828
    The Election of 1828 is considered by some to be the nastiest, most personal election in American history. The candidates, John Quincy Adams and Andrew Johnson were calling each other womanizers .Many politicians were slandering Jackson's wife, Rachel,of bigamy for marrying Jackson while she was still legally married to another man. Rachel died before Jackson's inauguration. Jackson blamed the politicians that slander his wife for her death & wanted to avenge her with the term of his presidency.
  • Election of 1828

    Election of 1828
    The Election of 1828 was held on October 31 to December 2nd, 1828. The presidential candidate,Andrew Jackson,was nicknamed "Old Hickory" by his troops on the battlefield because they said that he was as tough as an old hickory wood when he took a bullet to his rib-cage.In the election,Jackson supporters would go to other people houses & told them to vote for "Old Hickory." They also got his name out in newspapers, donations, flyers & plates.Andrew Jackson won the Election of 1828 by a landslide.
  • Joseph Smith

    Joseph Smith
    Joseph Smith was a leader and the founder of the Mormon religion. He also founded the Church of Jesus Christ of Ladder Day Saints on April, 6th 1830. In Illinois, John Smith and the city council wanted to get rid of the Nauvoo press because they were slandering his name. After he was arrested for leading a riot to get rid of the press, he was killed by angry Mormons in 1844. After Smith died in 1844, Brigham Young took his place as leader of the church and led many Mormons to the Utah Territory.
  • Nat Turner's Rebellion

    Nat Turner's Rebellion
    the Nat Turner's rebellion was a slave rebellion led by Nat Turner, a former slave who taught himself how to read and write in 1831.The slaves killed about fifty five to sixty white southerners, Including women & children.After the rebellion, the southerners issued the Slaves Codes,which limited the travel of slaves.It also defined the property right of the slave's masters and made it illegal for slaves to testify in court as a witness.It also made it illegal to teach slaves how to read & write.
  • The Cherokee Nation vs. Georgia

    The Cherokee Nation vs. Georgia
    The Cherokee nation wanted the supreme Court authority to prevent Georgia from enforcing the Indian Removal Act,which took the rights away from the Cherokee people & remove them from their land.The Cherokees argued that the laws were violating their negotiation with the United States.The Supreme Court ruled in the Cherokees favor,but Georgia refused to recognize the supreme court authority.President Andrew Jackson refused to enforced the supreme court rule & pushed for the removal of the Indian.
  • Bank Veto Speech

    Bank Veto Speech
    Jackson's opponent wanted to make the Bank of American an issue, accusing him of going over his power if he veto the charter.President Andrew Jackson made a speech after he vetoed the congress renewal of the second Bank of U.S.'s charter. In his speech,he explained why he vetoed the charter of the second Bank of U.S..He blamed the bank for the panic of 1819. He also laid out his vision for Democracy.After his speech,people who were against him,started to support him and his vision for democracy.
  • American Anti-Slavery Society

    American Anti-Slavery Society
    The American Anti-Slavery Society was abolitionist organization founded by William Lloyd Garrison and Arthur Tappan in the south. The organization had about two hundred and fifty thousand members and made about 1,350 charters. Former slaves, Frederick Douglass and William Wells Brown, were often spokesmen at the organization's meetings. In the meetings, they often discuss about freeing the slaves and bringing them back to Africa. The members often encounter violence from the anti-abolitionist.
  • William Miller

    William Miller
    William Miller was a preacher and a farmer who founded the movement, Millerism. William Miller and his followers, also known as the Millerites, believed that Jesus Christ would come back in the year 1843-1844. In 1844. After Christ did not come back like they expected, Some of Millerites left the group and rejoined their previous religion group,while the others left and became Quakers.The rest of the Millerites joined the Shakers,who believed that Jesus Christ already came back for the 2nd time.
  • The New York Female Reform Society

    The New York Female Reform Society
    The New York Female Reform Society was founded by Lydia A. Finney in 1834. The New York Reform Society was created to get rid of prostitution in New York. The organization soon became an influence to the other organizations in the United States. The New York Female Reform Society would try to eliminate prostitution by trying to persuade states to make prostitution a crime and threatening to write down the names of the men who make visits to the brothels in their monthly journals.
  • Siege of Bexar(Alamo)

    Siege of Bexar(Alamo)
    The Battle of the Alamo,or the Siege of Bexar,was one of the battle in the Texas Revolution.On February 23, about 1500 Mexican soldiers under the command of president Santa Anna marched up to San Antonio De Bexar. As the Texian are surrounded by the Mexican soldiers, Commander William B. Travis wrote several letters, asking for help from the other Texians,but they were reinforced by less than 100 men. After the Mexican killed all of the Texians in the battle of the Alamo, they burned their body.
  • Texas Revolution (William B. Travis)

    Texas Revolution (William B. Travis)
    William B. Travis was a lieutenant colonel and a commander of the Texas Army in the Battle of the Alamo,or the Siege of Bexar. He became the official commander of the Alamo after Bowie became ill .As he was surrounded by the Mexican Army led by president Santa Anna, He wrote several letters to other colonels in Texas,asking them to send troops & supplies,but was only reinforced with less than a hundred men.He died fighting at the Alamo & his body was burned along with the other Alamo defenders.
  • Sam Houston

    Sam Houston
    Sam Houston was a soldier and the first & third president of Texas.He led the Texian army to victory at the Battle of San Jacinto,where he defeated & captured Mexican president Santa Anna.In the Battle of San Jacinto,He made an surprise attack on Santa Anna and the Mexican soldier while they were taking a nap. In exchange for his freedom,Santa Anna surrendered & signed a peace treaty.After his victory at the Battle of San Jacinto,Sam Houston won the election in 1836, defeating Stephen F. Austin.
  • Battle of San Jacinto

    Battle of San Jacinto
    The Battle of San Jacinto was fought on April 21, 1836. It was led by Texian general Sam Houston. General Sam Houston made an surprise attack on president Santa Anna and the Mexican soldiers when they were taking a nap. The Battle of San Jacinto ended in less than twenty minutes, with the Texians taking President Santa Anna as their prisoner.In exchange for his freedom, president Santa Anna signed a peace treaty in Velasco, which stated that he would recognize Texas as an Independence Nation.
  • The Trail of Tears

    The Trail of Tears
    President Andrew Jackson issued an Indian Removal Act of 1830, which forced the Cherokee nation and other Native American tribes to give their east of the Mississippi River and would be relocated to the Indian territory, which is located in modern-day Oklahoma. The Native American's journey to the Indian territory became known as the "Trail of Tears" because of the devastating effects.About four thousand Cherokee people died of cold, hunger and disease before they could reach the western land.
  • The Lowell Mill

    The Lowell Mill
    The Lowell Mill was named after Francis Cabot Lowell,who introduced the Waltham-Lowell System or the Lowell System.The Lowell System was a system made production much faster & was considered less harsh than the British industry because they were hiring adults instead of children.It also influenced other manufacture industries in the U.S.Lowell hired women to run the industry,who were known as "Mill girls." The women had to work in bad conditions for eighty hours a week & were paid less than men.
  • Telegraph

    The telegraph was originally invented by French Inventor, Claude Chappe, but was reinvented and improved by Samuel Morse,who also invented Morse Code using the telegraph.The new invention made distance communication faster and easier.The Telegraph send messages by sending an electrical signal over a wire to the person over the wire.In May 24,1844,Samuel Morse sent his first long distant message on the telegraph,going from Washington D.C. to Maryland as a demonstration of how the telegraph works.
  • The American Industrialization (Irish)

    The American Industrialization (Irish)
    The Irish came to the United States of the America, England,and Canada after the potato famine in Ireland 1845.The potato famish started when fungus destroyed potatoes, which was the primary food source for the Irish.When the Irish fled to the United States, they were faced with racism & were treated badly by the American citizens.They were also discriminated for being catholic because Americans thought that the Irish was under the control of the pope & would never be loyal to the United States.
  • the Bear flag revolt

    the Bear flag revolt
    The Bear flag revolt was a rebellion cause by American settlers in California during the Mexican-American war. The American settlers, or "the Bears," were rebelling against the Mexican Government after the Mexican government declared the purchase of the land invalid and threaten to banish them.The American settlers went to the Mexican General, Mariano Vallejo,home & made a negotiation. After they were given control of Sonoma by general Vallejo, the "Bears" declared California free from Mexico.
  • The German immigration

    The German immigration
    the Germans immigrants left Germany and came to the United States because of their poor harvests and political turmoil that was happening in the Cities in Germany. They also came to the United States for the land and job opportunity. They were the largest group to migrate to the United States with six million people. The Germans and the Scandinavians mostly settled in the Midwest & the North,but some settled in the lower part of the North because they wanted to go where there was similar people.
  • Seneca Falls Convention

    Seneca Falls Convention
    Elizabeth Cady Stanton was one of presenters at the Seneca Falls convention in 1848. She fought for women suffrage and was the president of the National Women's Suffrage Association for eight years. Before she was fighting for women's suffrage, she and her husband, Henry Brewster Stanton, were an active abolitionist. She and Susan B. Anthony fought for women's suffrage after the other abolitionists refused to give women the same rights that were given to African American men after the civil war.
  • the Scandinavians immigrant

    the Scandinavians immigrant
    The Scandinavians emigrated to the United States for economic opportunities in the 19th century. The Scandinavians and Germans usually settled in the Midwest and the North because they wanted to chose a region that was similar to their homeland.They came to the U.S. for better Job opportunity in the factories. They also came to the United States because Europe's population & cities was overcrowded. They also came to own land that the U.S. gained from the Louisiana Purchase & the Mexican Cession.
  • the Fugitive Slave Act

    the Fugitive Slave Act
    The Fugitive Slave Act was passed by the congress as a part of the Compromise of 1850. It was created after slaves were escaping the south & going to the North through the Underground railroad. The Fugitive Slave Act made it illegal for the abolitionists in the north to help the slaves escape the south. It also required the abolitionists to return the fugitive slaves back to their masters in the south. It also stated that the fugitives slaves have no rights to a trial in the United States court.
  • Aunt Phyllis' Cabin

    Aunt Phyllis' Cabin
    Aunt Phyllis' Cabin or Southern Life As it is, was written by Mary Henderson Eastman. Mary Henderson Eastman wrote Aunt Phyllis' Cabin as a response to Harriet Beecher Stowe's book,Uncle Tom's Cabin,which talked about how bad slaves were treated by their owners in the south. The novel was the opposite of the book, Uncle Tom's Cabin and talked about how slaves and the slave owners were happy & respectful & kind to one another in the south. It also talked about how slavery was needed in the south.
  • Uncle Tom's Cabin

    Uncle Tom's Cabin
    Uncle Tom's Cabin, or Life among the lowly was an anti-slavery book written by Harriet Beecher Stowe,an active abolitionist, n 1852.The book was written to make people in the North aware about the how bad slavery was in the south.Beecher Stowe was inspired to write Uncle Tom's Cabin by the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850,which made helping runaway slaves escape the south illegal in the North. The novel have caused many people in the North to oppose slavery more and made slavery become less popular.
  • Bleeding Kansas

    Bleeding Kansas
    After Kansas became a slave state,many abolitionists were angry and went to Kansas to affect the result of the first election that was held there.The pro-slavery won the election & establish a pro-slavery government, while the abolitionist settlers established an anti-slavery government,which resulted with Kansas having 2 separate government.After the government issue,the pro-slavery supporters attacks the abolitionist in Lawrence. As revenge, the abolitionist killed five pro-slavery supporters.
  • The Kansas-Nebraska Act

    The Kansas-Nebraska Act
    The Kansas-Nebraska Act allowed Kansas and Nebraska to decide whether they want to be a slave state or a free state.The Act also repealed the Missouri Compromise, which stated that the states North of 36 degree, 30 degree latitude would be a free states, and the states below would be a slave state. After the act was passed, Kansas became a slave state and Nebraska became a free slates. Many abolitionists were angry and came to Kansas to affect the result of first election that was held there.
  • Dred Scott vs. Sandford

    Dred Scott vs. Sandford
    After Dred Scott,a former slave who moved to Illinois(a free slate) after his owner died,returned back to Missouri,he filed a case in the Missouri court, claiming that he residency in a free state makes him a free man.In the Dred Scott vs. Sandford,SCOTUS rules that slaves are not an American citizen,so they can't sue in a federal court.They also rule that congress can not regulate slavery territory in the North and South.Tensions between the South and the North further escalate after the case.
  • John Brown's Raid

    John Brown's Raid
    John Brown was an abolitionist; he believed that God chose him to end slavery. He wanted to invade the south and start a slave revolt. He led a group of raiders to Harpers ferry, Virginia & took control of the town and federal arsenals. He planned to spread the revolt across the south & was quickly defeated by the United States Marines, led by Lieutenant Israel Greene in three minutes after the third day of the raid. After he was defeated, John Brown and the other raiders were trialed and hung.
  • Clara Barton

    Clara Barton
    Clara Barton was a hospital nurse in the Civil War. During the Civil War, she helped aid the wounded Union soldiers,earning the nickname the "Angel on the Battlefield." After the Civil War, she went to Switzerland and became aware of the Switzerland red-cross,which helped wounded soldiers & protect the sick during wars.After she came back from Switzerland, She was inspired to participate in the Red Cross network and founded the American Red Cross in 1861 and served as the president for 23 years.
  • The Battle of Bull Run

    The Battle of Bull Run
    The Battle of Bull Run was the first major battle of the Civil War. About thirty thousand union forces, or the Army of the Potomac, marched up south to Virginia. The Union army were attacking and drove the confederate army back to Henry Hill, where they were reinforced with another confederate army. After they were reinforced, the confederate attacked the union army.The Battle of the Bull Run was a humiliated defeat for the union and the union army retreated back to Washington D.C. the next day.
  • Battle of Fort Sumter

    Battle of Fort Sumter
    The Battle of Fort Sumter was the first battle of the Civil War. President Abraham Lincoln order Fort Sumter to resupply the ships of the fort. As the fort's ship were arriving with the supplies of guns, the confederate general, Pierre G.T. Beauregard met up with the union general,Robert Anderson to talk about the union surrendering the fort. When the union army refused to surrender,the confederate army attacked them. The battle ended with the Union army surrendering the fort to the confederate.
  • Trent Affair

    Trent Affair
    the Trent Affair threaten a war Between the U.S. & England in 1861. On November 8th, 1861, The USS San Jacinto intercepted the RMV Trent, the British royal mail stream packet Company & captured two confederate diplomats,James Mason & John Slidell. The British demanded an apology and release the confederate diplomats.In order to avoid going into war with British,President Lincoln released the two confederate diplomats and secure Great Britain and France's neutrality to stay out of the civil war.
  • Robert E. Lee

    Robert E. Lee
    Robert E. Lee was a general of the Confederate States Army during the civil war. He became the leader of Northern Virginia during the peninsula campaign in 1862.After the confederate army lost to the Union army at the Battle of Appomattox Court House,he wrote a letter to the Union General,Ulysses S. Grant,telling him that he wants to have a meeting with him and rode off to meet him.He surrendered to Grant at the Appomattox Court House on April 9,1865 & the rest of the forces followed soon after.
  • The Battle of Vicksburg

    The Battle of Vicksburg
    The Battle of Vicksburg divided the south into two. The Union army led by General Ulysses S. Grant, drove the confederate army of Mississippi,led by General John C. Pemberton into Vicksburg, which was the last major stronghold of the confederate on the Mississippi River & captured Vicksburg, completing the Anaconda Plan.The Union also captured New Orleans,depriving the south of its largest city & financing. The confederate army surrendered on July 4th, 1863 and the civil war starts to wind down.
  • Ulysses S. Grant

    Ulysses S. Grant
    Ulysses S. Grant was the general of the Union army in the Civil War. President Abraham Lincoln put Grant in charge of the Army of the Platonic on March 10th, 1864,after he fired General George McClellan.He led the Army of the platonic to victory after General Robert E. Lee surrendered to him in the Appomattox Court House in April 9,1865.After Lincoln was assassinated,Grant continue to be a general of the union under president Andrew Johnson. He later became the 18th president of the U.S in 1869.
  • The Sherman's March to the Sea

    The Sherman's March to the Sea
    The Sherman's March to the Sea was a movement of the Union army led by General William Tecumseh Sherman and commander General Ulysses S. Grant. He started off at Atlanta on November 15 and ended in Savannah on December 21st. His troop followed a "scorched earth" policy, which destroyed everything everything that could be useful for the confederate to defeat the Union. Sherman wrote a letter to President Lincoln, telling him that he have captured Savannah as a Christmas present to the president.
  • the Black Codes

    the Black Codes
    The Black Codes limited the civil rights & economic opportunities of the former slaves in the south.It made it legal to arrest African American for not having a home.The Former slaves were forced to to sign a long-term contract with the planter.If they refused to sign the contract,they were forced to pay a fine and had to work to pay it off. They were unpaid if they left the plantations early.African American children were forced into apprenticeship for white planters until they turn twenty-one.
  • Appomattox Courthouse

    Appomattox Courthouse
    Many of the confederate General Robert E, Lee's officer agreed to surrender the confederate army to the Union after the Battle of the Appomattox Court House.General Lee later rode off and sent a letter to the Union General,Ulysses S. Grant, asking him they could have a meeting so he could surrender. General Lee surrendered to the General Grant on April 9,1865 in the Appomattox Court House.After General Lee surrendered to General Grant, the rest of the confederate forces surrendered by late June.
  • Freedman Bureau

    Freedman Bureau
    The freedman Bureau provided protection to the former slaves as they were now free from their former owners. The Bureau provided education, food, and emergency services to the former slaves. It confiscated land from the whites and gave it to the freemen for agriculture. The Freedmen Bureau also help the former slaves to find jobs and find a home for them and their families .The freedman Bureau was also the main institution for rebuilding the United States after the Civil War.
  • Abraham Lincoln's Assassination

    Abraham Lincoln's Assassination
    Five days after the Appomattox Court House, Abraham Lincoln and his wife, Mary, attend a play, Our American Cousins ,at the ford's theater along with the senator's daughter, Clara Harris and her fiance, Major Henry Radbone. John Wilkes Booth, who worked at the theater, wanted to kill Lincoln over the Civil war. He walked up behind Abraham Lincoln, who was in the presidential box and shot him in the head. After he shot Lincoln,he jumped down on-stage and escaped.Abraham Lincoln died the next day.
  • 13th amendment

    13th amendment
    the 13th amendment abolish slavery in the United States. President Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, which stated that the slaves were free, but the Emancipation Proclamation. didn't end slavery. President Abraham Lincoln then passed the 13 amendment to abolish slavery, but the senates did not pass it until April 8th 1864.The House of Representative then passed the amendment on January 31,1865.The amendment was then ratified and added to the constitution on December 6th,1865.
  • The lost Cause

    The lost Cause
    The Southerners were trying to justify themselves & blame the Union as their reason of losing the Civil War. They argued that the Union had unfair advantages (weapons,population,& industrialization).They also said that the confederate soldiers were very brave,and even wrote songs & poems about how brave the confederate soldiers were in the Civil War. They also argued that the Civil War was over States' rights,not over slavery. They also said that they were the victims of the Yankee's aggression.
  • the 14th Amendment

    the 14th Amendment
    the 14th amendment granted citizenship to all people who were born or naturalized in the United States of America The 14th Amendment were ratified to the United States of America's Constitution on July, 9th, 1868. It was a response to the issue of slavery after the civil war.It entitled all the citizen of the U.S. to equal protection of the law.It prohibited states to restrict the basic rights of the citizens of the United States.It also prohibited financial compensation for the ex-slave owners.
  • 15th Amendment

    15th Amendment
    the 15th amendment gave the African American men the right to vote. The 15th amendment was passed by the House of Representative on February 26th, 1869, but the 15th amendment wasn't ratified until February 3rd.1870. After the ratification of the 15th amendment,the freedmen would be on their own and have to fight for themselves. After the 15th Amendment was established in the United States Constitution, women wanted their own suffrage & created organization,like the National Women's Association/
  • The Mississippi Plan

    The Mississippi Plan
    The Mississippi Plan was created by Democrats to stop the African Americans & the white republican supporters from voting for voting for republicans in the Election of 1876. The Red Shirts would often use violent and create terror for the black and white republican voters at the polls and would not count their votes to keep republicans out of the office.President Ulysses Grant refused to send troops to help the black and white republican voters as he was afraid that Republicans would fall apart.
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    English Colonial Society

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    The Revolution Era

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    the Constitution

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    New Republic

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    American Industrial Revolution

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    The Civil War

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