World History 1 Honors Timeline

Timeline created by nuhafaroo
In History
  • 4,300 BCE

    Rise of Cities - Tigris and Euphrates River Valley

    Rise of Cities - Tigris and Euphrates River Valley
    Main Cities: Ur, Eridu, Babylon, Jericho, Jerusalem, Uruk
    They were surrounded by walls of mud brick.
    Used arches, domes and other huge buildings.
    The gods ruled like a theocracy. Ziggurats were like temples.
    Hierarchy:
    elite: royals and priests
    dependent commoners: property managers for elite
    independent commoners: farmers, merchants, craftspeople, metalworks, etc. (90% farmers)
    slaves: builders, temple servants, basic laborers
    Hammurabi.
  • 3,000 BCE

    Early Civilizations

    Early Civilizations
    The earliest civilizations appeared around here. Writing made easier trade, bronze-making occurred in China, villages grew, and somewhat of a wealth system was developed. Governments began to establish. Specializations of Labor began, diversity of people benefitted all, art & architecture popped up as well as beauty/religion. Public works, Systems of recording history, social classes defined.
  • 3,000 BCE

    Characteristics of Civilization

  • 2,800 BCE

    Regional Great Flood when Euphrates rose. - Tigris and Euphrates River Valley

    Probable date.
  • 2,560 BCE

    Great Pyramid

    Great Pyramid
    This was constructed by Pharaoh Khufu (Cheops.)
  • 2,350 BCE

    Political Aspects - Norte Chico

    Seemingly a peaceful tribe. No evidence of defensive structures/mechanisms.
  • 2,350 BCE

    Social/Cultural Aspects - Norte Chico

    Party-like meetings hosted w/music + alcohol - Only for higher society. Caral flutes were used. Carved w/animals. Shamaism - ancient healing/lifestyle. Focus connection + creation of nature. Used hallucinogens.Staff god?
  • 2,350 BCE

    Economic Aspects - Norte Chico

    The development of the NCRVC mostly due to canals + fishing.
    Canals irrigated cotton plants.
    Combined textiles + fishing to make fish traps. Nets made of cotton for sardines + anchovies.
  • 2,000 BCE

    Cultural/Social Aspects - Oxus

    Most were buried - belief in afterlife? - Religion pre-Islam? Zoroastrianism or Buddhism?
    They had some interest in art - most pottery and some visual artwork. Also jewelry/decorative fabrics.
  • 2,000 BCE

    Economic Aspects - Oxus

    Their urban settlements were centers of commerce/trade. Both sedentary and nomadic peoples interacted here. This led to development of domestication, and then cattle-breeding. Probably had connections to Mesopotamia and the IRVC.
  • 2,000 BCE

    Political Aspects - Oxus

    The people of the BMAC probably had governmental connections to the IRVC and Mesopotamia. Government controlled public works, especially one of their most well-known features, irrigation. Matches Andronovo culture. Central architectural structures residences for rulers, and most likely had a social hierarchy.
  • 1,800 BCE

    Bronze-Working Introduced to Egypt

  • 1,600 BCE

    Founding of the Kingdom of Kush, Nubia

  • 1,500 BCE

    Egyptian Empire Extends to the Euphrates

  • 1,500 BCE

    Egyptian Empire extends to the Euphrates

  • -800 BCE

    Sparta

    Although they were essentially surrounded by mountains and geographical boundaries, managed to create a military expansion/empire. They used advanced techniques which were perfected over each fought battles, such as fear/Intimidation techniques or the Phalanx and were a warrior society which was ruled by a Diarchy.
  • -700 BCE

    Athens

    Athens had a gradually built up governmental structure: a Monarchy, then an Oligarchy, lastly a Democracy. They had the first recorded successful Democracy. All free men (citizens) over 18 could vote for said laws. Aristocrats held the most important jobs (merchants, likely.) Since Athena was the 'patron god' of Athens, it was the center of philosophy, learning (literature, math, science, etc,) and the arts. They used the Trireme compared to the Phalanx, used by the Spartans.
  • -323 BCE

    Hellenism

    This term came around after Alexander the Great's reign. All things 'Hellenistic' were Greek, or inspired by Greek influence.
  • -213 BCE

    Qin Shi Huangdi

    Qin Shi Huangdi was an extremely harsh ruler and was the first official emperor of China. In fact, his name, Qin, is likely where the word China sprouted from. He used eunuchs as his advisors, so that they wouldn't be tempted by sexual desires and such. He directed the construction of the Great Wall to help protect his people from the Northerners and also directed the construction of the famous Terra-Cotta warriors. After he died, nobody was strong enough to lead, and so the empire fell apart.
  • -30 BCE

    Greek Rule Over Egypt Lost - Nile River Valley

    Greek Rule Over Egypt Lost - Nile River Valley
    This Greek Ptolemaic Kingdom ruled Egypt until 30 BC, when, under Cleopatra, it fell to the Roman Empire and became a Roman province.
  • Period:
    6,000 BCE
    to
    -700 BCE

    Yellow River Valley

    The Yellow River Valley was the start of the many Chinese Empires. Many of the ethnic groups and cultures began in this era in China. This history, in which a vast area populated by diverse ethnic groups became, over time, a more or less single culture, began in the Yellow River Valley.
  • Period:
    6,000 BCE
    to
    -30 BCE

    Nile River Valley

    The Nile River Valley Civilization started at the northern most peak of the Nile River at the time of the Neolithic Revolution. This early civilization formed down the lush fields of the Nile River. Protected by the water and desert, the civilization was able to grow into Egypt and surrounding colonies.
  • Period:
    6,000 BCE
    to
    3,150 BCE

    Nile River Valley First Inhabited - Nile River Valley

  • Period:
    5,500 BCE
    to
    1,800 BCE

    Indus River Valley

    The Indus Valley Civilization was an ancient civilization located in what is Pakistan and northwest India today, on the fertile flood plain of the Indus River and its vicinity.
  • Period:
    5,000 BCE
    to
    3,500 BCE

    Mesopotamia - Tigris & Euphrates

    Mesopotamia means “land between the rivers.” It is the ancient name for the region that today includes Iraq, northeast Syria, and part of southeast Turkey. The area is also called the Fertile Crescent. The Sumerians were the first people to live in the area.
  • Period:
    5,000 BCE
    to
    1,750 BCE

    Sumerian Civilization - Tigris-Euphrates River Valley.

  • Period:
    4,000 BCE
    to
    2,000 BCE

    Neolithic/Agricultural Revolution

    A time period of extreme development to do with human technology and basic skills. The Neolithic revolution was the first agricultural revolution. It was a gradual change from nomadic hunting and gathering communities and bands to agriculture and settlement.
  • Period:
    3,150 BCE
    to
    2,613 BCE

    Early Dynastic Period in Egypt - Nile River Valley

    The First Kings arrived around here.
  • Period:
    3,000 BCE
    to
    2,900 BCE

    Mari built near eastern bank of Euphrates. - Tigris and Euphrates River Valley

    Mari is the oldest known planned city.
  • Period:
    3,000 BCE
    to
    1,300 BCE

    Norte Chico Civilization

    Peru River Valley Civilization. Heavily relied on irrigation systems and fishing. Located all over Peru + different cities separated by rivers.
  • Period:
    2,800 BCE
    to
    1,450 BCE

    Minoans

    The Minoans, worshipped and played games centered around bulls. They also used bronze, which means they most likely traded with China, and they had a mostly trade-based economy. They had indoor plumbing, which was somewhat advanced for their time. Society was ruled over by female priests, but male kings, and they were probably destroyed by the Mycenaeans.
  • Period:
    2,300 BCE
    to
    1,700 BCE

    The Oxus Civilization

    Caspian Sea Bronze-Age Civilization, AKA Bactria-Margiana Archaeological Complex (BMAC).
    Population grew to over 5M.
    Known for agriculture - land was extremely fertile.
    Most research done by Soviet scientists in Soviet era.
    1,095 settlements found - 96 excavated.
  • Period:
    2,040 BCE
    to
    1,782 BCE

    Middle Kingdom of Egypt

  • Period:
    2,000 BCE
    to
    1,300 BCE

    Xiajiayuan Culture - Bronze Age Yellow River Civilization

    It was the pre-Shang and early Shang culture in Hebei Province, extending from the east of the Taihang Mountains to the Bohai Bay.
  • Period:
    1,600 BCE
    to
    1,046 BCE

    Bronze Age Yellow River Civilization

    The Shang Dynasty (1600–1046 BC) was the major kingdom in the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River. The state apparatus of the Shang Dynasty was highly developed, especially the maturity of the ritual and rank system. Cities started to appear and became larger.
  • Period:
    1,600 BCE
    to
    1,100 BCE

    Myceneans

    The Myceneans were Indo-Europeans and were a warrior society. Their societies were developed around fortified cities. Allegedly the people of the Trojan War.
  • Period:
    1,504 BCE
    to
    1,492 BCE

    Egyptian Empire Reaches Greatest Extent Under Tuthmosis 1

  • Period:
    1,300 BCE
    to
    1,000 BCE

    Yinxu Culture - Bronze Age Yellow River Civilization

    It was a late-Shang culture with the Yinxu site in Anyang (capital of the Shang Dynasty) as its center. It was the first civilization in China with systematical contemporary written records.
  • Period:
    1,300 BCE
    to
    -700 BCE

    Zhouyan Culture - Bronze Age Yellow River Civilization

    It was the civilization of the pre-Zhou and early Western Zhou Dynasty period, discovered in the Central Shaanxi Plain.
  • Period:
    -509 BCE
    to
    -27 BCE

    Roman Republic

    The Roman Republic occurred before the more well-known Roman Empire. It was headed by two consuls, both advised by a Senate elected by the people. The Senate was made solely of the higher class: the Patricians. The Plebeians, or the Plebs, were the common-folk. During its first two centuries of existence, warfare for the spread of land was headed by Julius Caesar, a man who the Senate elected as 'Dictator for Life.' This is possibly where the transition to an Empire began.
  • Period:
    -356 BCE
    to
    -323 BCE

    Alexander the Great

    Alexander the Great was the son of Philip 2 of Macedonia and was a gifted cavalry leader. He was taught by Aristotle how to think and was chosen to lead after his father. He built his own empire/expanded his father's, as well. He took Persia, Egypt (where he founded Alexandria,) and then stopped around Babylon for a while. He reached the IRVC and after a long battle he left them to themselves in respect. He was wise and kind, but also fearless and strict. His empire collapsed after his death.
  • Period:
    -324 BCE
    to
    -183 BCE

    Mauryan Empire - Classical India

    Chandragupta Maurya was the first ruler who unified all of Classical India, and he forcefully removed Greek influence. He was succeeded by Ashoka Maurya, a terrible king before his conversion to Buddhism, when he truly prospered. After his death; however, the Mauryan Empire fell apart (back into smaller kingdoms,) because nobody wasn't strong enough to lead powerfully.
  • Period:
    -221 BCE
    to
    -206 BCE

    Qin Dynasty - Classical China

    Although this Chinese Dynasty lasted only 15 years, it is considered the most influential of all of them. It was ruled by Qin Shi Huangdi (where we get 'China' from,) the first official emperor, a harsh man who prized a strong, centralized government. He developed a new system where civil servants took a 'test' to prove their worth.
  • Period:
    -206 BCE
    to
    220

    Han Dynasty - Classical China

    The Huns were a revolutionary dynasty who began with the first emperor Liu Bang. He was tired of the Qin and relaxed taxes and removed the Qin's Legalism. The Han Dynasty's economic system was greatly based off of trade with the IRVC, Mesopotamia, and Rome along the Silk Road. They had some rough internal economic issues; however, to do with the shrinkage of land and the wage gap. The Huns 'had a 'fall' but managed to be reinstated and rose again, only to fall just as the last Huns did.
  • Period:
    -27 BCE
    to
    395

    Roman Empire

    The Roman Empire is one of the largest empires in history. It is emphasized that, compared to the Roman Republic, the Empire was headed by an Emperor. After Julius Caesar was assassinated, a period of war began, leading to his adoptive son, Octavian, claiming the victory and the empire. The Roman Empire gave birth to many revolutionary ideas, and it expanded upon the ground which was gained by Julius Caesar, the previous dictator. It was eventually split, the Eastern and Western Roman Empires.
  • Period:
    315
    to
    551

    Gupta Empire - Classical India

    The Gupta Empire is considered the 'Golden Age' of Indian history. It revived Hindu culture and the education of the arts, math, science, and medicine. Chandra Gupta was the 1st Maharajah and united most of India. Samudra Gupta ruled after him, and he expanded the empire, who was then succeeded by Chandra Gupta II, the last Maharajah. He expanded further and trusted local governors to rule smaller kingdoms, who then became more powerful and led to their eventual fall. The 'White Huns' take over.