Islam from 570 C.E.-1450 C.E

Timeline created by historylover123
In History
  • 570

    Muhammad's birth.

    Muhammad's birth.
    He was orphaned at a young age and raised by his uncle, who taught him how to be a merchant. Muhammad later on married his wealthy, widow employer named Khadija.
  • Jan 1, 610

    Muhammad's first revelation.

    Muhammad's first revelation.
    At the age of 40, Muhammad recieved his first revelation from the Angel Gabriel while he was on a retreat in a cave near Mecca. The angel recites to him the first revelations of the Quran and informs him that he is God's prophet. The revelations continue over a 22 year period, until his death.
  • Jan 1, 622

    The Hijra

    The Hijra
    After enduring persecution in Mecca, Muhammad and his followers migrate to the nearby town of Yathrib (later to be known as Medina),This marks the beginning of the Islamic calendar. Muhammad establishes an Islamic state: Medina. Muhammad created a Muslim community based on faith not kinship, which was called Umma.
  • Jan 1, 630

    Mecca Conquered

    Mecca Conquered
    Muhammad returns to Mecca with a large number of his followers. He showed generosity to the people of Mecca by sparing their lives. The prophet clears the idols and images out of the Kaaba and rededicates it to the worship of God alone. The Muslims believe that Kaaba was built by Abraham and his son Ishmael.
  • Jan 1, 632

    Muhammad's Death and Abu Bakr the first Caliph

    Muhammad's Death and Abu Bakr the first Caliph
    Muhammad dies after an illness in Medina. The Muslim community elects his father-in-law and close associate, Abu Bakr, as caliph. Abu Bakr is one of the Rightly Guided Caliphs.
  • Jan 1, 634

    Umar Becomes Second Caliph

    Umar Becomes Second Caliph
    After the death of Abu Bakr, Umar succeeds him as caliph of Islam. During his reign, the Islamic empire undergoes an enormous military expansion. He is one of the Rightly Guided Caliphs.
  • Jan 1, 644

    Uthman Becomes Third Caliph

    Uthman Becomes Third Caliph
    Uthman succeeds Umar as Islam's leader. He is one of the Rightly Guided Caliphs. (644-656 C.E.)
  • Jan 1, 650

    Compilation of the Quran

    Compilation of the Quran
    Muhammad’s orally transmitted revelations are collected and recorded in a single authorized version of the Quran.
  • Jan 1, 656

    'Ali Becomes Fourth Caliph

    'Ali Becomes Fourth Caliph
    Uthman is assassinated by dissenting Muslims and succeeded by ‘Ali, Muhammad's cousin and son-in-law. He is one of the Rightly Guided Caliphs.
  • Jan 1, 657

    Battle of Siffin

    Battle of Siffin
    'Ali faces an army led by Mu'awiyah, a relative of Uthman who felt that 'Ali had not made sufficient attempts to find and punish those responsible for the death of the previous caliph. 'Ali's army was on the point of victory when Mu'awiyah instructed his army to fasten pages of the Quran to the points of their spears. Unwilling to attack under such circumstances, 'Ali agreed to have the conflict settled by arbitration, a decision that angered many of his followers and ultimately led to his death
  • Dec 1, 661

    Beginning of Umayyad Caliphate

    Beginning of Umayyad Caliphate
    See Timespan.
  • Dec 28, 661

    Mu'awiyah Becomes Caliph

    Mu'awiyah Becomes Caliph
    'Ali is assassinated by dissenting Muslims, and Mu'awiyah seizes power, ending the Rashidun Caliphate and establishes the Umayyad Caliphate.
  • Jan 1, 680

    Death of Husayn

    Death of Husayn
    Husayn, 'Ali's son and Muhammad's grandson, challenges the rule of Yazid I, accusing the caliph of corruption and insisting that proper leadership of Islam belongs to the descendents of Muhammad. He and his small band of followers are massacred near Karbala (present-day Iraq), further dividing the factions that would later become Sunni Muslims and Shi'ites Muslims.
  • Jan 1, 711

    Invasion of Spain

    Invasion of Spain
    Berbers and Arabs invade Spain from North Africa, crossing the Strait of Gilraltar.
  • Jan 1, 750

    Beginning of Abbasid Calphate

    Beginning of Abbasid Calphate
    See Timespan.
  • Dec 28, 750

    End of Umayyad Caliphate

    End of Umayyad Caliphate
    See Timespan.
  • Jan 1, 768

    First Written Biography of Muhammad

    First Written Biography of Muhammad
    The first written biography of Muhammad is recorded by Muhammad Ibn Ishaq. This first written record of the Prophet's life was followed by numerous biographical accounts.
  • Jan 1, 1000

    Swahili Civilization

    Swahili Civilization
    In Arabic, Swahili means coaster. During the 10th century, there was regular trade between the Bantu East Africans and the Muslim merchants. Swahili was the language blending of Bantu and Arabic. They traded gold, ivory, and slaves for pottery, glass and textiles.
  • Jan 1, 1096

    The First Crusade

    The First Crusade
    Pope Urban II of Rome calls for all Christians to expel Muslims from Jerusalem and its surrounding region and from the
    Byzantine Empire.
  • Jan 1, 1099

    The First Crusade

    The First Crusade
    Christian Crusaders capture Jerusalem.
  • Jan 1, 1145

    The Second Crusade

    The Second Crusade
    The second crusade is launched. The Muslims win by resisting a Christian siege of Damascus.
  • Dec 30, 1171

    End of Fatimid Caliphate

    End of Fatimid Caliphate
    Fatimid power ends in Egypt with the conquests of Saladin.
  • Jan 1, 1187

    The Third Crusade

    The Third Crusade
    The Saladin and the Muslims recapture Jerusalem from the Christians. The third crusade is launched.
  • Dec 30, 1258

    Mongols Invade the Middle East

    Mongols Invade the Middle East
    Mongols capture Baghdad, the city is sacked and the Caliph and many other Muslims are killed. This is the end of Abbasid caliphate.
  • Dec 30, 1299

    Ottoman Empire Founded

    Ottoman Empire Founded
    The Ottoman dynasty is founded under Osman I in Asia Minor (Turkey).
  • Dec 30, 1324

    Mansa Musa Pilgrimage to Mecca

    Mansa Musa Pilgrimage to Mecca
    Mansa Musa made the pilgrimage to Mecca (the Hajj) with 60, 000 followers, it is reported that 12,000 of them were slaves and he brought a lot of gold with him on the journey. When he returned to Mali, he built many mosques and Islamic schools.
  • Jan 1, 1450

    End of Timeline

    End of Timeline
  • Dec 30, 1453

    Ottoman Turks conquer Constantinople

    Ottoman Turks conquer Constantinople
    Ottoman Turks conquer Constantinople under the rule of Muhammad II, ending the Byzantine Empire. The city is renamed Istanbul, and becomes the capital of the Ottoman Empire.
  • Period:
    570
    to
    Jan 1, 633

    Muhammad's Birth and Death.

    Muhammad's LIfe.
  • Period:
    Jan 1, 632
    to
    Jan 1, 661

    The Rashidun Caliphate

    The four caliphs to succeed Muhammad as the leader of the Islamic community were all important companions of the Prophet, and they are known as the "Rightly Guided Caliphs," making up the Rashidun Caliphate. This time is considered the golden age of Islam, when its leaders adhered closely to the practices established by Muhammad.
  • Period:
    Jan 1, 635
    to
    Jan 1, 641

    Significant Expansion of Islamic Empire

    Muslim armies conquer Syria, Persia, Alexandria, and Jerusalem.
  • Period:
    Jan 1, 656
    to
    Jan 1, 661

    First Civil War

    'Ali encounters opposition to his rule. He defeats opposing armies, but the factions involved in the conflict later split into two distinct sects, Sunni Muslims and Shi'ite Muslims.
  • Period:
    Jan 1, 661
    to
    Jan 1, 750

    Ummayyad Dynasty

    The Umayyad dynasty established by Mu'awiyah rules for nearly a century from their capital at Damascus. The Islamic Empire continues to expand through military conquests to Spain and parts of the Byzantine Empire.
  • Period:
    Jan 1, 744
    to
    Jan 1, 750

    Third Civil War

    Dissenting Muslims claiming familial ties to Muhammad challenge the ruling Umayyads. Skirmishes lead to a full military rebellion and the eventual defeat of the Umayyad Caliphate.
  • Period:
    Jan 1, 750
    to
    Jan 1, 1258

    Abbasid Caliphate

    Abbasids become rulers of Muslim Empire with Baghdad as its capital; the Golden Age of Islam begins. Under the Abbasid caliphates, the Muslims build the first astronomical observatory, translate ancient Greek texts into Arabic, perfect and spread the Arabic alphabet and Arab numerals, develop the astrolabe for navigation, develop a body of Arabic literature and history, make advances in agriculture, improve water distribution, make advances in medicine and health care and more.
  • Period:
    Jan 1, 756
    to
    Jan 1, 1031

    The Umayyad Emirate Rises

    The Umayyad Emirate takes power in Cordova, Spain. Trade and Muslim culture prospered in the Iberian peninsula during this period.
  • Period:
    Jan 1, 850
    to
    Jan 1, 875

    Collection of Hadith

    Muhammad ibn Isma'il al-Bukhari and Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj, important scholars of the accounts of Muhammad's sayings and actions, collect, and compile hadith into the first two collections.
  • Period:
    Jan 1, 909
    to
    Jan 1, 1171

    The Fatimid Calphate

    The North African city-states lost their independence after the Fatimid Dynasty, claimed to be Shi'ite Imans descended from Ali, established itself in Tunisia. They conquered Egypt and it became a major cultural, intellectual, and political center of Islam. The Fatimids ruled from Cairo, the city they founded.
  • Period:
    Jan 1, 990
    to
    Jan 1, 1076

    Islam in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Islam came to came to Sub-Sahara Africa via trans-Saharan trade route on which the merchants traveled. Gold and Salt came from Islamic North Africa. People in Sub-Saharan Africa learned Arabic to facilitate trade. Islam was adapted into the local conditions (syncretism).
  • Period:
    Dec 30, 1000
    to
    Dec 30, 1300

    Ghana

    West Africa was the centre of the gold trade and Ghana controlled this trade. They converted to Islam in the 10th century. The kingdom lasted until the 13th century.
  • Period:
    Dec 29, 1096
    to
    Dec 29, 1099

    The First Crusade

    Christians engage in the first crusade against the Muslims. The Christians eventually accomplish their goal and recapture Jerusalem for Christendom.
  • Period:
    Jan 1, 1206
    to
    Jan 1, 1526

    Delhi Sultanate

    Muslim invaders from Central Asia invaded Northerm India. This firmly established Islam in Northern India. Islam came to Southern India through trade. There was a lot of conflict between the monotheism of Islam and the polytheism of Hinduism, which led to the partition of India in 1947. India was for the Hindus and Pakistan for the Muslims.