History of Management

Timeline created by katieyoungberg
  • Henry R. Towne

    Henry R. Towne
    Henry was known for his delivery titled "The engineer as an economist." He argued that there were good engineers and good businessmen but not both, which is why he called for the recognition of management as a separate field. He viewed mangament as a set of principles to be improved, and that it should be embedded in economics to achieve efficiency with the resources on hand (Van Fleet).
  • Daniel C. McCallum

    Daniel C. McCallum
    Daniel McCallum was a general superintendent of the Erie Railroad in New York. He found it nearly impossible for one manager to conduct all workers for a 500 mile railway. So McCallum didn't wait for any help and designed his own management system, this broke the railroad into divisions which would be headed by mangers responsible for their own section. By putting these roles on paper, he created the first organizational chart that would be used by businesses all over (Van Fleet).
  • Max Weber

    Max Weber
    Max Weber developed the five principles of bureaucracy during Germany's burgeoning industrial revolution to help organizations increase their efficiency and effectiveness. He noted a bureaucracy should have a clearly specified hierarchy of authority, selection and evaluation system that rewards employees, clearly specfied system of task and role relationships, and system of written rules and standard operating procedures (Jones, 2014).
  • Henry L Gantt

    Henry L Gantt
    Henry L Gantt emphasized relationship of management and labor. His legacy to management is the Gantt Chart which is a management tool still used today. He also published multiple work, some of his best being Work, Wages, and Profits (1910), Industrial Leadership (1916), and Organizing for Work (1919) (Van Fleet).
  • Lillian Gilbreth

    Lillian Gilbreth
    Lillian, along with her husband Frank Gilbreth, followed their studies after F. W. Taylor in scientific management. Their aims were to analyze a particular task and the necessary steps to perform it, then find better ways to perform that same task, following with recognizing each component action within that task so it will become less cost in time and effort (Jones, 2014).
  • Henri Fayol

    Henri Fayol
    Another contributer to administrative management theory is Henri Fayol. He noted Weber's principles of formal organization, but instead identified fourteen principles that are essential to increase the effiency of the management process. Even with these principles being developed at the turn of the 20th century, they remain the solid ground for which theory and research is based (Jones, 2014).
  • Mary Parker Follett

    Mary Parker Follett
    Mary Parker Follett stressed the interaction between management and workers. She looked at management and leadership as a whole by identifying them as "someone who sees the whole rather than the particular." Along with that, she was the first to integrate the idea of organizational conflict into management theory. For her accomplishments she is considered to be "mother of conflict resolution" (Lewis).
  • Hawthorne Studies

    Hawthorne Studies
    The Hawthorne Studies began as an experiment researching how the level of lighting or illumination affected the workers fatigue and perfomance. As an unexpected result, they found that regardless of the lighting all work was done efficiently. Through multiple studies, the researchers found that workers productivity was affected more by the attention they received from them rather than by the characteristics of the work setting (Jones, 2014).
  • Edward Chamberlin

    Edward Chamberlin
    Chamberlin, along with Joan Robinson, are credited to the development of monopolistic or imperfect competition. Edward viewed the product differentiation that characterizes imperfect competition is not welfare reducing, but welfare enhancing. Soon after, Chamberlin was also noted as the orginator of the sub-field of Experimental Economics, for which the 2002 Nobel Prize was awarded to Vernon Smith for a modern development and advancement (Bellante, p. 18).
  • Chester I Barnard

    Chester I Barnard
    Barnard has taken the name as father of modern management theory. He stressed sociological aspects of management and concentrated on the concept of authority, the importance of communication, and the role of the informal organization. Some of his best writings are The Functions of the Executive (1938) and Organization and Management (1948) (Van Fleet).
  • Ernest Dale

    Ernest Dale
    Ernest was the leader in the use of the empirical approach to management theory. He is best known for his writings in management, some of them being; "The Unionization of Foremen" (1945), "The Great Organizers" (1960), "Mangement: Theory and Practice" (1965). In his 1965 book, he describes the foundation of management thought and the functions of mangement (Van Fleet).
  • Peter F. Drucker

    Peter F. Drucker
    Drucker developed the concept of management by objectives. He drew upon economics to discuss the importance of innovation and the social responsibilities of businessmen. Along with exploring the way human beings organize themselves and interact. He predicted many of the major developments of the late 20th century with his multiple books and countless scholarly artciles published. One of his first major work was The End of Economic Man, which was published in 1939 (Van Fleet).
  • James F. Lincoln

    James F. Lincoln
    James F. Lincoln, and idustrialist, applied what he termed "incentive management" for his employer Lincoln Electric. His management philosophy combined the golden rule with athletic metaphors. One core policy of Lincoln's was "there is no limit to the production capacity of human being. The worker who is assured the fruits of his labor will find a thousand and one ways to increase production" (Hager, 1999).
  • Abraham Maslow

    Abraham Maslow
    Maslow was one of the founders behind Humanistic Psychology; this included hierarchy of needs and self-actualization, which became fundamental subjects in this movement. While many psychologists were focused on the abnormal nature of human being, Maslow focused his studies on the positive sides of mental health. One of his well known books included "Motivation and Personality" published in 1954 (Cherry).
  • Douglas McGregor

    Douglas McGregor
    Douglas McGregor studied management styles influenced by beliefs and assumptions about what motivates members of a team. He created the terms Theory X and Theory Y; stating that theory x assumes that employees are unmotived and dislike working, while theory y assumes that employees are just the opposite ("Theory X and Theory Y", 2012).
  • Victor H. Vroom

    Victor H. Vroom
    Vroom developed the expectancy theory based on early psychological theories, such as Kurt Lewin's "force field" concept. His 1964 book, Work and Motivation, is considered to be the landmark within behavioral studies. His other work based on dealing with leadership is also cited as breakthroughs in the study of organizational behavior (Van Fleet).
  • Fred E. Fiedler

    Fred E. Fiedler
    Fred Fiedler pioneered the modern approach to situational leadership. He created the contingency model, stating there is no one best style of leadership. Fiedler believe that leadership could be measured using the scale he called Least Preferred Co-worker scale. Based on the results of the scale, individuals would be categorized as either relationship-orientated leader or task-orientated leader (Van Fleet).
  • Henry Mintzberg

    Henry Mintzberg
    Henry's theory is guided on the view that management skills cannot be taught in the classroom, but can only be enhanced through authentic experiences. This theory also includes breaking down workplace organization, management roles and management responsibilities to promote clear understanding of these sometimes complex concepts. From his achievements he's prepared over five published books and nearly 160 articles on his views (Graybeal, 2010).
  • Reginald Revans

    Reginald Revans
    Reginald Revans was best known for the development of "action learning." To enhance the learning process he set managers into groups calling them action learning sets. Here they were able to work with one another to introduce new ways of working. Revans was the first to introduce action learning groups to the National Health Service, claiming that all staff needed to listen to one another in order to understand each other (Cook, 2013).
  • Edwin A. Locke

    Edwin A. Locke
    Along with Gary Latham and using ideas of Thomas Ryan, Locke developed goal-setting theory, which has its roots in Frederick Taylor's task management, Frank Gilbreth's "three position plan" of promotion, Peter Drucker's MBO, and Cecil Mace's pioneering studies. One of his major publishings included "A Theory of Goal Setting and Task Performance" (1990) (Van Fleet).