AP European History Important Eras and Events

Timeline created by meag4n
In History
  • Jan 1, 1348

    The Black Death

    The Black Death
    1348-1351. The Black Death was significant in Europe because it killed devastating numbers of Europe's population. However, it contributed to the end of feudalism and serfdom.
  • Jan 1, 1350

    Renaissance

    Renaissance
    1350-1550. The Renaissance, or "rebirth," in Europe was a revival of European interest in the arts. It brought on new ideas such as humanism, individualism, and secuarlism; these intellectual movements ultimately resulted in the Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment.
  • Jan 1, 1415

    Council of Constance burns Hus and ends Great Schism

    Council of Constance burns Hus and ends Great Schism
    1415-1417. The end of the Great Schism was important because it signified the start of Conciliarism, where the council had more authority than the pope. It also led to hostility towards the papacy and incited the Protestant Reformation.
  • Jan 1, 1450

    Exploration

    Exploration
    1450-1600. European exploration during this time is extremely significant because it laid the foundation of modern countries in the New World, West Africa, and the Pacific.
  • Jan 1, 1453

    Fall of Constantinople; End of Hundred Years' War

    Fall of Constantinople; End of Hundred Years' War
    The Fall of Constantinople signified the end of the Byzantine Empire. The Hundred Years' War introduced the longbow, caused France's population and economy to decline, and led to the tension that caused the War of the Roses.
  • Jan 1, 1455

    Invention of Printing Press

    Invention of Printing Press
    The invention of the printing press is extremely significant because it allowed for the easy manufacturing of books. These books helped develop movements such as the Protestant Reformation, Scientific Revolution, and the Englightenment.
  • Jan 1, 1492

    Columbus encounters America; completion of reconquista in Spain

    Columbus encounters America; completion of reconquista in Spain
    The encounter of Columbus and the Americas is significant because European exploration ended with the death of a majority of Native Americans. The end of reconquista in Spain signified the end of Islam in Spain, with Christian Spain in its place.
  • Jan 1, 1500

    Protestant and Catholic Reformations

    Protestant and Catholic Reformations
    Sixteenth century. These religious reformations were significant because new religions—Protestantism, Calvinism, Lutheranism, etc—emerged and caused political disarray in Europe.
  • Jan 1, 1500

    Early Modern Society

    Early Modern Society
    1500-1700. Early modern society saw the global interactions of areas that were previously isolated and the beginning of capitalist economies.
  • Jan 1, 1500

    Price Revolution

    Price Revolution
    Sixteenth century. The Price Revolution caused the increased prices of food (while wages didn’t increase with prices), while entrepreneurs benefited from rising prices and cheap labor costs.
  • Jan 1, 1517

    Luther Posts 95 Theses

    Luther Posts 95 Theses
    Without Luther's 95 Theses written in German, the Protestant Reformation may not have ever reached the heights it did. It is significant because peasants were able to understand the corruption of the Church and it carried on the ideologies of Hus.
  • Jan 1, 1519

    Cortez Conquers Aztecs

    Cortez Conquers Aztecs
    The conquest of the Aztecs was significant because it essentially destoryed the Aztec civilization. The Aztecs had built an empire with conquest, and was destroyed by Cortez and his mission. It also brought deadly disease to the natives.
  • Jan 1, 1520

    Religious Wars

    Religious Wars
    1520s-1650. The Religious Wars in Europe (including the Revolt of the Spanish Netherlands, War of the Three Henries, and the Thirty Years' War) resulted in political tension in Europe and the fall of the Holy Roman Empire.
  • Jan 1, 1534

    Act of Supremacy in England Creates Anglican Church

    Act of Supremacy in England Creates Anglican Church
    The Act of Supremacy and Anglican Church were significant because the excommunication of the Pope further feuled the Protestant Reformation happening in Europe.
  • Jan 1, 1536

    Calvin Establishes Reformed Faith in Geneva

    Calvin Establishes Reformed Faith in Geneva
    The establishment of Calvinism in Geneva was significant because Geneva became a center for the Reformation and education.
  • Jan 1, 1543

    Scientific Revolution

    Scientific Revolution
    1543-1687. The Scientific Revolution was the predecessor to modern science. Scientific ideas emerged that are still used today. It caused religious doubt in Europe.
  • Jan 1, 1543

    Copernicus Publishes Heliocentric Theory

    Copernicus Publishes Heliocentric Theory
    Copernicus's findings were not only significant, but monumental. The heliocentric theory changed the basis of astronomy as we know it, eliminated Ptolemy's geocentric theory, and challenged the Roman Catholic Church.
  • Jan 1, 1545

    Council of Trent Opens

    Council of Trent Opens
    The Council of Trent is significant because it played a big role in the Catholic Counter-Reformation.
  • Jan 1, 1550

    Dutch Commercial Dominance

    Dutch Commercial Dominance
    1550-1650. The Dutch monopolized European and world trade. The beginnings of capitalism resulted in the joint-stock company, mercantilism, and the Bank of Amsterdam.
  • Jan 1, 1550

    Age of Crisis

    Age of Crisis
    1550-1650. Sixteenth and seventeenth century Europe were plagued by violent conflicts such as the Thirty Years' War and the English Civil War. However, the chaos resulted in the English Bill of Rights and significant secularist movements in the Enlightenment.
  • Jan 1, 1555

    Peace of Augsburg Ends Religious War in Germany; Charles V Abdicates

    Peace of Augsburg Ends Religious War in Germany; Charles V Abdicates
    The Peace of Augsburg is significant because German princes were able to choose whether the people in their land were Catholic of Lutheran. This also caused uproar because those were the only two options for religion. Charles V abdicating was significant because he gave away land from the Holy Roman Empire.
  • Jan 1, 1580

    The Witchcraft Scare

    The Witchcraft Scare
    1580-1680. The Witchcraft Craze stirred religious fear and suspicion throughout Europe.
  • Defeat of Spanish Armada

    Defeat of Spanish Armada
    The defeat of the Spanish Armada is signficant because it established England as a world power. It also brought long-range weapons into naval warfare.
  • Edict of Nantes Ends French Religious Wars

    Edict of Nantes Ends French Religious Wars
    The Edict of Nantes was important because it granted rights to the Huguenots and strenghtened the French monarchy.
  • Baroque Art

    Baroque Art
    1600-1750. Baroque art expanded upon classical ideals of Renaissance art with dramatic effects to intensify emotion. It ushered a new age of artistic movements.
  • Dutch East India Company Founded

    Dutch East India Company Founded
    The Dutch East India Company was significat because it connect European and Asian trade. It was the first company to issue stocks and acted almost as a government power.
  • Conflict between Parliament and King in England

    Conflict between Parliament and King in England
    1603-1689. The English Civil War is a significant period in history due to its struggle between the leader and the body of a government. It result in the English Bill of Rights and the American checks and balances policy.
  • Stuart Monarchy Begins in England

    Stuart Monarchy Begins in England
    The House of Stuart was significant because they ruled for so long. During their reign, the English Civil War, Glorious Revolution, and severe financial debt occured.
  • Age of Louis XIV

    Age of Louis XIV
    1643-1715. Louis XIV is one of France's most significant rulers, mainly due to his ultimate bankrupting of France's treasury. He ordered for the building of the Palace of Versailles, caused Huguenots and Protestants to defy France by leaving, and played a role in the War of Spanish Succession.
  • Peace of Westphalia Ends Thirty Years' War

    Peace of Westphalia Ends Thirty Years' War
    The Peace of Westphalia was significant because it resulted in German religious freedom, hurt the German economy and population, and caused 300 Holy Roman Empire states to be independent.
  • Charles I Executed in England

    Charles I Executed in England
    Charles I's execution was significant because it signified the end of the second phase of the English Civil War. It also caused Charles II to raise an army against Cromwell and Cromwell, in response, invaded Scotland.
  • Absolutism

    Absolutism
    1650-1750. Absolutism plays an important role in this part of history because previously European states were in civil wars, but absolutism argued that a centralized government could solve this. It also created the concept of divine-right monarchies.
  • Commercial Wars

    Commercial Wars
    1650-1763. Also known as the Anglo-Dutch Wars, the Commercial Wars are significant in the downfall of the Dutch empire and the rise of England's navy.
  • Rise of Prussia

    Rise of Prussia
    1650-1753. The Rise of Prussia was significant due to its quick rise under Frederck William I despite its small size. Prussia also contributed to the rise of Austria.
  • Newton Publishes Principia Mathematica

    Newton Publishes Principia Mathematica
    Principia Mathematica is important because it compiled a majority of mathematical equations known at the time. With this knowledge, Newton developed calculus.
  • Glorious Revolution; Peter the Great's Reign Begins in Russia

    Glorious Revolution; Peter the Great's Reign Begins in Russia
    1688-1689. The Glorious Revolution resulted in William of Orange taking the throne. Peter the Great is signficant because he westernized Russia.
  • Rise of Russia

    Rise of Russia
    1689-1815. The Rise of Russia during this time period has significantly affected the current culture of Russia after Peter the Great's process of westernization.
  • Bank of England Founded

    Bank of England Founded
    The Bank of England is significant because it originally worked as the government's bank.
  • Rise of the Middle Class

    Rise of the Middle Class
    Eighteenth century. The rise of middle class citizens was immense progress in Europe leaving its aristocracy. The prevelant income gap was less severe.
  • Enlightenment

    Enlightenment
    Eighteenth century. The Enlightenment was an intellectual movement that led to many scientific breakthroughs. Secularism became prominent and religious criticism resulted in a loss of belief.
  • Agricultural Revolution

    Agricultural Revolution
    Eighteenth century. The Agricultural Revolution of the eighteenth century is one of the most significant developments in food production. It used technology to increase the productivity of farming.
  • Peace of Utrecht; death of Louis XIV

    1713-1715. These treaties were significant because they ended the War of Spanish Succession. Louis XIV's death was significant because he ruled longer than any monarch in European history. He funded the Palace of Versailles and put France into major debt.
  • Rococo Art

    Rococo Art
    1720-1760. Rococo art influeced many types of European art including architecture, theatre, painting, and sculptures. It is a signicant period in the development of European art.
  • War of Austrian Succession

    War of Austrian Succession
    The War of Austrian Succession is significant because it results in Frederick the Great keeping the land of Silesia. Maria Theresa ultimately inherits the throne.
  • Rise of Nationalism

    Rise of Nationalism
    1750s-1914. Due to the various revolutions and political reforms throughout Europe, nationalism soared. Governments gain from nationalism because citizens have the best aims for their country.
  • Industrial Revolution

    Industrial Revolution
    1750-1850. The Industrial Revolution is one of the most significant periods of all time because of its popularization of the factory and new manufacturing processes.
  • Treaty of Paris

    Treaty of Paris
    The Treaty of Paris of 1763 is extremely significant because it ended the French and Indian War and France gave up all its land in North America.
  • American Revolution; Smith Publishes Wealth of Nations

    American Revolution; Smith Publishes Wealth of Nations
    The American Revolution was significant because it worked to seperate the colonies from Britain. The Wealth of Nations is significant because it became the foundation for economics.
  • Age of Revolutions

    Age of Revolutions
    1789-1848. This was a period consisting of the revolutions against oppressive governments throughout the world. The biggest of these are the American Revolution and the French Revolution, which have affected the governments of the nations to this day.
  • French Revolution Begins

    French Revolution Begins
    The French Revolution is significant because it influenced the government of many modern states by showing how much power the people have. Its end led to the Napoleonic era.
  • Feminism

    Feminism
    1790s-1980s. Feminism was a movement for the improvement of womens' rights so that both genders have justice. It improved the status of women greatly, and allowed them to join the workforce.
  • Wollstonecraft Begins Feminist Movement with Vindication of Rights of Women

    Wollstonecraft Begins Feminist Movement with Vindication of Rights of Women
    Vindication of Rights of Women was significant because it started the feminism movement. Before, feminism was not common and even women believed they were inferior.
  • Napoleon Comes to Power in France

    Napoleon Comes to Power in France
    Napoleon remains significant because of how wide he spread the French Empire. He was a great military leader and issued the Louisiana Purchase.
  • Romanticism

    Romanticism
    First half of nineteenth century. The artistic movement emphasized the emotions rather than the rationalism emphasized earlier in the Enlightenment. Romantcism also expresses an artist's freedom and increased nationalism.
  • Abdication of Napoleon; Congress of Vienna

    Abdication of Napoleon; Congress of Vienna
    The abdication of Napoleon meant the end of one of Europe's largest powers. The Congress of Vienna's significance is that it divided central Europe up after Napoleon had taken much of it over.
  • Rise of Liberalism

    Rise of Liberalism
    1830s-1870s. Liberalism advocated for limited government and private rights to property and enterprise. This is significant as it is the shape of modern American government and democracy.
  • Revolution in France; Belgian and Greek Independence

    Revolution in France; Belgian and Greek Independence
    1830-1831. These revolutions and independences were significant because it shaped the modern European countries and brought the power of the people to attention.
  • Revolutions of 1848; Marx and Engels Publish Communist Manifesto

    Revolutions of 1848; Marx and Engels Publish Communist Manifesto
    The Revolutions of 1848 are significant because the year had the most revolutions in European history. The Communist Manifesto is the supreme doctrine for communism and affected the way countries like the Soviet Union were run.
  • Unification and Nation-Building

    Unification and Nation-Building
    1850-1875. German and Italian unification brought long-competing territories together. The German unification also saw the disappearance of Prussia as a seperate entity from other German states.
  • Realism and Materialism

    Realism and Materialism
    1850s-1870s. The significance of realism and materialism is that it contrasted from the period of romanticism. There was a focus on real problems of ordinary citizens.
  • The Second Agricultural Revolution

    The Second Agricultural Revolution
    1850-1914. The signifcance of the Second Agricultural Revolution was the increase in technology. The assembly and mass production were created from this.
  • Imperialism

    Imperialism
    1850-1914. The significance of imperialism is the still-lasting impression it left on African countries. African countries that eventually gained their independence are left corrupted because imperialism had never allowed them to rule before.
  • Modern Ideas and Science

    Modern Ideas and Science
    1850-1920s. The significance of modern science developed in this period is that untrue medieval ideas were completely thrown away. In its place were theories that remain true today.
  • Rise of Modern Society

    Rise of Modern Society
    Second half of nineteenth century. The rise of modern society is signicant because it gave way to feminism, improved technology, and new scientific ideas and understandings.
  • Crystal Palace Exhibition

    Crystal Palace Exhibition
    The Crystal Palace was significant because it displayed technological feats accomplished in the Industrial Revolution.
  • Britain Establishes Direct Rule of India

    Britain Establishes Direct Rule of India
    The significance of British rule in India was the "Divide and Rule" tactic and the unfortunate, subsequent effects on Indian politics and economy.
  • Darwin Publishes Origin of the Species

    Darwin Publishes Origin of the Species
    Darwin's Origin of the Speciesis significant because it brought new scientific ideas like evolution. Evolution was and continues to be a widely debated topic against religion.
  • Italy Unified; Russian Serfs Emancipated

    Italy Unified; Russian Serfs Emancipated
    Italian unification is important because Italy had been fractioned for a long time. The emancipation of Russian serfs granted freedom that had already been in Europe for centuries.
  • Modern Art

    Modern Art
    1870-1920. The significance of modern art is the birth of a new period where artists were free to express ideas that had never been done before.
  • Unification of Germany; Paris Commune and Third Republic in France

    Unification of Germany; Paris Commune and Third Republic in France
    The significance of the unification of Germany is that Germany was then able to become a world power. The Paris Commune and Third Republic in France were short governments that were hated and seemed to jump from problem to problem.
  • Berlin Conference Over Imperialism in Africa

    Berlin Conference Over Imperialism in Africa
    1884-1885. The Berlin Conference was significant because it decided which European countries would be able to control which African countries. Imperialism ultimately led to the state of disarray that Africa is in now.
  • Freud Publishes Interpretation of Dreams

    Freud Publishes Interpretation of Dreams
    Freud's psyhology book ushered a new age of exploring the mind and concious.
  • Einstein Published Relativity Theory; Revolution of 1905 in Russia

    Einstein Published Relativity Theory; Revolution of 1905 in Russia
    Einstein's Theory of Relativity was significant because it introduced a new thinking about time and space. The Revolution of 1905 resulted in a limited constitutional monarchy.
  • World Wars

    World Wars
    1914-1945. The World Wars are signficant because they still have an effect on international relations today. The first produced improved methods of warfare while the second stopped Nazi Germany's reign as a world power
  • World War I Begins

    World War I Begins
    WWI is significant because it ushered in a new age of military weaponry.
  • Bolshevik Revolution in Russia

    Bolshevik Revolution in Russia
    The Bolshevik Revolution is significant because it started with Vladimir Lenin leading the rebellion and forming a government. This government eventually established itself as the USSR.
  • Treaty of Versailles

    Treaty of Versailles
    The Treaty of Versailles was significant because it redefined German borders. It also created the New League of Nations.
  • Totalitarianism

    Totalitarianism
    1920s-1945. The signifiance of totalitarianism is the development of Nazi Germany. This led to WWII and severe destruction.
  • Fascists and Mussolini Come to Power in Italy

    Fascists and Mussolini Come to Power in Italy
    This change of leadership in Italy is significant because only Fascism was allowed in Italy. This helped lead to Italy joining the Axis Powers in WWII.
  • Great Depression Begins

    Great Depression Begins
    The Great Depression remains to be one of the most significant periods in American history. After the stock market crash, people were left poor, hungry, and unemployed.
  • Hitler Comes to Power in Germany

    Hitler Comes to Power in Germany
    Hitler's rise to power in Germany is extremely significant because it led to the devastating Holocaust and increasing expansion of Germany.
  • Munich Conference: Height of Appeasement

    Munich Conference: Height of Appeasement
    The Munich Conference saw Frace, Great Britain, and Italy allow Germany to take some of Czechoslovakia to lessen hostility. However, this only empowered Hitler.
  • World War II Begins

    World War II Begins
    World War II was extremely important because it ended in the defeat of the tyrannical Hitler.
  • Cold War

    Cold War
    1945-1991. The Cold War was extremely signficant because it lasted generations and affected world relations. It was the end of communism in the Soviet Union.
  • European Unity

    European Unity
    1945-present. European unity is signfiicant because the countries of Europe can now rely on each other to improve their societies and economies, rather than tearing each other down like in previous eras.
  • World War II Ends; United Nations Founded

    World War II Ends; United Nations Founded
    The end of WWII has kept Europe in a state of peace. The United Nations today is a humanitarian organization that has helped solve some of the world's most pressing issues.
  • NATO Formed

    NATO Formed
    NATO is significant because it is a defense treaty signed by many countries in Europe and North America. It has contributed to wars such as the Cold War and the Persian Gulf War.
  • European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC formed)

    European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC formed)
    The ECSC is important because it sought to ally European Nations after WWII. It was the predecessor to the EU.
  • Stalin Dies

    Stalin Dies
    The significance of Stalin's death is shown in the numbers of deaths he caused. The deaths are estimated to be in the millions. There was also a pause in the Cold War atrocities.
  • Khrushchev's de-Stalinization Speech; Hungary Revolt

    Khrushchev's de-Stalinization Speech; Hungary Revolt
    Krushchev's de-Stalinization speech is significant because it called for peace between the East and the West. The revolts in Hungary were surpressed by officials and around 200,000 Hungarians fled the country.
  • Treaty of Rome Creates European Economic Comunity (EEC); Sputnik Launched

    Treaty of Rome Creates European Economic Comunity (EEC); Sputnik Launched
    The EEC is signicant because aimed to create economic success for its six members; however, it later became part of the EU. Sputnik is significant because it was the world's first artificial satellite in Space and brought the beginning of the Space Race.
  • Fifth Republic in France Under DeGaulle

    Fifth Republic in France Under DeGaulle
    The Fifth Republic of France is significant because it replaced the Fourth Republic after its decolonization problems. It is the current republic of France.
  • Berlin Wall Erected

    Berlin Wall Erected
    The Berlin Wall is extremely significant because it marked the power of the Soviet Union. East Berlin had no way to flee its communist government.
  • Cuban Missile Crisis

    The Cuban Missile Crisis is significant because it caused terror and almost resulted in a nuclear war. This could have spiraled into a third World War.
  • Second Vatican Council Begins

    Second Vatican Council Begins
    The Second Vatican Council is significant because it addressed issues such as Roman Catholic relations with other religions and the modern world.
  • Student Revolts; Czech "Prague Spring" Revolt

    Student Revolts; Czech "Prague Spring" Revolt
    The Prague Spring revolt is significant because it was leading Czechoslovakia towards democracy but ended with bloody retaliation from the Soviet Union.
  • Helsinki Accords: Height of Détente

    Helsinki Accords: Height of Détente
    The Helsinki Accords are significant because they promised human rights and resulted in hostility towards the Communist party.
  • John Paul II Elected Pope

    John Paul II Elected Pope
    John Paul II is significant because he is said to have brought the Roman Catholic Church out of the Vatican and into the entire globe. He is also credited with contributing to the fall of communism.
  • Soviet Union Invaes Afghanistan; Thatcher Electe Prime Minister in Britain

    Soviet Union Invaes Afghanistan; Thatcher Electe Prime Minister in Britain
    The Soviet Union in Afghanistan played a significant role to the ending of the Cold War. Once the Soviet Union moved out of its Eastern Bloc, there was more pressure to condemn the government from Europe and the United States. Margaret Thatcher is significant because she is the UK's first and only female prime minister so far.
  • Solidarity Founded in Poland

    Solidarity Founded in Poland
    Solidarity is significant because it was the first trade union under the Soviet Union that was not sponsored by the Communist Party.
  • Gorbachev Comes to Power in Soviet Union

    Gorbachev Comes to Power in Soviet Union
    Gorbachev is extremely signicant because his move towards democracy contributed to the fall of the Soviet Union.
  • Berlin Wall Falls; Collapse of Communism

    Berlin Wall Falls; Collapse of Communism
    The fall of the Berlin Wall signified the end of the reign of the Soviet Union. East Berlin united with West Berlin.
  • Break-up of Soviet Union; Balkan Conflicts Begin in Former Yugoslavia

    Break-up of Soviet Union; Balkan Conflicts Begin in Former Yugoslavia
    The break-up of the Soviet Union is significant introduced countries under the Warsaw Pact into Eastern Europe. The Balkan conflicts in former Yugoslavia led to border disputes.
  • Maastricht Treaty Creates European Union

    Maastricht Treaty Creates European Union
    The European Union connected former Soviet Union countries to the rest of Europe. It is significant because it helps keep peace in European countries.
  • Euro Currency Introduced

    Euro Currency Introduced
    The Euro helped unite Europe together. People could easily travel country to country without the hassle of different currencies.
  • Terrorist Attacks on United States

    Terrorist Attacks on United States
    The terrorist attacks on the United States brought a sense of nationalism into the US. However, it marked the beginning of a new period of hostility in international relations.