1st Amendment timeline

Timeline created by tines
  • Scheneck v. United States

    Scheneck v. United States
    Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes stated in this case his famous aphorism about "falsely shouting fire in a theatre" and set forth a "clear and present danger test" to judge whether speech is protected by the First Amendment.
  • Evans v. Selma Union High School District

    Evans v. Selma Union High School District
    The California State Supreme Court held that the King James version of the Bible was not a "publication of a sectarian, partisan, or denominational character" that a State statute required a public high school library to exclude from its collections.
  • Whitney v. California

    Whitney v. California
    Found guilty under the California’s 1919 Criminal Syndicalism Act for allegedly helping to establish the Communist Labor Party, a group the state argued taught the violent overthrow of government.
  • Near v. Minnesota

    Near v. Minnesota
    The Supreme Court interpreted the First and Fourteenth Amendments to forbid "previous restraints" upon publication of a newspaper. "Previous restraints"--or in current terminology, "prior restraints--suppress the freedom of the press to publish without obstruction, and recognize that lawsuits or prosecutions for libel are "subsequent punishments."
  • Rosenberg v. Board of Education of City of New York

    Rosenberg v. Board of Education of City of New York
    Declared the Board of Education "acted in good faith without malice or prejudice and in the best interests of the school system entrusted to their care and control, and, therefore, that no substantial reason exists which compels the suppression of the two books under consideration."
  • Brandenburg v. Ohio

    Brandenburg v. Ohio
    The Supreme Court established the modern version of the "clear and present danger" doctrine, holding that states only could restrict speech that "is directed to inciting or producing imminent lawless action, and is likely to incite or produce such action."
  • Todd v. Rochester Community Schools

    Todd v. Rochester Community Schools
    In deciding that Slaughterhouse-Five could not be banned from the libraries and classrooms of the Michigan schools.
  • Salvail v. Nashua Board of Education

    Salvail v. Nashua Board of Education
    MS magazine was removed from a New Hampshire high school library by order of the Nashua School Board. The U.S. District Court decided for the student, teacher, and adult residents who had brought action against the school board.
  • Mozert v. Hawkins County Board of Education

    Mozert v. Hawkins County Board of Education
    Parents and students brought this action challenging the mandatory use of certain textbooks on the ground that the texts promoted values offensive to their religious beliefs.
  • Virgil v. School Board of Columbia County

    Virgil v. School Board of Columbia County
    This case presented the question of whether the First Amendment prevents a school board from removing a previously approved textbook from an elective high school class because of objections to the material's vulgarity and sexual explicitness.
  • Kreimer v. Bureau of Police for Morristown

    Kreimer v. Bureau of Police for Morristown
    The court of appeals held that a municipal public library was a limited public forum, meaning open to the public for the specified purposes of exercising their First Amendment rights to read and receive information from library materials.
  • Campbell v. St. Tammany Parish School Board

    Campbell v. St. Tammany Parish School Board
    Public school district removed the book Voodoo and Hoodoo, a discussion of the origins, history, and practices of the voodoo and hoodoo religions that included an outline of some specific practices, from all district library shelves.
  • Cohen v. San Bernardino Valley College

    Cohen v. San Bernardino Valley College
    Tenured professor of English was disciplined for violating the college's sexual harassment policy against creating a "hostile learning environment" for his in-class use of profanity, and discussions of sex, pornography, obscenity, cannibalism, and other controversial topics in a confrontational, devil's advocate style.
  • Sund v. City of Wichita Falls, Texas,

    Sund v. City of Wichita Falls, Texas,
    City residents who were members of a church sought removal of two books, Heather Has Two Mommies and Daddy's Roommate, because they disapproved of the books' depiction of homosexuality.
  • Counts v. Cedarville School District

    Counts v. Cedarville School District
    The school board of the Cedarville, Arkansas school district voted to restrict students' access to the Harry Potter books, on the grounds that the books promoted disobediance and disrespect for authority and dealt with witchcraft and the occult. As a result of the vote, students in the Cedarville school district were required to obtain a signed permission slip from their parents or guardians before they would be allowed to borrow any of the Harry Potter books from school libraries.