Art throughout the 18th Century

Timeline created by caroline______norton
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    The Paris Salons

    Enlightenment ideas were popular amongst wealthy women in Paris. They would hold meetings/parties in their drawing rooms to discuss Enlightenment ideas; these were called salons. Philosophers, writers, artists, and scientists alike met to talk and watch art performances.
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    Baroque to Neoclassical

    In the early 1600s', baroque, a style of extravagant architecture and music, dominated European art. Due to Enlightenment ideas, the art became more simple and elegant leading to the neoclassical era.
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    Classical Music

    Franz Joseph Haydn, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, and Ludwig van Beethoven in Vienna, Austria were critical figures in developing new forms of music during the Enlightenment era. Haydn was the most important when it came to creating new styles. like the sonata and symphony. Mozart began composing when he was 12 as well and Beethoven showed a large range in his work.
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    Enlightenment and Monarchy

    The Enlightenment movement swept through royal courts in Europe. Philosophers believed monarchy with a ruler who respects the people's rights was the best government form. The monarchs who embraced the these ideas were known as enlightened despots, despot meaning absolute ruler.
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    Popularity of Novel

    Writers during this time had developed new writing styles and literature forms. Several European authors started to write novels, which were long works of prose fiction, or books written with language in its ordinary form. These types of books became widely popular among the middle-class.
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    Frederick II, the King of Prussia

    Frederick believed he had to enlighten his people, cultivate their manners and morals, and make them as happy as they can be. He committed his time as king trying to reform Prussia by granting religious freedom, reducing censorship, and improving education. Although he didn't agree with some aspects of the Prussian rules, he didn't do anything to fix them.
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    Diderot's Encyclopedia

    At first, the Encyclopedia angered the French government and the Catholic Church due to the Enlightenment views expressed within the text. His works were then banned because it included 'moral corruption, irreligion, and unbelief.' Eventually, his publishes were approved.
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    Catherine the Great

    Catherine ensured that Russia would be modern and reformed. She allowed religious tolerance and capital punishment. She also abolished torture. Her enlightenment ideas were changed because of the uprising of serfs in 1773. Her army, then destroyed the rebellion. Before this had occurred, she favored ending serfdom; however this rebellion convinced her that she needed the aid of nobles, giving them complete control over the serfs.
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    The First Partition of Poland

    In 1772 Prussia, Russia, and Austria each took a piece of Poland; this was called the First Partition of Poland. Partitions in 1793 and 95 took over the remaining land of Poland. The partitions wiped Poland off of European maps and stripped it of its independence, which they gained back after WWI.
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    Joseph II, the King of Austria

    Joseph II was the most radical ruler. He made legal reforms and freedom of the press. He supported various religions and abolished serfdom and ensured that laborers were given cash for their labor. After Joseph II died, his reforms were undone due to the nobles who disliked his changes.