1301 Timeline Project

Timeline created by VinceDuhBawss
In History
  • 2,500 BCE

    Bering Land Bridge

    Bering Land Bridge
    The Bering Land Bridge was a land bridge that connected North America and Asia together. It was during the Ice age when the water levels of the Bering Strait had dropped and then land was found. The Bering Land Bridge's allowed the first people from Asia to migrate over to America on land. There were three waves. The first had found Clovis points which were used as stone tools, The second were ancestors of the Modern Southwest natives, and the third were ancestors of arctic natives.
  • -800 BCE

    The Olmecs

    The Olmecs
    The Olmecs were one of the earliest major civilization in Mesoamerica and they were located in Ancient Mexico. The Olmecs was the earliest and first advanced civilization to be known and found. They started from 1200 BCE to 400 BC. The Olmecs were involved in bloodletting which was a ritual sacrifice where they burned the blood of humans on paper to serve as an offering to the gods. The Olmecs built the first pyramid and were best known for their giant colossal heads.
  • 1440

    The Printing Press

    The Printing Press
    In 1440, Johannes Gutenberg invents the printing press. Before the invention of the printing press, everything that was on paper had to be handwritten and given to the public. With the printing press in the 1400s, people were able to stamp information onto paper rather than handwriting which sped up the process way more and produced a lot of papers. Gutenberg prints the first book which was the Bible. The printing press allowed people to share information faster and in huge numbers.
  • 1492

    Christopher Columbus

    Christopher Columbus
    Chistopher Columbus was an explorer who sailed for Spain. he believed that there was a shorter route from Europe to Asia by heading West instead of East. In 1492, Christopher Columbus set out his voyages from Ferdinand and Isabella. There was a total of four voyages, but the first voyage is the most commonly known one. Christopher Columbus set sail in the Nina, the Pinta, and the Santa Maria. On October 12, 1492, he believes he lands in India and names the area San Salvador, Bahamas.
  • Jun 7, 1494

    The Treaty of Tordesillas

    The Treaty of Tordesillas
    After Christopher Columbus discovers America and returns from his first voyage, Spain and Portugal wants the land there. With the Treaty of Tordesillas, it established a separation of territories for Spain and Portugal. The line that would divide the land is located west of the Cape Verde Islands. Spain got everything that was west of the line, while Portugal only got Brazil. Since Spain gained a lot of land from this, they found much more wealth there compared to Portugal.
  • 1500

    The Columbian Exchange

    The Columbian Exchange
    The Columbian Exchange was an exchange between the old world and the new world or Europe and America. Horses and cattle were brought over to the new world and had become domesticated. Potatoes and corn would have a big impact on Europeans because it was a stable source of food. Native Americans were affected by the Columbian Exchange, as they were killed from diseases that the Europeans had brought over, which would lead to their population to decrease drastically and a labor shortage.
  • Humphrey Gilbert

    Humphrey Gilbert
    Humprey Gilbert was a knight in Ireland who became interested in exploration. Queen Elizabeth gives Humphrey Gilbert permission and a charter to start his first colony in America. However, his first attempt fails due to implement weather which did not allow his ships to travel very far. He would then try again in 1583, which was much more successful because he lands in Newfoundland. Humphrey Gilbert would try to return to England, but his ship was lost and was never seen again.
  • John Smith

    John Smith
    John Smith was one of the founders of the Jamestown colony. He was in charge of surviving the first colony and he succeeded. John Smith negotiated with the Native Americans that resided there with the help of Pocahontas, in which they prevented the starvation of the settlers and learned how to survive. He established trading for the Jamestown colony. John Smith and the Jamestown settlers survived the first two winters. He then went on a trip to England in 1609 and never returned back.
  • The Mayflower

    The Mayflower
    The Mayflower was a British ship that set sail from Plymouth, England and would land at the mouth of the Hudson River in the New World. There were 102 Pilgrims boarding the Mayflower, and their trip took about 66 days to get toe the New World. They founded modern-day Plymouth, Massachusetts on December 26 and they set up camp not too far from Plymouth Rock. The Pilgrims believed that they were Protestant separatists as they were trying establish a new church in the New World.
  • The Mayflower Compact

    The Mayflower Compact
    The Mayflower Compact was a document that proposed an agreement that there would be a government present in their colony. The pilgrims had to wait for a patent which gave them permission to settle in the New World. When they were waiting, they decided to create the Mayflower Compact. The mayflower Compact is on the most significant documents in history because it was the first self-government contract to be created and enforced in America. The document would only remain active until 1691.
  • Cecil Calvert

    Cecil Calvert
    Cecvil Calvert was the second Lord Baltimore who inherited the title after his father, George Calvert. His father gained a royal charter from King Charles I giving him proprietary rights. Cecil would take over his father and the colony they begin will become profitable. Maryland was a colony that was a safe haven for Roman Catholics. However, when tension between Protestants and Catholics increased, the colony would get taken over by Protestants in which they will ban Catholicism in the colony.
  • Rebellion of Indentured Servants/Bacon's Rebellion

    Rebellion of Indentured Servants/Bacon's Rebellion
    The Rebellion of Indentured Servants or Bacon's Rebellion was led by Nathaniel Bacon, who was a planter. The rebellion took place in the Virginia colony in 1676. This was the first rebellion that occurred with frontiers man. The settlers were upset that the governor did not help them when the Natives attacked the frontier, in which they started to retaliate against the Indians. People in the higher class were concerned wit the rebellion having black and white indentured slaves working together.
  • The English Bill of Rights

    The English Bill of Rights
    This English Bill of Rights was passed on December 16, 1689 by the Parliament of England. James Madison had wrote the Bill of Rights because many states wanted more protection and certain prohibitions for individuals against the government. The English Bill of Rights created a separation of powers. It allowed the colonists to choose who would make their laws and it put a constitutional government in the colonies. This would allow the colonists to later create the Constitution.
  • The Act of Union of 1707

    The Act of Union of 1707
    The Act of Union in 1707 made up of the Scotland Act of 1706 and union of England which was passed by the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland that unified both of them. This led to the Scotland Parliament to disband, but they were able to gain their freedom from Britain. The colonies still had local control, despite that the British empire was coming up for a rise. Due to Britain's central authority, it paved way for the modern United States system of government.
  • The Triangular Trade

    The Triangular Trade
    The Triangular Trade had three main regions that had traded with each other which was Africa, Europe, and the Americas. The Americas had given Europe raw materials in which they used to give Africa finished goods. Africa would give the Americas slaves. The triangular trade impacted the economy during this time because it was one of the only ways that the colonies in the New World would make money. In Africa, many men were taken for slavery so the population there had decreased.
  • The Mid-Atlantic Economy

    The Mid-Atlantic Economy
    The Mid-Atlantic region had an abundant amount of natural resources, they were able to flourish in many different areas of the economy. The Middle colonies had fishing shipbuilding and lumbering, their economy was very diverse. They were also religiously and ethnically diverse also. The geography played a part on how these colonies had traded. They had a small manufacturing industry, so they produced textiles. The middle colonies is known as the "breadbasket" because they grew a lot of wheat.
  • John Edwards

    John Edwards
    John Edwards was a philosopher and minister in the colonies. He starts the Great Awakening. John Edwards believed that the people had lost their connection with God because trading was more focused than religion. The Great Awakening's purpose was to revive religion. John Edwards mots famous sermon was "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God" which drove fear into people to become religious again. The sermon told people that those who were "born again" would not have to suffer.
  • New England's Economy

    New England's Economy
    The New England colonies were located near the coast, so the climate there made the soil very poor for agriculture. Being coastal however, affected the way that the could make money. The markets i the New England colonies were based on fishing, whaling and shipbuilding. With trade going on in the Atlantic, it played a part of their economy since they were coastal which allowed them to become involved. The New England colonies were seeking religion, so they had religious toleration
  • The Atlantic Slave Trade

    The Atlantic Slave Trade
    Portugal was beginning to kidnap people and use them as slaves. There were also slave trades going on within Africa as well. The slave trade brought 12 million to 15 million people from Africa to other continents. The economies for the trading regions boosted and connected them. The slaves were used as a source of labor for Europeans.Spain, Portugal and Holland would lead the slave trade in the 1600s and Britain would become the largest slave trading nation in the 1700s.
  • The Lower South

    The Lower South
    The lower South had rice as a stable crop over tobacco. Rice needed more labor compared to tobacco. The lower South used a majority of slaves at the time, so 2/3 of the population there was slaves. A task system was put into place, slaves were given a certain amount of tasks a day and when they were finished they could have time to themselves. Due to this task system, the African heritage and culture was able to be preserved and would influence many of the things in present day.
  • The Treaty of Paris 1763

    The Treaty of Paris 1763
    The Treaty of Paris in 1763 was signed to end the French and Indian War. France gave all of their territories in North America to Britain. The French handed over the Louisiana territory to Britain, but the Native Americans who allied with them felt betrayed. This would cause tension between Britain and the Native Americans. However, Britain would sign a peace treaty with the Natives in which they would prohibit the colonists from expanding, which led to problems between the colonies and Britain.
  • The Revenue Act/Sugar Act

    The Revenue Act/Sugar Act
    The Revenue Act and Sugar Act was passed by Parliament to increase income. The Sugar Act was the very first tax that Britain had placed on the colonists, this would lead to the most well known phrase, "No taxation without representation". The Sugar Act placed taxes on sugar and it replaced the Molasses Act of 1733. The Revenue Act was a modification of the Sugar Act. It allowed for private property to be searched without a warrant, in which the colonists will resist and start petitions.
  • The Boston Massacre

    The Boston Massacre
    The Boston Massacre drawing was the first form of American propaganda drawn by Paul Revere. Due to the new taxes that Britain placed on the colonists, they were upset and angry to the point where they started throwing snowballs filled with rocks at British soldiers that stationed in the colonies. American propaganda will begin, causing colonists to become outraged. Parliament will repeal the Townshend Acts due to this and the colonists are still upset about no taxation without representation.
  • The Battle of Lexington & Concord

    The Battle of Lexington & Concord
    The Battle of Lexington and Concord was the first battle of the American Revolution. British soldiers were sent to the colonies to take weapons away from the colonists, but the colonists resisted. A militia was formed and they would defeat the British soldiers. This battle will help the colonists gain confidence and lead them into war. A famous saying in this battle was "The Shot Heart 'Round the World" which was the opening of the American Revolutionary War.
  • Dunmore's Proclamation

    Dunmore's Proclamation
    Dunmore's Proclamation was a document signed by the 4th Earl of Dunmore, John Murray, the Royal governor of the British Colony of Virginia. The Proclamation stated that they will issue slaves freedom if they decided to fight/side with the British. About 80 thousand to 100 thousand slaves escape from their plantations and owners to enlist with Dunmore to fight for Britain. The elites who owned slaves were worried because they feared that a slave rebellion would come along due to this.
  • The Declaration of Independence

    The Declaration of Independence
    The Declaration of Independence was written by Thomas Jefferson and was completed on July 2nd, 1776. The Declaration of Independence declared the colonies' independence from Britain and it states that every man is equal. The colonists were sick of the taxes that Britain had placed on them and they tried to appeal to Britain about it, but they never listen due to salutary neglect. The colonists wanted independence. The 13 colonies will win the American Revolution and obtain their freedom.
  • The Battle of Saratoga

    The Battle of Saratoga
    The Battle of Saratoga was a turning point in the American Revolution. It was a major American victory. In the Battle of Freeman's Farm, Britain had won over the Americans. However, it was a small victory for them. France saw the colonists' victory which would allow for the French Treaty of Amity and Commerce to come and the French to become an American ally after this battle. The colonists' victory at the Battle of Saratoga changed the outcome of the war.
  • The Articles of Confederation

    The Articles of Confederation
    The Articles of Confederation was very weak, it had a lot of problems. The first being that there was no central government authority and that's what made it very weak, there was a lack of federal power. Soldiers were promised pension, but the government was not able to get people to pay for funds due to the debt. Too much money was being printed, which had devalued the currency. Congress did not have the power to tax citizens as well, so they could not pay off their debt.
  • The Treaty of Paris 1783

    The Treaty of Paris 1783
    The Treaty of Paris in 1783 ended the American Revolution and it was signed by Britain, France, the United State and Spain. The treaty offered two main things that affected the United States the most. Great Britain would recognize the United States as independent and the removal of boundaries for westward expansion. The treaty allowed for the United States and Britain to use the Mississippi River. Loyalists and Britain would gain back their property and land that they had lost.
  • Problems with Britain

    Problems with Britain
    After the Treaty of Paris in 1783, there were problems that arose. Britain did not keep their word on what was agreed in the treaty. They did not leave the Ohio River Valley and did not give up their forts. The Native Americans were not included in the treaty, which will lead to fighting to still continue between the Natives and Americans. Spain will deny the United States access to the Mississippi River, and they will not trade with them as well.
  • Shay's Rebellion

    Shay's Rebellion
    Shay's Rebellion was a post war recession that was led by Daniel Shay. There was a uprising by farmers in Massachusetts. Shay's Rebellion happened because of the high taxes and the bad economy at that time. The revolutionary war debts made the United States have a huge lack of money. Banks closed down farms to get their money back. The government was not strong enough to give the the people what they had wanted. The rebellion was to persuade people that a stronger gov was needed.
  • The Judicial Branch

    The Judicial Branch
    The Judiciary branch was set up for overview of constitutional matters and treaties. The Judicial Review was not defined, so it was left incomplete on purpose. The three-tier system was created. The first level was the district courts, where you have the first and most standard trial. The second level was the circuit courts, which is where you start to appeal. The third level was the supreme courts, which was the highest and final level of appeal.
  • Changes in Transportation

    Changes in Transportation
    During the Industrial Revolution in the United States of America, many inventions were created that allowed mass production. Steamboats, canals, and railroads were new ways of transportation. Steamboats could ship products faster and were able to travel upstream and downstream. The Erie Canal was able to transport goods farther and the shipping prices drastically decreased. The population would increase because people were drawn to cheap prices. Railroads made inland travel faster.
  • The Great Debate

    The Great Debate
    The Great debate took place in order to fix the Articles of Confederation. Fifty five delegates had met up to discuss how they could fix it. The Constitution was a proposed solution, but it could not be set until nine of the thirteen states approved of it. There were two sides of the debate, the Federalists and the Anti-Federalists. The federalists wrote the Federalists Papers to convince people to ratify it, but the Anti-federalists wanted a Bill of Rights had their own papers to not ratify it.
  • The Virginia Plan

    The Virginia Plan
    The Virginia Plan was created by James Madison and it was a proposal for a bicameral legislative branch with an upper and lower house. The lower house was the house of representatives and the people would elect them. The upper house was the senate and the lower house would elect them, not the people. The Virginia plan used population to base how many representatives each state would have. They will have a single executive, a separate judiciary and abandon the Articles of Confederation.
  • The Northwest Ordinance

    The Northwest Ordinance
    The Northwest Ordinance was made by the Second Continental Congress and it would set the boundaries of territory that consisted of Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, Ohio, and a part of Minnesota. The ordinance came because many states were fighting over who would get the territory. This document was the first time that America would try to expand their land to more states. The territory was the first area that did not allow slavery at all, which will later on affect the Civil War.
  • Two Competing Forms of Government

    Two Competing Forms of Government
    There were two political parties during this time, they were the Federalists and the Democratic-Republicans or the Anti-Federalists. Political parties were formed because of their difference in beliefs about the Constitution. The federalists were led by Alexander Hamilton and the Democratic-Republicans were led by Thomas Jefferson. The Federalists favored a strong central government, while the Democratic-Republicans supported state rights.
  • The Bill of Rights

    The Bill of Rights
    The Bill of Rights was written by James Madison and it's purpose was to protect the United States from majority rule. The Bill of Rights consisted of amendments. The 1st would allow freedom of speech/religion. The 2nd would allow the right to bear arms. The 3rd/4th would protect people from quatering soldiers and unreasonable searches. The 5th through eight protected those who were accused of a crime. The 9th were powers not in the constitution were for the people, while 10th was for state.
  • The Whiskey Rebellion

    The Whiskey Rebellion
    The Whiskey Rebellion was a tax protest in Pennsylvania, it was the first tax on domestic products because the United States was still in debt. Farmers had lost the most because they produced whiskey. Tax collectors were harmed by the protesters who were mainly farmers. George Washington would send out his troops to stop the rebellion. The significance of this rebellion is that the government was able to establish its authority, the Whiskey Rebellion was the first test of the constitution.
  • The Cotton Gin

    The Cotton Gin
    The Cotton Gin was invented by Eli Whitney. When Eli Whitney migrated to the South, he believed that the South needed something to help speed up the process of producing cotton. The Cotton did everything that the slaves did except it was more efficient/faster. However, the cotton gin helped produced cotton faster but it increased the use of slavery in the South. Slavery was about to come to an end, until prices of cotton went up which made the use for slaves important again.
  • Jay's Treaty

    Jay's Treaty
    George Washington sends John Jay to talk to the British because problems and tensions were still intense. John Jay writes Jay's Treaty, which helped settle some of the problems between Britain and the United States. Jay's Treaty prevented a war from happening between the two nations, it fixed the disputes and problems they had since the Treaty of Paris in 1783 was signed. Britain finally gave up their forts in the Ohio River Valley, trading agreements were fixed, and relations with natives.
  • Washington's Farewell Address

    Washington's Farewell Address
    Washington's Farewell Address was the last address that George Washington could give as president, it set the guide for the future and gave advice for later political affairs. Washington didn't want any permanent alliances with any foreign nation, the US to be involved in European affairs, no political parties, and for America to have too much debt. Since Washington only served two terms as president, it became tradition to serve only two terms as President except for President Roosevelt.
  • The Judiciary Act of 1801

    The Judiciary Act of 1801
    The Judiciary Act of 1801 or the Midnight Judges Act was passed by the Federalists. It changed the amount of seating in the supreme court form six to five, and it doubled the circuit courts from three to six. Regional courts were created as well. John Adams is appointed and he fills many new positions the night before Thomas Jefferson's inauguration, he promised that the Federalists would rule the courts. This would ruin the friendship between John Adams and Thomas Jefferson.
  • Marbury v. Madison (SCOTUS Case)

    Marbury v. Madison (SCOTUS Case)
    John Adam's presidency was going to come to an end, he would give William Marbury the position as Justice of the Peace and John Marshall as Chief Justice. However, James Madison didn't give Marbury his position, so he will sue the government. With the case, the checks and balances system changed from the legislative and executive branches have power to all three having even power, the three branches. The case also sets up judicial review as well which is used today.
  • The Louisiana Purchase

    The Louisiana Purchase
    The Louisiana Purchase was the most important transaction that Thomas Jefferson did when he was president. The territory of the United States doubled in size with the Louisiana Purchase. France was able to sell the territory for $15 million. Napoleon sold this territory because the French army was defeated by slaves and he gave up on expanding west for the French Empire. The expedition of Lewis and Clark will come as they explore the territory with the help of Sacagawea.
  • The Embargo Act of 1807

    The Embargo Act of 1807
    The Embargo Act of 1707 was signed by Congress because Thomas Jefferson requested it. This act prohibits the Untied States to trade with any other countries, mainly Britain and France because they were upset at Britain. The British navy was forcing Americans into their naval service, which is impressment, and they were firing on the U.S.S Chesapeake. The Embargo Act was unpopular at sea ports because it was needed for their economy.
  • Impressment

    Impressment was the act of capturing men and forcing them into naval service. The United States was not fond of this because it violated people's rights mentioned in the Bill of Rights. Impressment was commonly used in Britain and it led to the Embargo Act of 1807 because the British royal navy would use this on American sailors. Impressment is one of the main factors that triggered the War of 1812.
  • Technological Benefits of War of 1812

    Technological Benefits of War of 1812
    The Embargo Act made the economy very bad during the war. However, after the War of 1812, it helped start innovations. Innovations like the cotton gin, steam engines and mass production started to rise. The construction of the Eerie Canal came from the war and products were able to be transported more efficiently. There was shortage of cotton cloth, which lead to cotton manufacturing and the cotton gin. Many other items will eventually come to contribute to mass production.
  • Hartford Convention

    Hartford Convention
    The Hartford Convention was a meeting between federalists that came from the New England colonies where they discussed their grievances. After the War of 1812, 26 delegates were concerned about state rights and political positions. The Democratic-Republicans however wanted to get rid of the 3/5 compromise because it allowed slave states to have an advantage in voting. They viewed the Federalists as traitors.
  • The Waltham System

    The Waltham System
    The Waltham-Lowell system was a labor system employed in the textile industry. Francis Cabot Lowell opens up a factory that will create textiles and they hire young women. They all had a high wage, but there were restrictions placed on them along with long hours and bad conditions. Francis lowered their pay. As a result, the girls went on strike which did not last long much. This strike attempt was helpful for women with working conditions and pushed for more rights for women.
  • McCulloch v. Maryland (SCOTUS Case)

    McCulloch v. Maryland (SCOTUS Case)
    James Mculloch thought that Mayland taxing the second bank of the United States was unconstitutional so he did not pay. Maryland sued Mculloch because he did not pay the tax. The final decision was made that states could not tax the government's instruments, Maryland did not have the power to tax the bank. Congress had the power to create a national bank and Congress had implied powers from the constitution.
  • Free Black Communities

    Free Black Communities
    There were people who were expressing how they felt about why they were against slavery. In The North and Midwest, there were free black communities and they were on a rise. Free African-Americans would compete with whites and immigrants for jobs, but they would act harsh towards them because they felt like African-Americans were stealing their jobs. The free people dealt with a lot of prejudice and discrimination.
  • The Second Great Awakening

    The Second Great Awakening
    The Second Great Awakening was a United States religious revival that had emphasized religious romanticism. It began in 1800 but resumes in 1820s. People wanted to be saved. Education would boom and take over, in which they would start to become how school is like today. The Second Great Awakening led to the establishment of reform movements like the Temperance Movement, Women's Suffrage Movement, and the Abolitionist Movement.
  • The Missouri Compromise

    The Missouri Compromise
    The Missouri Compromise was created in order to maintain the balance between slave and free states. Missouri had became a slave state while Maine became a free state. The 36* 30* latitude line will act be made. States that were above the line were free states and states that were below the line were slave states. This compromise was a temporary solution however, which will be dealt again later on before the Civil War.
  • Stephen F. Austin

    Stephen F. Austin
    Stephen F. Austin was an empresario who played a very important role in the settlement of Texas. His father, Moses Austin, had received a land grant that would let him bring 300 families over to Texas to settle. However, Moses died of pneumonia in which Stephen took over the land grant. Stephen F. Austin is known as the "Father of Texas" or the founder of Texas because he was successful in bringing 300 families from the US into Texas.
  • Andrew Jackson

    Andrew Jackson
    Andrew Jackson will win the Election of 1828 in which he will become the 7th President of the United States. He was famous during his time for his military career in the War of 1812. Andrew Jackson would expand democracy and use the spoils system during his time as President. When the Democratic-Republican party faded, he will become the leader of the new political party on the rise, the Democratic Party. He will enact the Indian Removal Act in 1830 and make natives walk the Trail of Tears.
  • The Spoils System

    The Spoils System
    The Spoils System was a system where Andrew Jackson would replace people in office that he either knew or supported him during the election. With the spoils system, it allowed for more supporters of Jackson. However, the people who Jackson gave jobs to did not know how to do the job they were given, but were still able to run the government. This would affect the economy somehow because the rich would pay for Jackson's election campaign and a government position.
  • The Temperance Movement

    The Temperance Movement
    Temperance is the abstinence from alcohol. With new immigrants coming over, specifically the Irish, alcohol production increased. Alcohol consumption was very common and was at it's all time high. People would drink all day and everyday to the point where it would ruin their lives. The Temperance Movement will reduce alcohol consumption and would lead to some states to ban alcohol. The Temperance Movement will become unsuccessful because an amendment for banning alcohol will later be repealed.
  • Southern Society

    Southern Society
    Southern society was split into four different categories, like any social structure there are hierarchical classes and levels. Planters were at the top of the social class and they owned no slaves or only had a total of 1 to 9 slaves. Yeoman farmers were the second and only 3/4 of them did not own slaves. The third class were Tenant farmers. They were a mixed society and everyone was able to interact and get along with each other. The very lowest were indentured servants and slaves.
  • Nat Turner's Rebellion

    Nat Turner's Rebellion
    Nat Turner's Rebellion was a slave uprising led by Nat Turner that was in Virginia in 1831. There was an attempt to free slaves by going to houses and killing white slave owners. This was to show slave owners how it felt and the pain slaves endured. At the time, many people did not want African-Americans to read or write, in which the slave codes would be enforced. Slaves were starting to think that they could achieve freedom with Nat Turner's Rebellion.
  • The Nullification Crisis

    The Nullification Crisis
    The Nullification Crisis was a crisis during Andrew Jackson's presidency that was created by South Carolina's Ordinance of Nullification. The South saw that the tariff on goods as a problem because Britain was not able to pay the tax for cotton. John Calhoun and the South believed that the tax was unconstitutional. South Carolina thought that they could secede from the Union and the Webster-Haynes Debate denied states the right to judge the Constitution.
  • The Election of 1832

    The Election of 1832
    The Election of 1832 was between Andrew Jackson and Henry Clay. This election centered around the Bank of the United States. Andrew Jackson hated the Second Bank of the US, he was determined to kill the national bank and Henry Clay will try to use this against him during the election. Andrew Jackson will win the election and becomes the first president to mandate by defunding the bank. The election was the first time national conventions were held to nominate candidates.
  • The Siege of Bexar

    The Siege of Bexar
    The Siege of Bexar is also known as the Battle of the Alamo and it is one of the major battles/events that happened in the Texas Revolution. Mexicans and Texans were having problems over control of Texas. Texas wanted independence from Mexico. The Battle happened because Texans wanted the Alamo. 1200 soldiers will march from Mexico into Texas, while the Texans only had an army of 600 soldiers. This will become a Texan victory, and will lead to the independence of Texas from Mexico.
  • The Election of 1836

    The Election of 1836
    The Election of 1836 was between Martin Van Buren, William Henry Harrison and his other candidates. Martin Van Buren represented the Democratic Party while the other candidates represented the new political party that was on the rise, the Whig Party. Van Buren was nicknamed "Old Kinderhook" or "OK". He inherited a bad economy when he had became President because the Panic of 1837 had occurred from bad financial situations. Due to the Panic of 1837, Van Buren will be known as "Martin Van Ruin".
  • Edgar Allan Poe

    Edgar Allan Poe
    Edgar Allen Poe was an American writer and poet that was apart of the American Romantic Movement. He hated the Transcendentalism period because it was not what he believed in. He believed that the world contained so much pain and horror. Poe's writing were dark, they dealt with the ghostly and ghastly unlike the other writing of the Transcendentalism period which was mostly about nature and spirits. He is most known for his tales of mystery and the macabre, like "The Raven"
  • The Telegraph

    The Telegraph
    The telegraph was an invention by Samuel Morse and it was patented in 1837. The telegraph was essentially a wire between distances and people would send electrical pulses or signals using Morse Code. It provided a faster way of communication between people and was a revolutionary invention. It revolutionized long distance communication because it was more efficient and quicker than sending regular mail to other people.
  • The Trail of Tears

    The Trail of Tears
    The Trail of Tears was a land route used by the United States government to forcefully remove the Cherokee tribe from their homes. Settlers and miners began to migrate to former Cherokee land in 1829 because they had discovered gold. Andrew Jackson places the Indian Removal Act which will force thousands of Cherokee Indians to Indian territory or modern day Oklahoma. 7000 soldiers will come to remove the natives. On the way to Oklahoma, over 4000 native Americans will die and many will cry.
  • Henry David Thoreau

    Henry David Thoreau
    Henry David Thoreau was an American transcendentalist who was against a government that was for slavery. Transcendentalism at the time was a movement that believed in the importance of nature and degraded materialism. Henry was jailed when he refused to pay his poll tax for the Mexican War. He will become famous for his book, Walden, and it will explain his time living in isolation and his feelings on society. Henry's work will encourage future movements led by Gandhi and Martin Luther King Jr.
  • Nature

    The Second Great Awakening allowed for new ideas to rise and spread. Industrialization plays a big role on triggering the Second Great Awakening. People will begin to focus on nature and architecture to move away from an industrialized life. Parks will be created. Parks were made so they can be a getaway from a an advancing life that people started to live. Cemeteries will be made as well and they will follow they same design as parks like we see today.
  • The Shakers

    The Shakers
    The Shakers were a new religious movement that was founded by Ann Lee Stanley. They had about 6000 followers. The Shakers didn't believe in marriage or procreation, that both sexes were equal so they kept men and women separate. They did not believe in domesticity and had no private property as well. Since they did not believe in procreation, the lack of a new generation to continue their ways is what made the Shakers religion come to an end.
  • Manifest Destiny

    Manifest Destiny
    Manifest Destiny was a belief that it was God's plan for the United States to expand and occupy all territory coast to coast from the Atlantic ocean to the Pacific ocean. People believed that the United States should spread its democracy and capitalism across the entire continent of North America. It was a phrase or philosophy that would drive the United States to further westward expansion and become the large superpower it is today.
  • The Election of 1840

    The Election of 1840
    The Election of 1840 was between Martin Van Buren for his second term and William Henry Harrison. Martin Van Buren runs for the Democratic party still and William Henry Harrison runs for the Whig party. The Whig party will begin to spread rumors and fake news about Martin Van Buren to make him look bad in his campaign. This will allow for women to influence their husbands to vote for Harrison. William Harry Harrison will become president. However, he will die a month later due to phenomena.
  • The Election of 1844

    The Election of 1844
    The Election of 1844 was between James K. Polk and Henry Clay. Polk was the Democratic party's candidate while Clay was the Whig's. James K. Polk will win the election and become the 11th President of the United States. He was very dedicated in Manifest Destiny or for the United States to expand westward. Jame's K Polk will make three promises during his presidency, they were to settle the border with Mexico, the Oregon border as well, and the annexation of Texas in which he finds success.
  • Wilmot Proviso

    Wilmot Proviso
    Wilmot Proviso was a proposal by David Wilmot to ban slavery in the new territories acquired in the Mexican cession. Those who resided in the South were upset about this proposal because they felt like it was unconstitutional. However, those who were against slavery or abolitionists supported the Wilmot Proviso. The Wilmot Proviso proposal was never passed through because there was a greater number of Southern representatives in the Senate which would lead to the Free-Spoil party to be formed.
  • Seneca Falls Convention

    Seneca Falls Convention
    The Seneca Falls Convention was a meeting in Seneca Falls, New York to discuss women's rights in 1848. The founders of the convention were Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott. Women were not allowed to debate at the World Anti-Slavery Convention, so Lucretia would group up with Stanton to call the convention in Seneca Falls. In the Seneca Falls Convention, the Declaration of Sentiments was being written as it discussed women's rights, specifically women's suffrage.
  • The California Gold Rush

    The California Gold Rush
    James Wilson Marshall will discover gold in Sutter Creek near Coloma, California. This discovery began to spread across the United States causing a huge amount of migration towards the west for gold. Big cities were starting to form and populations increased dramatically. By 1852, mines will be built to dig and search for gold. The Chinese will soon migrate over to California to work. However, they were put in the worst working conditions ever as they faced harsh prejudice and discrimination.
  • The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

    The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
    The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo will end the Mexican American War and settle the border with the United States and Mexico. This treaty allowed for the United States to gain over half of Mexican Territory. The United States paid $15 million for the Mexican Cession. Mexicans who resided in the newly acquired territories became citizens of the United States, which allowed for their culture to spread throughout. With this new territory, the US was able to fulfill it's Manifest Destiny.
  • The Compromise of 1850

    The Compromise of 1850
    The Compromise of 1850 took place in September, 1850 and it composed of 5 laws. It was introduced by Henry Clay as an attempt to avert crisis between the North and South. California was now added to the United States which made an unbalance between free and slave states. The compromise will make slave trade banned in Washington D.C. California joined as a free state, but Utah and New Mexico was able to decide whether their state should be a free state or a slave state.
  • The Undeground Railroad

    The Undeground Railroad
    The Underground Railroad was a network of routes in the South that Abolitionists used to help men, women, and children escape from slavery. The slaves would be provided with supplies by Abolitionists that could help them and were guided out of the South into the North or Canada where they could be free. The slaves were referred to as cargo while those who helped the slaves were called conductors. A famous conductor of the Underground Railroad is Harriet Tubman.
  • The Fugitive Slave Act

    The Fugitive Slave Act
    The Fugitive Slave Acts were federal laws that was passed by congress on September 18th, 1850 and it would allow runaway slaves to be captured and returned in all states. The Fugitive Slave Acts added further provisions regarding runaway slaves and gave them harsh punishments. Those who assisted in helping runaway slaves would be punish as well. This will cause many people in the North to stop assisting runaway slaves.
  • Uncle Tom's Cabin

    Uncle Tom's Cabin
    Uncle Tom's Cabin, published in 1852, was a book written by Harriet Beecher Stowe. The book showed Northerners how cruel and harsh slavery was. It would become one of the top sellers in the North and it allowed for people to start thinking about abolitionism. Uncle Tom's Cabin would upset the Southerners, so they will make a anti-tom literature like Aunt Phillis's Cabin. These anti-tom literature books will do the exact opposite of Uncle Tom's Cabin, explaining that slavery is good.
  • The Kansas-Nebraska Act

    The Kansas-Nebraska Act
    The Kansas-Nebraska Act was passed on May 30, 1854. It allowed for both Kansas and Nebraska to decide whether their state should be a slave or free state. However, this will cause problems in Kansas leading to Bleeding Kansas due to decisions whether Kansas should be a slave state or not. The Kansas-Nebraska act will repeal the Missouri compromise of 1820 and the 36* 30* latitude line which decided that states above the line were free states while the below were slave states.
  • Sing Sing, New York Prison

    Sing Sing, New York Prison
    The Sing Sing Correctional Facility in New York was a prison for those who needed to be "corrected" and placed in a cell to think about their crimes. The prison had both mental prisoners and cruel prisoners in the same area which was not a good idea. Those were not mentally right and mentally disabled were treated the same way. People thought that the punishments the prison placed on prisoners were harsh, like prisoners were forced into pitch black darkness in isolation.
  • John Brown's Raid

    John Brown's Raid
    John Brown was a white abolitionist from the North. He will lead a slave rebellion in the South along with his sons. John Brown and those who followed him will travel to Harper's Ferry, Virginia wreaking havoc. They will try to take over the town and federal arsenal hoping to recruit slaves to join his rebellion against slavery. However, it was unsuccessful because nobody came. Robert E. Lee and his forces will surround John Brown and his followers forcing them to surrender. They were captured.
  • Robert E. Lee

    Robert E. Lee
    Robert E. Lee is famously known for being the general of the Confederate Army during the Civil War. General Lee was supposed to lead the Union army, but instead he chose to stay loyal in the South. He was considered as one of the best strategic generals in US history along with Stonewall Jackson. Ending the civil war, General Lee will surrender to General Grant at Appomattox Courthouse on April 9th, 1865. Soldiers were buried in front of his home so that he could wake up and see his shame.
  • Twenty Negro Law

    Twenty Negro Law
    The Twenty Negro Law, also known as the Twenty Slave Law, was a piece of legislation that would enact the Confederate Congress during the Civil War. The law was passed as part of the Second Conscription Act on 1862 and was placed as a reaction to Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation. The law addressed the fears of a slave rebellion because many white men were out fighting in the Civil War having them to be absent from home.
  • The Emancipation Proclamation

    The Emancipation Proclamation
    The Emancipation Proclamation was issued on January 1st, 1863 by President Abraham Lincoln. Lincoln wanted to create a proclamation that declared "that all persons help as slaves" within the rebellious states "are, and henceforward shall be free" The Emancipation Proclamation declared that all slaves were free but it did not apply to all states. The border states that were neutral were still able to keep their slaves. The Emancipation Proclamation will lead to the South's 20 negro law.
  • The Battle of Gettysburg

    The Battle of Gettysburg
    The Battle of Gettysburg was one of the major battles of the American Civil War and a Union Victory. It was fought on July 1st through July 3rd in 1863. This battle was considered one of the largest battles fought and was the turning point of the American Civil War. 85,000 Union soldiers will fight 75,000 Confederate soldiers. This battle had the most casualties than any other battle in the American Civil War. This will also lead to Abraham Lincoln's Gettysburg Address.
  • Lincoln's 10% Plan

    Lincoln's 10% Plan
    Abraham Lincoln's 10 percent plan was a Presidential Proclamation that was issued on December 8th, 1863. The Union Army had already pushed the Confederate army out of several regions of the South leaving them divided. The 10 percent plan was a postwar reconstruction plan. It allowed the Southern State to be readmitted into the Union when 10 percent of it's voters had swore an oath of allegiance to the Union.
  • The Election of 1864

    The Election of 1864
    The Election of 1864 was between Abraham Lincoln and George B. McClellan. Abraham Lincoln was going to run for his second term, and McClellan and Lincoln did NOT get along with each other even though he was his former top general for the Union army. Lincoln wanted to unite the North and South again while McClellan just wanted the war to end if he were to be elected as President.
    Abraham Lincoln was able to find a way to win the election by popular vote and is able to to start his second term.
  • 40 Acres and A Mule

    40 Acres and A Mule
    The 40 Acres and A Mule plan referred to a promise made by Union General William Sherman to former enslaved black farmers. It was an attempt to sold the problems of refugee African-Americans. Those who were free were able to claim 40 acres of land along with a mule after the American Civil War had ended. This plan will settle nearly 10,000 African-American families on abandoned plantations and it was to give the freed slaves a new start in life.
  • Appomattox Courthouse

    Appomattox Courthouse
    On April 9th, 1865, General Robert E. Lee will surrender to General Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox Courthouse, Virginia. General Lee felt like the South had to surrender because of the amount of damage the Union Army had done to their army. The Union treated the Confederate army with respect and they allowed the Confederate soldiers to return home to their families with their horses. Appomattox Courthouse will end the Civil War and lead to the United States reconstruction.
  • The 13th Amendment

    The 13th Amendment
    The thirteenth amendment will abolish slavery in the United States. The amendment was passed to end slavery in America and it will be ratified by the states on December 6th, 1865. Slavery was now banned in any state or territory that was under the United States government. The South was very upset about this decision when the amendment was passed. Although slavery had ended, Southerners will try to find a way to treat blacks harsh and suppress their community.
  • The Ku Klux Klan (KKK)

    The Ku Klux Klan (KKK)
    The Klu Klux Klan or the KKK was founded in 1865. By 1870, it will be a way for white southerners to resist the Republican Party's Reconstruction policies. The members of the Ku Klux Klan would wage underground campaigns of intimidation and violence towards whites and black Republican leaders. They will inflict violence like attacking, shooting, and bombing schools and churches of black communities, intending to kill African-Americans.
  • The Election of 1868

    The Election of 1868
    The Election of 1868 was between Ulysses S. Grant and Horatio Seymour. Ulysses S. Grant represented the Republican party while Horatio represented the Democratic party. Grant wanted to become president to reconstruct the United States from the broken country that it was. Ulysses S. Grant will win the election because of his popularity in the American Civil War and will become the 18th President of the United States. He was a great general, but not a good president with the scandals in his gov.
  • Sharecropping

    Sharecropping was a system very similar to feudalism. A farmer would work on land for an owner who would provide them equipment and receives a share of the crop. This system took place in the South after the American Civil War had ended. Sharecropping was a system for people to turn to during the depression because they did not have enough money. Not only were tenant farmers engaged in sharecropping, but free African-Americans as well who had trouble finding a place to work.
  • The Panic of 1873

    The Panic of 1873
    The Panic of 1873 was a time from 1873 to 1879. It was a financial crisis that caused depression in Europe and the United States. The panic and depression will add onto the bad economy of the United States. It will cause many railroads and factories to form more than the market could even handle. The Panic of 1873 will lead to economic hardships, civil unrest, protests, demonstrations and the first nationwide strikes.
  • The Whiskey Ring Scandal

    The Whiskey Ring Scandal
    The Whiskey Ring Scandal was a scandal in the United States that happened because of whiskey distillers who conspired to defraud the federal government in taxes. The Whiskey Ring would bribe Revenue officials and accomplices in Washington in order to keep liquor taxes for themselves. They were importing whiskey and using their offices to avoid paying the taxes on it. The Whiskey Ring Scandal is one of the President Ulysses S. Grant's scandals.
  • The Election of 1876

    The Election of 1876
    The Election of 1876 was between Rutherford B Hayes and Samuel J. Tilden. Hayes represented the Republican Party while Tilden represented the Democratic party. It is one of the most controversial elections in U.S history. The Electoral Commision was created and they will choose Rutherford B. Hayes to become president because they did not want a a Democrat in office. However, the Republicans had to make a deal with the Democrats which would end the United States' reconstruction.
  • The Jim Crow Laws

    The Jim Crow Laws
    The Jim Crow laws began in the 1800s and were enacted by Southern States. Jim Crow was a fictional character from a play that resembled the average "African-American" with stereotypes. The laws enforced racial segregation in the Southern States after the Reconstruction period. People did not want to associate with blacks, they did not want to be in the same locations either. Many places will be made specifically for blacks only and whites only, separating the two races. T
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    English Colonial Societies

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    Colonial America

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    The Revolutionary War

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    The Constitution

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    The New Republic

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    Westward Expansion

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    The Civil War

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