1301 Timeline Project

Timeline created by CelestMC
In History
  • 1,300 BCE

    Mesoamerica: Maya (Human Sacrifice)

    Mesoamerica: Maya (Human Sacrifice)
    The people of the early years in the American continent, greatly appreciated their gods. They build temples for religious events like animal sacrifices, and human sacrifices. These human sacrifices were first introduced to the Mayan culture by the Toltecs. They were the ultimate sacrifice used to worship their god. The sacrifices were made in front of the whole civilization and consisted of ripping out the heart of a living man, and raising it to the sun showing gratitude for everything the had.
  • 1349

    The Black Death (1347-1351)

    The Black Death (1347-1351)
    The Black Death, also known as the Black Plague, was a pandemic that broke around 1347 in Europe. This completely transformed the European society by wiping out about 50% of the population. This pandemic was spread by fleas that were carried by rats that were introduced by merchants when they were returning to Europe from Asia. With a high demand for workers, people had to hire others by giving higher pay. The prices for products also went up because there was much less production of the items.
  • 1450

    The Renaissance (1300-1600)

    The Renaissance (1300-1600)
    The Renaissance means rebirth. This was a a cultural moment that introduced many ideas. Technology, art, realism, science, all new things that would change the way of thinking after the end of the medieval era. It began in Florence Italy and moved to Germany, and the rest of Europe. The Printing Press is an example of the technological advancement that transformed Europe. This device was invented by Johan Gutenberg and made the production of books faster and cheaper which increased literacy.
  • 1492

    Columbian Exchange

    Columbian Exchange
    The Columbian Exchange was the exchange of goods from the old world , which included Europe, to the new world, which was the Americas. Many different things were exchanged such as food, plants, animals, and diseases. The Americas brought sunflowers, tomatoes, and turkeys, while Europe brought livestock and grains. Disease was the most negative exchange from the old world. They wiped out the Indian population because Indians were not immune to these diseases, and also did not have a cure for it.
  • Oct 18, 1492

    Exploration: Spain (Cristopher Columbus)

    Exploration: Spain (Cristopher Columbus)
    Christopher Columbus was a talented navigator that believed he knew the shortest route to Asia. He went to the King of Spain to ask him for financial aid, and King Ferdinand agreed. Columbus had three ships: The Nina, Pinta, and Santa Maria. He made 4 voyages, and on his first voyage in October 18, 1492, he thought that he found land on some outer Asian lands. He really landed in a island called San Salvador, Bahamas because he believed the world was so much more smaller than it actually was.
  • Jun 7, 1494

    Exploration: Treaty of Tordesillas

    Exploration: Treaty of Tordesillas
    Both Portugal and Spain wanted to claim newly discovered land first. Conflict arose after Columbus came form his voyages discovering new land. The Treaty was an agreement between Spain and Portugal that divided these new lands. The pope, Alexander VI, was the one who gave Portugal most of the eastern part of the world plus Brazil, and gave Spain the western part, which included the Americas. Some may say that the line of demarcation was unfair, but both Spain and Portugal had many advantages.
  • Oct 31, 1517

    Reformation: Martin Luther and 95 Thesis

    Reformation: Martin Luther and 95 Thesis
    Martin Luther was a Priest, but was not a fan of the ways of the Catholic Church including having indulgences. An indulgence was a way for people to pay the church in exchange to go to heaven and be forgiven of their sins. This was going on for many years and he was very upset about it, so he challenged the church. He wrote 95 Thesis and nailed it to a church door in Germany which stated his beliefs and questioned the practices of the Catholic church. He started the Protestant Reformation.
  • Chesapeake Colonies: Virginia

    Chesapeake Colonies: Virginia
    The English came to America around 1607 and established many colonies. Jamestown, Virginia was one of the first colonies to be started as a private charter from the English Crown. Because the land was said to be wealthy, and that there was lots of gold, about 100 settlers came. The economy was not super good in the beginning, but John Rolfe soon introduced tobacco to Jamestown, and transported tobacco from Caribbean. It became the main crop because of the profits it made and Europeans smoked it.
  • Plymouth Colony

    Plymouth Colony
    Pilgrims who soon became Puritans, they claimed their purpose was on to go on a spiritual quest to the new land known as the Americas. Separatist leaders were other leaders that secured land from King James in 1620 and rode across the Atlantic seam on a ship known as the Mayflower. Arriving in November, the Pilgrims initally planned to settle along the Hudson River but could not because of too many storms, facing many challenges, they made allies with the natives and the Plymouth colony survived
  • New England Colonies: Mayflower Compact

    New England Colonies: Mayflower Compact
    The Mayflower Compact was an agreement between people for making themselves self-government because of the failure of other colonies in the past due to lack of leadership, perseverance and other qualities that contribute to making a substantive government. It was a document in which 41 pilgrims signed in 1620, pledging to King James that their government and purpose for settlement was legit and they would keep the civil governmented laws intacted while settling.
  • Connecticut

    A New England colony that was founded by Thomas Hooker in 1636, when they were leaving Massachusetts. Hooker asked them to leave with him and his followers did. The religious group that followed and first populated Connecticut was Puritans, the government was Corporate yet they made plentiful amount of efforts to place a democracy. The original purpose of this colony was for religious and economic freedom, the most popular way to make money in this colony was through mix farming.
  • Navigation Acts: Limiting Foreign Trade

    Navigation Acts: Limiting Foreign Trade
    The Navigation Acts of 1651 controlled trade between the Dutch and the Colonies. The English used the colonies for their money and created the Navigation Acts to minimize competition with the Dutch. It said that all goods should be transported on English or Colonial American ships in order for it to be easy for England to check what the Colonies were importing or exporting.The colonies did not like this because mainly benefited England, which is why many colonist smuggled goods from outsiders.
  • Glorious Revolution: English Bill of Rights

    Glorious Revolution: English Bill of Rights
    The English Bill of rights was passed by Britain Parliament. It excluded Catholics from the monarchy, and gave the Parliament power over the Monarchy of Great Britain which was signed by the King and Queen, William and Mary, who agreed with this bill. The United States Bill of Rights was very similar to the English Bill of Rights.This bill stated that it would protected basic rights the people, and that there could not be excessive bail, and that no cruel or unusual punishments were allowed.
  • Act of Union

    Act of Union
    There were many attempts to bring England and Scotland together, but it ended in failure. The Act of Union of 1707, brought Great Britain together in a political way because it was an advantage for both countries. It united both the English and Scottish parliaments to create the Britain Parliament which was the head of this new Empire. They made all the decisions creating a middle ground. This changed how colonies and the government ran. Colonies still had local control.
  • Triangular Trade

    Triangular Trade
    This was a trading system that was triangle shaped between Africa, Europe, and the Americas in the 1700s. Ships would transport goods across the Atlantic Ocean. Colonies traded things like fish, whale oil, lumber and tobacco to Europe,and rum and iron products to Africa. Europe traded things like seas, spices, cloth, tools, and furniture to the colonies, and Iron products to Africa. These iron products were use to get gold in Africa, the other thing traded besides slaves from Africa.
  • The Enlightenment

    The Enlightenment
    The Enlightenment was a period in which reasoning and science came into place, and all pre-conceived notation were questioned. During this time, there was a belief that nothing was true unless it was proven. The Enlightenment made people to think as individuals. Benjamin Franklin was the face of the Enlightenment, and was an inventor, scientist, and much more.
    People like Sir Isaac Newton who introduced what gravity was, and John Locke who introduced Natural Rights, all contributed in a way.
  • Slavery: The Atlantic Slave Trade

    Slavery: The Atlantic Slave Trade
    Some Africans were captured by other Africans that traded them to Europeans into slavery for goods. Millions of slaves were forced to move from Africa to the Americas where they were auctioned off to settlers because of the high demand for labor. They were transferred on a ship, where many died due to diseases. The slaves that did not die, were put to work in many different areas, but most were in the farming area. This is where most of the strongest African men were placed to do hard work.
  • The First Great Awakening

    The First Great Awakening
    The Great Awakening was a religious revival where religious people went out and preached to the colonies because they were straying away from religion. This really transformed the colonial society. George Whitefield was a speaker from Britain. He went to the colonies addressing spiritual needs and gave people a voice. So many listen to him because of the way he preached. They saw him as unique because he meant was he said. So many people went to listen that they had to meet outside the church.
  • Ohio Company of Virginia

    Ohio Company of Virginia
    Thomas Lee founded the Ohio Company of Virginia in 1747. Many Virginians who were wealthy help established this because they wanted to expand into the Ohio Valley. This was led by Washington.
  • Colonial Economies

    Colonial Economies
    The Colonial economies was based on hard work, industries, and resources. New England were based around shipbuilding and fishing. They participated in the Atlantic Trade. Mid Atlantic had small manufacturing industries and were based around agriculture because of how much diversity they had. The Upper South mainly had tabacco, cash crops. The Lower South had lots of rice, and of course mainly know for cash crops. Since the south was not as diverse, they were solely based off of agriculture.
  • French and Indian War/ Seven-Years War: Treaty of Paris-1763

    French and Indian War/ Seven-Years War: Treaty of Paris-1763
    The French and Indian war, or the Seven-Years war, started in 1756 and ended in 1763. This was a war between France, Britain, and Spain all fought for territory in North America. Indians allied themselves with France and Britain for different reasons. This Seven year war ended with the Treaty of Paris 1763 and stopped French rule in North America. It gave Britain New France, French territory east of Mississippi river, and Spanish Florida. Spain gained western French territory and New Orleans.
  • Britain's Financial situation after the French and Indian War

    Britain's Financial situation after the French and Indian War
    The British won the French and Indian war, ending with the Treaty of Paris 1763. But the war took a toll on the financial side of Britain. The war cost too much, and Britain was near bankruptcy. They decided to have new revenues, and start taxing the colonies in order to lose their debt. They thought that the colonist should help pay for the war, but the colonies disagreed with this. Colonist resist, and start to voice displeasure. These taxes were essentially what led to The Revolutionary war.
  • Acts of Parliament

    Acts of Parliament
    The Acts of Parliament started with acts passed placing taxes on many items used by the Colonist like paper, tea, and much more. Britain needed money to pay the debt from the French and Indian War, and the only way they to do this was to raise taxes. Some of these Acts were the Stamp Act, Townshend Act, and Sugar Act. When the colonist refused to pay, Great Britain sent troops into the colonies to try to enforce the colonist to pay these taxes which eventually led to the Revolutionary War.
  • Boston Massacre

    Boston Massacre
    British soldiers went to colonies trying to enforce taxes. People of the Boston area, began to "harass" the soldiers by throwing sticks, and snowballs. Soldiers fired into this crows and killed five people. But the British claim to be innocent, stating that they were just defending themselves from the harassment of the colonist. When a few soldiers were taken to trail for these murders, John Adams was their lawyer stating that the they had a right to fire because the danger the people brought.
  • Battle of Lexington and Concorde

    Battle of Lexington and Concorde
    These battles took place in Massachusetts, between Britain and the Colonist . The Battle of Lexington is where the Redcoats met militia in Lexington. Here people heard a shot but neither side knew who shot it, and everyone started to shoot. This is known as the "Shot heard around the world". Then British marched to Concord to get supplies from colonist because of fear that they would us it against them. The colonist heard the British were going so they hid and surprise attacked British troops.
  • Common Sense: Thomas Pain

    Common Sense: Thomas Pain
    Thomas Pain was a emigrant from Scotland and wanted to change the view of the colonists towards Great Britain, which is why he wrote the Common Sense. This was a document where he argued for independence, and said that the colonies should break free from Great Britain. He spoke of a democratic representative government, giving people a voice, vs the monarchy of evil Britain. The Common Sense played a big role in the American Revolution, helping lead towards the independence of the colonies.
  • The Declaration of Independence

    The Declaration of Independence
    This document was written by Thomas Jefferson. It wast then soon completed July the 2nd, and signed July 4th. Colonies declared united and independent states from Britain. This documents included grievances against Britain and their monarchy, King George III, and unalienable rights "Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness" stating rights and ideas for government. Although there was some loyalist who supported what Britain was doing, many of the colonist were content with their independence.
  • Constitutional Convention: Connecticut Plan

    Constitutional Convention: Connecticut Plan
    During the Constitutional Convention, two plans were proposed. The Virginia Plan, which helped the larger states, and the New Jersey Plan, which helped the smaller states. The Connecticut Plan, or the Great Compromise, was proposed by Roger Sherman and Oliver Ellsworth. This plan put the New Jersey and Virginia Plan together. This is modern day congress. This decided that each state would get an equal number of representatives no matter the size, under the United States Constitution.
  • Articles of Confederation

    Articles of Confederation
    The Articles of Confederation was the nations first constitution giving more power to the states. This was proven weak because congress could not enforce many things and could not get anything done. There was no strong central government to enforce states paying taxes. The states did not comply to paying taxes, and the nation was short on funds. People began printing too much money, which devalued currency. This led to debt since purchases were made on credit and there was no money to pay with.
  • Treaty of Paris-1783

    Treaty of Paris-1783
    The Treaty of Paris 1783, was signed on September 3rd, 1783 by Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, John Jay, and David Hartley. This document ended the Revolutionary War and recognized the United States as independent , and that it would gain western territory. By this, the United States of America was allowed to have its own laws and government being its own nation. The new United States benefited greatly from the Treaty of Paris. Gaining new things, and getting back what was once taken from them.
  • Shays Rebellion

    Shays Rebellion
    The Shays Rebellion start August 31, 1786 and ended June of 1787. This was after the American Revolution and was bad for many people, especially farmers. The farms of these farmers were taken away from them because they could not pay taxes. They were all upset, and Daniel Shay, a continental army captain and farmer, started a protest in western Massachusetts leading with revolutionary war veterans at his side. This proved the Articles of Confederation weak because states could not be controlled.
  • Constitutional Convention:Virginia Plan

    Constitutional Convention:Virginia Plan
    The Virginia Plan was proposed to the Constitutional Convention by Edmund Randolph. This plan said 2 house legislature, an Upper, and Lower house. The lower house would be the House of Representatives elected by the people. The Upper house would by the senate, elected by the lower house. A executive, President and all branches had equal power. Representation was based on population, so the larger states had an advantage to this plan compared to the smaller states. They had more of a voice.
  • Constitutional Convention: New Jersey Plan

    Constitutional Convention: New Jersey Plan
    William Paterson proposed the New Jersey Plan to the Constitutional Convention. This plan stated that there should be a modified version of the Articles of Confederation. There would be a single legislature, so each state would get one vote. Legislature was supreme law of land. The Executive would be elected by the Congress. It was a less powerful Judiciary. With a single vote for each state, the smaller states would not be "bullied" by the larger states because of theri population.
  • Constitutional Convention: Three Branches

    Constitutional Convention: Three Branches
    There was a movement for a new constitution since there was a need for a stronger central government. The 3 branches of government were introduced.The Judicial, Legislative, and Executive branch. The Judicial branch was the supreme court and they interpreted laws and overview court cases. The Executive branch was led by a single man who was elected by the people. His main job was to execute laws. The Legislative branch is made up the two houses of congress. Their main job is to make laws.
  • Northwest Ordinance

    Northwest Ordinance
    The Northwest Ordinance was passed by Confederation Congress. It was a new system for admission to the union. This made settlements of the west organized and peaceful. It also described how territories would be governed. It states if a territory had 60,000 people, it could be admitted as a state once applied to Congress. If the territory would continue to grow it would gain rights like freedom of speech, right to vote, right to a trial by jury and freedom of region. But this rejected slavery.
  • Alexander Hamilton

    Alexander Hamilton
    Alexander Hamilton was a Founding father but was not a native American that was born around 1755. He was a leader of THE Federalist party. The federalist are the ones who wrote the Constitution. He had a strong influence over George Washington because he was the Secretary of Treasury. He held many positions that were a lot of responsibility for example becoming Washington's most trusted adviser and was also lieutenant colonel in the Continental Army. He was also known for catering to the rich.
  • Capital Site: District of Columbia

    Capital Site: District of Columbia
    A new capital site was need because New York was corrupt. In order to escape the corruption, the new capital was Washington, District of Colombia, or Washington D.C. This was a compromise between the North and South. This was named after leaders that were to be recognized: George Washington and Christopher Columbus.
  • Whiskey Rebellion

    Whiskey Rebellion
    The Whiskey Rebellion was similar to the Shay's Rebellion. Farmers were upset because government was placing a tax on whiskey due to the debt that they were in. The farmers rebelled because it was economically important for them. They earned a profit from it but with a tax placed on it, they could not afford to pay it. 600 threaten to attack Pittsburgh. This was the first major domestic test of constitution. But George Washington led army and proved that he could make people listen.
  • Bill of Rights

    Bill of Rights
    The Bill of Rights were the first 10 amendments of the Constitution. This was support by anti-federalist because of the power it gave states and its people. Each amendment stated rights that was given to citizens and limited what the government could do. 1st amendment was freedom of speech, religion, and press. . The 5th was protection of rights of life, liberty,and property. Although not all listed, all of the amendments helped give people a sense of security and shaped the America of today.
  • Slavery: Cotton Gin

    Slavery: Cotton Gin
    The cotton gin was one of the new advancements of technology during the American Industrial Revolution. This machine was invented by Eli Whitney in 1793, and did the work of multiple slaves. The cotton gin quickly separated the seeds from the cotton ball.This made the production of cotton much faster, and cheaper in the South which then resulted in plantation owners receiving a greater profit. With more cotton being processed and more land being purchased to use, the need for slavery increased.
  • Election of 1796: Washington Farewell Address

    Election of 1796: Washington Farewell Address
    Washington's Farewell address was written in 1796. He said that after his 2nd term he was done, and would not run again for a 3rd term. He also stated that the United States should not have an "permanent" alliances with outside countries. He wanted to avoid conflicts and believed that not having a relationship with outsiders would help prevent this. He also warned them of political parties and said that it would be a threat to the nations unity. He wanted to avoid war for financial reasons.
  • Adam's Presidency: Alien and Sedition Acts

    Adam's Presidency: Alien and Sedition Acts
    The Alien Acts made it difficult for people to become citizens. It said that a person was only allowed to become a citizen many years after arriving in the United States. Deportation was common around this time.
    The Sedition Acts made it a crime to say bad things about the United States, or the President. This was mainly used against Republicans by Federalist. Many people did not approve of this act because it completely violated their rights. The first amendment stating freedom of speech.
  • Election of 1800: 12th Amendment

    Election of 1800: 12th Amendment
    The 12th amendment was passed after the Election. When there was a tie congress had to pick who would be President, and who would be Vice president but this caused many conflicts. So with the 12th amendment, it said that each vote would be on separate ballots. This helped prevent a majority vote for one person. It stated that one vote per state was allowed to choose for a President of the United States and then the Senate would chose who would win for the Vice President.
  • Jefferson Administration: Louisiana Purchase

    Jefferson Administration: Louisiana Purchase
    During the Age of Jefferson, Thomas Jefferson wanted a nation of farmers. This is where the Louisiana Purchase came into place. Spain ceded Louisiana back to France. But Napoleon needed a lot of money and Jefferson would pay 15 million. Jefferson was afraid that Napoleon would back out. But Jefferson Purchased the Louisiana Territory for less than 3 cents per acre. He also was able to secure the Mississippi river which was needed. This purchases made the United States double in size.
  • Embargo Act of 1807

    Embargo Act of 1807
    The Embargo Act of 1807 was a short block on foreign trade. Imposed by Thomas Jefferson, the embargo was meant to persuade Britain and France to respect America's neutral stance. Said embargo would in hindsight, be seen as a complete waste of time, costing the U.S. millions in loss of trade. Congress would go on to repeal this Act just 3 days before Jefferson’s leave of office. This act would leave economic problems for the U.S., and trade with Britain and France, would not start until 1810.
  • Madison Presidency: Impressment

    Madison Presidency: Impressment
    Impressment is the act of a military forcing citizens into its army. During the war of 1812, the British navy created what would be known as the “press-gang”, which comprised of sailors they would force to serve on British royal naval ships. The act of impressing would become extremely unpopular to both the British and American public. Due to this negative connotation to the act of forcing men into your workforce, some officers punished other officers who would partake in the act of impressment.
  • Madison Presidency: Tecumseh

    Madison Presidency: Tecumseh
    Tecumseh was a Shawnee Native-American general and chief. He would go on to become the leader of a multi-tribal confederacy. His confederacy fought the U.S. early in Madison’s presidency, going up against General William Henry Harrison. Due to old age, and not getting any closer to his goals of spreading his native-American alliance, he joined forces with the Great Britain's in the War of 1812, and was killed by U.S. troops, after retreating to North Canada. His confederacy collapsed soon after.
  • War of 1812: Fort McHenry

    War of 1812: Fort McHenry
    Fort McHenry, located in Baltimore, Maryland, and built in 1798, it is best known for its role in the War of 1812. An American Storm Flag was flown over Fort McHenry during a bombardment. It was later replaced by a large Garrison American flag to signal a victory over Britain in the Battle of Baltimore. This image inspired a poet, Francis Scott Key, to conceive a poem titled “Defense of Fort M’Henry”, which showed the events formally described, and would later become our national anthem.
  • Changes in Transportation

    Changes in Transportation
    The development in infrastructure changed drastically the purpose of canals was to transport heavier objects over a larger distance. Since the Industrial Revolution was about quantity over quality, many products were made and they needed to be transported to their destinations to get profit. Thus the creation of roads, railways, and canals, these new technologies allowed large companies who owned factories to transport their products/goods to the buyer for cheaper prices.
  • Second Great Awakening

    Second Great Awakening
    The Second Great Awakening, Age of Reform, took place in 1820 due to the Industrial Revolution. This was a religious movement mostly about reforming people. This rejected secularism and deism. This was led by many preachers or strong religious speakers that believed there needed to be a revival. This had a great affect on many of the movements during the era. It will attempt to make the United States better through these movements. Many people who didn't have many rights gained a voice.
  • Transcendentalism: Ralph Waldo Emerson

    Transcendentalism: Ralph Waldo Emerson
    Ralph Waldo Emerson was born in 1803 and became a minister. He was known for being the center of a philosophical movement called the Transcendental Movement. This was movement based on the belief that people are inherently good by nature, and that the world that people live in make them bad. This was revolved around literary things like essays and poetry. He believed in the power of the people and wrote a well-known essay called "Self-Reliance". His writings influenced many other writers.
  • Missouri Crisis: Missouri Compromise

    Missouri Crisis: Missouri Compromise
    The Missouri compromise was a temporary solution because slavery needed to be dealt with. There a need for a balance between slave states and free states. This compromise drew an imaginary line at 36 latitude, and 30 longitude. The states that were above this line were free states, with an exception to Missouri. Any states under the line were slaves states. In order for there to be a balance, Maine joined as a free state, and Missouri joined as a slave state. Many guaranteed future conflict.
  • Revivalism: Charles Grandison Finney

    Revivalism: Charles Grandison Finney
    Charles G. Finney was known as the "father of modern revivalism" . He was a well know leader and minister during the Second Great Awakening. He spread his belief that people were in charge of their own destinies, not what God did. He was a religious writer who believed that slavery should end, and that women should receive rights such as voting rights. Therefore, many African-Americans and women listened to him and respected the great leader he was during the Awakening. He wanted to help people.
  • Millennialism: Mormons

    Millennialism: Mormons
    Mormons from the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints. This was founded by Joseph Smith. It was said that an Angel came to Smith and gave him a golden tablet in 1823. The golden tablet was written in an ancient language that no one but Joseph could understand and read. Once he read the tablet, he was able to create the Mormon book, and of course the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints. He was murder when he tried to spread Mormonism in other states by people who did not agree.
  • Monroe Doctrine

    Monroe Doctrine
    The Monroe Doctrine was a document stating the United States foreign relationships written by John Quincy Adams. It said that the United States would be recognized. The United States wanted influence over the new areas. It would not interfere with European powers, and the Europeans could not colonize any more of the Western Hemisphere, and would not threaten any existing nation in the Western Hemisphere which included Latin America. This policy created sphere of European and American influences.
  • Texas: Stephen F. Austin

    Texas: Stephen F. Austin
    Stephen F. Austin was born in 1793, and know as the "Father of Texas" given to him by Anglo Americans. Austin did have his own colony and had many requirements like no gamblers, no swearing, no drunkards. But when Mexico gained its Independence from Spain, he was not recognized. He went to Mexico and brought many settlers to Texas after Mexico gained its independence. He wanted to push reform without a revolution. So he tried to negotiate with the Spanish government.
  • Age of Common Man: Davy Crockett

    Age of Common Man: Davy Crockett
    Davy Crockett, born in 1786, was an American hero and soldier, immortalized by his skills in hunting and storytelling. He would be elected to Tennessee state legislature in 1821, followed by his election to congress in 1827. This new position allowed him to oppose many of the new policies President Jackson was attempting to impose. Due to being elected off and on, he decided to depart from his residency at the time, and go to Texas. He died in 1836, defending Texas at the Battle of the Alamo.
  • Jackson Administration: The Spoils System

    Jackson Administration: The Spoils System
    The Spoils System is where after a party wins an election, it gives its supporters government jobs for supporting them. Once Andrew Jackson took won the presidential election and took office in March of 1829, he replaced bureaucracy with his own supporters. Jackson wanted to changed the way things ran in the government because he felt that those in the government did not agree with his ideas/beliefs. His opponents tried exposing him for the "bad" things he was doing, but had not power to fight.
  • Temperance Movement (1830s-1850s)

    Temperance Movement (1830s-1850s)
    Many people during this time consumed too much alcohol because of economic, political, and social issues.The Temperance Movement was a reform against the consumption of alcohol because of the effects it had on people. Due to the tremendous amount of drinking, many had health problems, were abusive to their families, and unemployed. Some people thought it was unfair to stop everyone from drinking alcohol if they were not the ones doing wrong when they drank, but many women supported the movement.
  • Free black Communities

    Free black Communities
    During Industrial Revolution, there was free black communities that existed in the North. Although the Northerners were not for slavery, African-Americans were not seen equal. There was discrimination and prejudice views towards them. They competed with immigrants for jobs, but was not as bad as slavery. Some were lucky, and received farmland avoiding the poverty other slaves had to endure. At first, many were not able to get education, but some societies began programs to teach blacks.
  • Changes in Communication

    Changes in Communication
    With multiple new inventions created during the Industrial Revolution, for example, the telegraph which was invented by Samuel B. Morse. Who also invented Morse code to communicate through transmitted signals that translate into words. The printing press was also another version of communication that spread the word of news quickly. The printing press also allowed people to be able to express their own opinions which was excersising the 1st amendment in the Bill of RIghts.
  • Slavery: Gradualism

    Slavery: Gradualism
    Many wanted to abolish slavery. Gradualism is a process in which people try to end slavery by stopping people from trading them that would prevent the South from keeping slavery. This belief during the changing of the culture in the 1820's in which people would free slave and sen them back to Africa. Of course there are the anti-abolitionist, who support slavery and went against this and tried to stop people from taking their "property", or slaves, and were not for this gradual process.
  • Slavery: Nat Turner's Rebellion

    Slavery: Nat Turner's Rebellion
    The Nat Turner's Rebellion was a slave rebellion in Virginia August 1831 led by Nat Turner. Slaves learned to read and write. He led about 70 slaves to go against their masters killing about 50 white people. Many northerners views this rebellion as heroic since they were against slavery. The South however, were very frighten by this. As a result of this were that assaults on whites are capital offenses, and limited their access to firearms. This was not a good result for the African-Americans.
  • Jackson Administration: Nullification Crisis

    Jackson Administration: Nullification Crisis
    This a sectional crisis when Andrew Jackson was President. Congress was raised import taxes. The Ordinance of Nullification created by South Carolina stated that the federal Tariff was unconstitutional. This affected South Carolina and they refused to pay. Southerners doubted that Jackson was representing their interest. This led to the Compromise Tariff of 1833 proposed by Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun. This compromise was suppose to fix the conflict that aroused with previous Tariff.
  • Election of 1832: Andrew Jackson and the 2nd Bank of the United States

    Election of 1832: Andrew Jackson and the 2nd Bank of the United States
    The 2nd bank of America was after the war of 1812. President Andrew Jackson hated the Bank of the United States and vetoed it. Henry Clay believed that because of this issue, he would win the election.This was the central issue of the election. But Jackson defended his actions and explains why he refused it. He laid a vision for American Democracy, the Age of the Common Man. Courts were not authority on the constitution. With this speech, he killed the election and destroys Clay.
  • Immigration: Foreign

    Immigration: Foreign
    Many immigrants migrated to the colonies other than those from Great Britain. Germans, Irish, Scandinavians, all came from their countries for different reasons. Irish people came because of a potato famine that happened in their country. Germans came because of poor harvesting and political reasons. Scandinavians and British, both came for new and better economic opportunities. With so many immigrants there was an ethnic change, and the colonies became super diverse.
  • The Whig Party

    The Whig Party
    The Whig Party favored a strong central government. They were against slavery. They believed that that the rights of minorities should be protected and defended. Because of this they accepted people of kind, including minorities, to join the Whig party. They had a populist style of politics. They also believed that the country needed to be run by talented individuals. They formed because they wanted to go against Andrew Jackson, opposed many of his beliefs and ran against him in the election.
  • Native Americans: Cherokee (Trail of Tears 1838-1839)

    Native Americans: Cherokee (Trail of Tears 1838-1839)
    The Indian removal act of 1830 gave the president the power to "exchange" Indian land. The people of the Cherokee tribe were forced out of their homes because the Americans wanted the gold found in their land. This led to the Trail of Tears, where thousands from the Cherokee tribe were forced to travel thousands of miles west from Georgia, to present day Oklahoma. During the journey, around 4,000 Indians, including children and elders, died due to the cold weather, starvation, and diseases.
  • Manifest Destiny: Great Migration

    Manifest Destiny: Great Migration
    Manifest Destiny was the belief that the United States would expand west of their current settlements. This expansion was from the Atlantic Ocean, to the Pacific Ocean where white people traveled for many months. There was multiple kinds of great migrations to different areas across the continent of America where territories were bought, or fought for.
    During this time, the Jacksonian democracy believed that the natives should go extinct, and that all their land should be taken from them.
  • Election of 1840

    Election of 1840
    This election was Democratic party versus the Whig party. Martin Van Buren ran for re-election. William Harrison was nominated for the Whig party. The Whig party used Jackson like tactics and began to spread rumors about Van Buren and get women to influence the vote of their husbands. This was a victory for the Whig Party because William Harrison wins the election. Unfortunately, Harrison only makes President for a month because he passes away. John Tyler, the Vice President becomes President.
  • Bear Flag Revolt

    Bear Flag Revolt
    The Bear Flag Revolt took place during the Mexican-American war. It started when John C. Fremont convinced settlers to form militias. This group of settlers from California were led by William B. Ide, declaring their independence from Mexico, and became a independent republic. A few years later United States troops began to go in California and soon after it was establish a state in 1850. The Bear Flag they created during this revolt eventually became the the state flag.
  • Mexican-American War (1846-1848)

    Mexican-American War (1846-1848)
    President Polk wanted to expand the United States west, and Texas was annexed by the United States making it the 28th state. There was a disagreement between Mexico and the U.S. of whether the southern border of Texas would be the Rio Grande River, or the Nueces River . When a Mexican dispatch attacked Zachary Taylor, a commander, Polk declared war on Mexico. The Mexican- American War began on April 25th, 1846. The war ended in 1848 with America winning and gaining about a quarter of its land.
  • Slavery: Popular Sovereignty

    Slavery: Popular Sovereignty
    Popular Sovereignty was one result of the Mexican- American war and was the idea of people having total power of their government. This was a middle ground allowing new territories who were becoming states to choose their paths. The people of these new states got to decide and vote whether or not they wanted to become a free state, or a slave state. Although southern states were for this, the northern states were afraid that this would promote to the idea of spreading slavery across the nation.
  • Suffrage: Seneca Falls Convention

    Suffrage: Seneca Falls Convention
    Political Women started to gain confidence. The Seneca Falls Convention was in New York. This was the first women's rights convention, a women's movement organized by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott. Three hundred women, and 40 men attended this convention. This was an attempt to gain women's suffrage. Suffrage is the right to vote. The Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions came out of this convention. This declaration secured rights for women in economy and voting.
  • Free-Soil Party

    Free-Soil Party
    The Free Soil Party was a political party that formed during the Election of 1848 by anti-slavery men in the north, and many others who were upset with the government. It was against the expansion of slavery in the new territories. It believed in free speech, free labor, free men, and free soil. They supported Martin Van Buren during the election, and John hale for the next presidential elections. It only lasted for a short period of time and was later formed into the Republican Party.
  • Treaty of Guadalupe Hildago

    Treaty of Guadalupe Hildago
    The Treaty of Guadalupe Hildago ended the Mexican-American War. This treaty gave the United Stated over half of Mexico's territory, including California, Utah, New Mexico, Arizona, Nevada, Colorado and Wyoming. Mexico also agreed that Texas belonged to the United States. The United States had to pay Mexico around 15 million dollars. Although that was a lot of money, the United States were happy because they were fulfilling they belief of Manifest Destiny, which was expanding their lands west.
  • California Gold Rush

    California Gold Rush
    Gold was found in California by James w. Marshall. Thousands of people migrated to California because they wanted to search for gold. The gold was really easy to find which resulted in mining starting in 1852. Chinese migration happened too around this time and they also worked in mining industry. They faced racism, more than blacks. The mines they worked in, had the worst conditions because they were the worst mine then. Mining camps in general were bad having disease, deaths, and much more.
  • Underground Railroad

    Underground Railroad
    The Underground Railroad was a connection of safe houses that were use to hide slaves that started before the Civil War. These fugitive slaves were trying to escape from the South, and go north where they would be free with they help of many abolitionists. Harriet Tubman made 19 trips to the south over 30 years and help free thousands of slaves. Between 1850-1860, around one hundred thousand slaves were freed. The South lost billions of dollars because of the escape of many of their slaves.
  • Compromise of 1850

    Compromise of 1850
    The Compromise of 1850 included five separate bills introduced by Henry Clay to prevent problems with the North and South. One bill said that New Mexico and Utah territory would be set up and could decide if they wanted slavery. The next stated that California would be a free state. Another said that the Slave trade would end in Washington DC. And then the Fugitive Slave act, saying to capture runway slaves. The last bill stated that Texas would get ten million to settle border disputes.
  • Slavery: Fugitive Slave Act of 1850

    Slavery: Fugitive Slave Act of 1850
    The Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 was included in the Compromise of 1850. This act made it a crime for people to help runaway slaves. The authorities were required to return these slaves and were given a reward for it. The slaves returned to their owners had no rights to trial. At times, free blacks would be captured and claimed as well. This law was hated by the North because of their strong belief against slavery. They were upset that if they refused to help, they would be fined or jailed.
  • Literature: Uncle Tom's Cabin

    Literature: Uncle Tom's Cabin
    Uncle Tom's Cabin was a novel written by Harriet Beecher Stowe, an American abolitionist. She wanted to reach the emotions of people by making not only the people of the North, but those all around the world realize the struggles African-American slaves went through and the unfairness of the fugitive slave laws. This brought awareness to the mistreatment of slaves by their Southern owns. Her book was an abolition movement, and was written to change the perspective of people towards slavery.
  • Kansas-Nebraska Act

    Kansas-Nebraska Act
    Southerners were afraid of the two north new free states, and they wanted to abolish the Missouri Compromise. Stephen Douglas was trying to go expand the nation west and decided that the states should decided if they wanted to be free or slave states and wanted to repeal the 36- 30 line. Northerners were upset with this but Douglas and Franklin Pierce came together of propose act of congress. The Act was then passed, and Kansas was a slave state and Nebraska was a free state.
  • Election of 1860: Abraham Lincoln

    Election of 1860: Abraham Lincoln
    The candidates for this election were John Breckinridge and Stephen Douglas for the democratic party, John bell for the Constitutional Union party, and Abraham Lincoln for the republican party. Lincoln had few political enemies, and had a moderate approach to slavery. Many thought that the democratic party was going to win. But with two candidates for the party, the votes were split because of their opposing views on slavery. Therefore, Lincoln had the most votes, resulting in his presidency.
  • Southern Society

    Southern Society
    Planters were farmers and since the Southern economy was mostly based off of agriculture they had a system of staying the way they area. For example, when they knew dueling was illegal they still did it anyway because people knew that your honor was one of the most important things in the South. Below planters were Yeoman farmers who were organized in ranks of the percent of slaves they had. Tenant farmers was the lowest class in the Southern Society.
  • South: Gaining Britain as an ally (Fail)

    South: Gaining Britain as an ally (Fail)
    During The Civil War, the North had many advantages like manufacturing, transportation, and financing, whereas the South just had excellent military leadership . The only way the South could win the war was to gain allies. This is where the Cotton Embargo came into place. Confederacy thought that by making European countries depend on them for cotton, they would be able to gain them as allies. This happen throughout the War until the Emancipation Proclamation stopped Britain from entering war.
  • The War: Union Blockade

    The War: Union Blockade
    The South did not have many advantages during the Civil War. Because of this, they needed to sell cotton to foreign nations to receive supplies and war equipment. The Union Blockade was a Northern strategy to block Confederate ports depriving them of the supplies they needed to fight the war. The North thought that by preventing the importation of these supplies, the South would surrender ending the war. This was a Northern victory because the South lacked many resources, and surrendered.
  • North

    During the Civil War, it was almost clear that the North had many advantages. It had more than double of the population of the South, 22 million people. The Union was very industrialized so it had about 110,000 factories, and a 1.5 billion dollar industry. They manufactured their own weapons, clothes and shoes. This made the Union Army stronger, technically speaking, because they had everything they needed made at home. Their disadvantage was not having great military leadership like the South.
  • International: Trent Affairs

    International: Trent Affairs
    The Trent Affairs happened on international water on a British mail ship called the Trent. Confederates sent diplomats to Britain, and the USS San Jacinto intercept Trent ship. Charles Wilkes arrested the two Confederates on the ship. Because of this Britain was very upset and demanded an apology. Soon after Lincoln released the Confederate diplomats. This was a win for the Union because Lincoln secured British neutrality after the incident, which prevented the South from receiving resources.
  • Neutral States

    Neutral States
    The neutral states during the Civil War was Missouri, Kentucky, Delaware and Maryland. Both the Union and Confederacy wanted them for different reasons in order to help them. It would support them in the war. The south wanted them for industrialization.
  • Slaves: Emancipation Proclamation

    Slaves: Emancipation Proclamation
    During the Civil War, the Emancipation Proclamation, made by Abraham Lincoln, was announced after the Battle of Antietam where there was a union victory. This documented freed slaves of southern states that the Union was fighting against, but border states were allowed to keep their slaves until the end of war. It also stopped Britain from entering the war because the British did not want to support those who were essentially fighting for slavery given the fact that Britain was against slavery.
  • Plans: Wade-Davis Bill

    Plans: Wade-Davis Bill
    The Wade-David Bill was brought to attention by Radical Republicans who were against slavery. This bill punished Confederate leaders of the Civil War, and strip them of their citizenship. This also said that after they took an allegiance to the Union that any war debt that needed to be paid would not be with government aid. States would be readmitted after long punishment, but they had to have full commitment to the Union. This bill was declined by Lincoln because he believed it was too harsh.
  • Politics: North (Copperheads)

    Politics: North (Copperheads)
    The Copperheads were a group of peace loving democrats who opposed the Civil War in the North. They wanted to stop the war, and cease firing saying that the South should be let go. They belived that the states should come altogether with a compromise. Some of these Northerners supported the Confederacy and thought of Lincoln as a tyrant. They were even vilified by pro-Union media. Republicans called the people of this group traitors because of what they were saying during the brutal war.
  • White Resistance: KKK

    White Resistance: KKK
    Some white people resented the new rights the African-Americans gained. The Ku Klux Klan (KKK) was a social group in the south that started in Tennessee by Confederate veterans after the Civil war.. They believed in white supremacy, and used violent acts to express it. Theses people did brutal things, including murder, free African-Americans. It eventually was known as a terrorist group in the United States and its main goal was to destroy reconstruction. Many tried to stop them but were afraid.
  • Former Slaves: Freedom Amendments (13th Amendment)

    Former Slaves: Freedom Amendments (13th Amendment)
    Abraham Lincoln and Radical Republicans passed the 13th Amendment in late 1864 early 1665, before the end of the Civil War. The 13th Amendment officially abolished slavery in the United States. It said that there could no longer be involuntary slavery or servitude, unless it was a punishment for a crime that someone had made. This exception was abused by police officers who would find random reasons to arrest free slaves, which is way the 14th and 15th amendment came to protect their rights.
  • Former Slaves: 40 acres a mule

    Former Slaves: 40 acres a mule
    General William T. Sherman issued the 40 acres a mule. 40 acres a mule was an attempt of the government to give independence to African- American families a fresh new start. Some planters had abandon their farms, so it was confiscated by union forces. They provided this land and allowed African-Americans to own or rent this in order to farm, and received a mule. Unfortunately, the land would eventually be given back to the original plantation owners which made the African-Americans very upset.
  • The War: Appomattox Court House

    The War: Appomattox Court House
    The Appomattox Court House was in Virginia. This ended the four year war, and was not a battle. It took a while, but the North finally had a good General leading the Union.Ulysses S. Grant and his army surrounded General Lee with his army, starving them. Lee was forced to retreat, and surrendered at the Appomattox courthouse. This meant that the Union won the Civil war, and that all the slaves were free. This war was said to be the bloodiest in history because over 650,000 Americans died.
  • Former Slaves: Freedom Amendments (14th Amendment)

    Former Slaves: Freedom Amendments (14th Amendment)
    The 14th Amendment was passed by congress in 1866 during the Reconstruction era after the civil war. This amendment stated that a United States citizen was one that was born in the country. Citizens were not denied of their rights and had equal protection. This gave African- Americans the opportunity to become citizens. Many in the South disapproved of this and came up with laws, like the Black Codes, to make the life of African-Americans harder and also restrict the freedom that they received.
  • The New South: Sharecroppers

    The New South: Sharecroppers
    Agriculture was most of the southern economy in the 1870s. But, since there was an overproduction of cotton, cotton prices fell. Many farmers were forced to quit and became tenant farms because they did not have enough money to provide for themselves and/or their families. Tenant farmers, both white farmers and former slaves, worked for other wealthier farmers who owned land in exchange for a portion of the harvest. This is also known as sharecropping, beginning soon after the Civil War ended.
  • Mississippi plan of 1875

    Mississippi plan of 1875
    The Mississippi plan of 1875 was created by the Democratic Party to take Mississippi from the Republican Party. The plan would use organized threats of violence, suppression and/or purchase of black's votes to get back control of the legislature, and governor's office. The plan was successful and replicated by white Democrats in South Carolina. They also included intimidation and economic coercion against blacks, although with limited success.
  • Election of 1876: Compromise of 1877 (Jim Crow Laws)

    Election of 1876: Compromise of 1877 (Jim Crow Laws)
    During the reconstruction era, the Compromise of 1877 came stating a few things, including that African- Americans would be given equal rights. The Jim Crow Laws were written soon after. This was a social and legal system of segregation across the South. This limited the rights of African-Americans, like disenfranchisement, which took away their right to vote. It also promoted racism and violence by elites, especially to poor whites. The laws gave them nothing but unequal opportunities.
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    30,000 BCE

    Beginnings to Exploration

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    English Colonial Societies (1607-1732)

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    Colonial America To 1763

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    The Revolutionary War (1763-1783)

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    The Constitution (Early to Mid 780s)

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    The New Republic (1789-1800)

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    The Age of Jefferson (1800-1824)

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    The American Industrial Revolution (1815-1848)

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    Cultural Changes (1820-1850)

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    Age of Jackson (1824-1840)

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    Westward Expansion (1840-1848)

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    Sectionalism (1848-1861)

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    The Civil War (1861-1865)

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    Reconstruction (1865-1890)