History of Emergency Management in the U.S.

Timeline created by fdemiroz
In History
  • First federal level involvement in a local disaster: New Hampshire Fire

    First federal level involvement in a local disaster: New Hampshire Fire
    In 1803, a congressional act was passed that provided financial assistance to a New Hampshire that had been devestated by fire. This was the first example of the federal government becoming involved in a local disaster.
    After this incident, Franklin Roosevelt was the first president who used government to stimulate economy and make significant investment in emergency management functions
  • Galveston Hurricane

    Galveston Hurricane
  • 1930s: Disaster Loans

    1930s: Disaster Loans
    During the 1930s, the Reconstruction Finance Corporation and Bureau of Public Roads were given authority to make disaster loans available for repair and reconstruction of certain public facilities after disasters.
    Tennessee Valley Authority was crated during this time to reduce flooding in the region.
  • Flood Control Act of 1934

    Flood Control Act of 1934
    Flood Control Act of 1934 gave U.S. Army Corps of Engineers increased authority to design and build flood-control projects.
    This act reflected the philosophy that humans could control nature, thereby eliminating the risk of floods.
  • End of WWII

    End of WWII
    World War II ends
  • Hurricane Hazel

    Hurricane Hazel
    Hurricane Hazel hit Virginia and N. Carolina
  • Hurricane Diana

    Hurricane Diana
  • Hurricane Audrey

  • Office of Civil and Defense Mobilization

    For more details
    Office of Civil and Defense Mobilization was created as a result of merger of Office of Defense Mobilization and Federal Civil Defense Administration.
  • Ash Wednesday of 1962

  • 1964 Alaska Earthquake

  • Hurricane Betsy of 1965

  • National Flood Insurance Act of 1968 was enacted

    National  Flood Insurance Act of 1968 was enacted
    As with previous disasters, the response was passage of ad hoc legislations for funds.
    Congressional interested was prompted by the unavailability of flood protection insurance on the standard homeowner policy. These discussions eventually led to the passage of the National Flood Insurance Act of 1968 which created the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP).
    This also introduced the concept of community based mitigation in pre disaster phase.
  • Hurricane Camille in 1969

  • Flood Insurance Act of 1972

    NFIP became mandatory for homeowner loans
  • Disaster Relief Act of 1974

    With the enactment of the Disaster Relief Act of 1794, Housing and Urban Development became the lead agency for managing natural disasters through NFIP under FIA and Federal Disaster Assistance Administration.
    Defense Civil Preparedness Agency and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers were responsible for the military side of emergencies and crises.
  • Jimmy Carter's initiative to consolidate emergency preparedness, mitigation, and response activities

    Jimmy Carter's initiative to consolidate emergency preparedness, mitigation, and response activities
    President Carter transmitted to Congress the Reorganization Plan Number 3. The intent of this plan was to consolidate emergecy preparedness, mitigation, and response activities under one federal emergency management organization.
  • Three Mile Island Accident

    Three Mile Island Accident
    The accident fastened the process of creation of FEMA.
  • FEMA was officially established

    FEMA was officially established
    John Macy was appointed as the chief of FEMA.
    Macy's task was to unify an organization that was not only phisically but also philophically seperated.
    Macy focused on the new concept called Integrated Emergency Management System (IEMS). This is the beginning of All Hazards Approach in EM.
  • Louis Guiffrida appointed as the director FEMA

    President Reagan appointed Louis Guiffrida as the FEMA director.
    Guiffrida focused on Nuclear Attack Planning throughout his term as the director of FEMA.
  • Stafford Act of 1988

    The stafford Act is put into effect which specified responsibilities that were delegated in the instance of a federally madated disaster.
  • Hurricane Hugo

    Hurricane Hugo
  • Loma Prieta Earthquake

    Loma Prieta Earthquake
  • Hurricane Andrew

    Hurricane Andrew
  • James Lee Witt

    James Lee Witt
  • Midwest floods

    Midwest floods
  • Oklohoma City Bombing

    Oklohoma City Bombing
  • FEMA became cabinet level agency

    FEMA became cabinet level agency
  • Joe Allbaugh became director of FEMA

    Joe Allbaugh became director of FEMA
  • 9/11 Attacks

    9/11 Attacks
  • DHS was established

    DHS was established
    Tom Ridge
    Michael Chertoff
    Napolitano
  • Hurricane Katrina

    Hurricane Katrina
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    The Cold War and the Rise of Civil Defense: the 1950s

    Starting from the end of the WW II, Cold War shaped the governments perception of hazards threat.
    Civil defense programs proliferated across communities during the Cold War era.
    Almost every community had a civil defense director, and some states had civil defense representatives in their government hierarchy,
    Federal Support: Federal Civil Defense Administration (FCDA) was created to support local civil defense efforts. Their main goal was to provide technical assistance.
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    Changes to Emergency Management: the 1960s

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    The Call for an National Focus on Emergency Management: 1970s

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    Civil Defense Reappears as Nuclear Attack Planning: the 1980s