3.1: Fertile Crescent: First humans arriveThe first hunter-gatherer groups settled in Mesopotamia 12,000 years ago.
4.1: Egypt: Hunter Gatherers arriveAncient hunter gatherers, like the ones from Mesopotamia, moved to the Nile Valley around 12,000 years ago. They learned how to farm and made small villages. It was also they who formed the Lower and Upper Egypt.
3.1: Mesopotamia: Hunter gatherers FARMAround 7,000 BC, the hunter gatherers use silt from the floods to farm crops.
6.1: First civilizations begin in the Huang HeAlmost all ancient civilizations began along rivers. China is no exception, for they're civilization starts in the Huang He river, meaning Yellow River. They started farming along the river, because of the silt deposits.
3.2: Mesopotamia-First cityDue to food surpluses and division of labor, cities were made as a place for trading. Cities also provided leaders. One of the more known cities was Sumer.
4.1: Egypt: Unification of Upper and Lower EgyptA century after Upper and Lower Egypt were formed, a man called Menes became leader of Upper, his goal now is to finish what the previous king, Scorpion failed to do: unify both parts of Egypt. Menes succeeded in doing so when he attacked Lower Egypt. He was the first pharoh of Egypt and wore the double crown.
4.2: Rise Of The Old KingdomAs the Third Dynasty rose to power, so came the Old Kingdom. It lasted for around 5 centuries. It lasted from approximately 2700BC to 2200BC.
5.1: India: Harappan CivilizationThe Harappan Civilization was the first civilization to thrive. It was named after the modern day Harrapa, the city where it's ruins were found. The greatest sources of this civilization are the remains of it's to greatest cities, Harrapa and Monhenjo Daro.
3.3: Mesopotamia: The Epic of Gilgamesh was writtenThe Epic Of Gilgamesh is currently the oldest epic in the world. It was carved in stone tablets, and the actual Gilgamesh, king of the city Uruk, lived 700 years before the epic.
5.1: India: Aryan's arrivalAfter the collapse of the Harrapan civilization, the Aryans came in from the North and became the dominant group in India for that time.
3.4: Babylon: Rise of the BabyloniansAfter Ur was destroyed in 2000BC, the Babylonians took over by 1800BC. Their ruler was Hammurabi, who was the cities greatest monarch.
3.4: Asia Minor: Development of the chariotThe Hitties master ironworking and therefore were able to create wheels and, soon after, chariots. It allowed Hittite soldiers to move quickly in battle. After this, they used the chariots to take over Babylon.
4.3: The New Kingdom of EgyptThe New Kingdom brought a whole new world of trade. It was also the longest lasting kingdom: it had been around for 500 years! It was ruled by many pharaohs, but the most famous one is Queen Hatshepsut.
5.2: India: Sikhism foundedSikhism was formed centuries after Jainism. Founded by Guru (teacher in Sanskrit) Nanak, Sikhism is monotheistic. Nanak was raised Hindu but didn't the way they did things, so he travelled to many places and got in contact with many religions, including Islam.
6.1: China: Bones and shells are used for Chinese writingChinese writing, although gone through many changes, originated from the Shang Dynasty. Ancient priests used to write on cattle bones and turtle shells. This was because they thought that by "reading" the cracks they could predict the future! These bones were then called oracle bones.
8.1: Greece: The Classical Age begins.This Classical Age occurs 300 years after the fall of Mycenae. This era brought in city-states when some Greeks banded together for protection. This is also the time when Acropolises, city-states on mountains.
4.5: Kush: Kush's Conquest of EgyptAfter being driven away by the Kushites the first time they invaded it, Egypt was very weak. That led to the Kushites capturing Upper Egypt.
8.3: Athens: Aesop's Fables were writtenAlthough it is unclear, Aesop supposedly started writing these fables during the mid-to-late 6th century BC. There are 725 fables, most having a moral to teach the reader.
6.2: China: Confucius was bornConfucius was the inventor of the widely known philosophy called Confucianism. He is the most influential teacher in Chinese history!
9.1: Persian Empire: Cyrus takes controlIn 700BC, a people called Medes ruled over the Persians. 150 years later, a man named Cyrus led a revolt against the Medes, they won and now Cyrus was the leader of the Persian Empire.
5.3: India: The Great DepartureAs Prince Siddhartha Gautama turns 30, he left his home to find answers for his question of life. He went to great distances to find the answers, asking priests and people known for their wisdom, but he didn't find any. Not yet, at least.
8.2: Athens: DemocracyNearing the end of tyranny, a man named Cleisthenes was ruler. He didn't want aristocrats to rule, so with the influence of the people, he overthrew the aristocracy. And by doing that, democracy was born. Cleisthenes is often called the father of democracy.
6.2: China: The beginning of the Warring States PeriodWhen invaders came to attack the Zhou and succeeded, the lords began to fight each other for power. The Warring States period began like this. They were a bunch of Civil Wars happening, sons were killing fathers, fathers were killing sons, it was chaos.
10.1: Rome: Cincinnatus takes powerAlthough he started as a farmer, Cincinnatus, the famous early Roman Republic dictator (what a long description), took control of Rome to defend it from the city’s enemies. After that, he resigned almost immediately and people admired him for that.
10.2: Rome: The 12 Tables were writtenDuring Rome’s Republican years, they needed a way to keep order because laws that weren’t written down were hard to remember, so Roman officials made the 12 Tables, a set of rules that were displayed in the Forum, Rome’s public meeting place.
9.2: Athens: End of the Peloponnesian WarThe Delian League (Athens) and the Peloponnesian League (Sparta) fought each other for 3 decades, but in the end, Sparta defeated the Athenians because they had destroyed their food supply and left Athens starving.
9.4: Greece: The death of SocratesSocrates (a.k.a the teacher of the teacher of the teacher of Alexander the Great) was a philosopher who wanted people to question their beliefs. He taught by asking questions. Many people didn't the idea of questioning their beliefs, so Socrates was condemned to death via drinking poison. He did this while his students watched.
9.3: Macedonia: Alexander takes the throneAlexander the Great was Philip II's son. After the city of Thebes attempted to rebel, he annihilated them. This had started his conquest to capture more parts of Asia to add into his kingdom, including the Persian Empire.
5.4: India-Asoka converts to BuddhismAfter watching and fighting with his soldiers, Asoka, Candragupta's son, was traumatized. So after a few years into his reign, Asia turned to Buddhism and swore to never launch an attack ever again.
6.3: China: Shi Huangdi unified ChinaShi Huagdi, also known as Ying Zheng, was the first ruler of the entirety of China. His name also stands for "first emperor". Shi Huangdi followed Legalistic beliefs to keep the new China under control.
10.3: Carthage: The Battle of ZamaDuring Hannibal’s attack on Italy, a Roman General, Scipio Africanus, led an army to Attack Carthage itself. This led Hannibal to fall back to Carthage and attempt to defeat Scipio. When they reached Zama,they were defeated by Scipio.
11.1: Egypt: Marc Anthony and Cleopatra diesAfter his fleet being defeated by Octavian, Marc Anthony and his wife Cleopatra return to Egypt and take their lives there so that they won’t be taken prisoners by Octavian.
11.2: Rome: Jesus CrucifiedAfter Jesus got too much attention, the Romans didn't like him that much, and because of this, he was arrested, and sentenced to death via crucifixion. This was basically the beginning of the spread of Christianity.
6.2: Rome: Nero bans ChristianityWhen Christianity started to spread in Rome, Nero, the Emperor at that time, thought of this as a political problem. Because of this, he started persecuting Christians in groups, and this went on for several years until Constantine showed up and stopped it.
6.4: China: The invention of paperCai Lun, born in 48AD, was the profound inventor of paper, something that everybody uses to write, scribble, draw, etc. The oldest appear book found was dated back to 256 AD. This type of paper is not to be mistaken with papyrus from Egypt, which came before this type of paper.
6.5: China: The Arrival of BuddhismDuring the decline of the Han Dynasty (due to people ignoring laws and lots of violence), Buddhism was spreading from India to many places trading goods. While the decline was happening, Buddhism saved the day with their idea of an end to suffering.
11.3: The Byzantine EmpireAfter the fall of the Western Roman Empire, The Eastern side adapted to Greek Cultures and became the Byzantine Empire, named after the land that Constantinople was built on.
5.5: India-Panchatantra was producedBefore 500AD, near the end of Ancient India, a group of Indian writers produced a book called Panchatantra. This book of stories was all about teaching lessons. They praise people of cleverness and quick thinking. Each story has a message about things like winning friends wagaing wars, or some other idea. Kind of like Aesop's Fables.
12.1: Mecca: Muhammad the Prophet is bornBefore the Islamic religion, Arabians were polytheistic. That changed when Muhammad was born. He was the prophet for Allah, which means “the God”, who told Muhammad that he was the only God. This led to monotheistic religion called Islam.
12.2: Mecca: The Qur’anThe Qur’an is the holy book of Islam. It consists mostly of Muhammad's teachings and was formed after Muhammad’s death. This book also talks about there being only one God, Allah, and that Muhammad is his prophet.
12.4: Morocco: Ibn BattutahIbn Battutah is considered one of the world’s greatest traveler. For around 30 years, Battutah has seen most of the Islamic world, North Africa and almost all of ASIA!!!
12.3: Ottoman Empire: Mehmed IIThe Ottoman Empire started off with Mehmed II, also known as “the Conqueror”. Mehmed did a lot of things, two of which are the Janissaries and the conquering of the Byzantine Empire. Janissaries were Christian boys that were converted to soldiers, and Mehmed II defeated the Byzantine Empire, putting an end to the Roman Empire.
8.3: MODERN DAY EVENT: The OlympicsOne of the ways the Greeks honored the gods was to hold an event every four years in Olympia. They use to do simple things like running, but now we have a lot more types of sports to do. The first modern Olympics event was held in Athens in 1896.
4.4: Egypt: MODERN DAY EVENT: Paper and writing.The modern paper we use today we're inspired by Egypt's papyrus. They used it to write scrolls and hieroglyphics.
3.4: Phoenicia: MODERN DAY EVENT: The early alphabetThanks to the Phoenicians, we can use the alphabets that I'm using now. These letters originated from the idea of recording their trading activities.
5.2: India: MODERN DAY EVENT: NonviolenceThe Jains (Jainism people) practiced nonviolence, the avoidance of violent actions. Last Sunday, a few people held up flags of peace to stop American wars in Napa. The signs would write things such as "NO JUSTICE-KNOW PEACE" and "NONVIOLENCE OR NON-EXISTENCE"
6.4: China: MODERN DAY EVENT: the seismographDuring the Han Dynasty, a man called Zhang Heng invented the seismograph - the first way to record an earthquake. It had saved countless lives, and it's appearance has changed during the years. During the 6th of October, seismograph readings detected a dramatic increase in seismic activity at the Bali volcano in Indonesia.
9.4: Greece: MODERN DAY EVENT: GeometryEuclid lived at around 300BC. He is now known as the Father Of Geometry. He has wrote about the relationship between mathematics and other fields, such as astronomy and music. Many rules in geometry were there because of Euclid.
10.2: Rome: MODERN DAY EVENT: The RepublicThe government type called the Republic started in Rome. It was one of Rome’s greatest strengths. Because of this, other countries are also Republic countries such as: U.S.A, China, Russia, etc.
11.2: Rome: MODERN DAY EVENT: ChristianityChristianity is one of the most famous religions in the whole world. Christianity actually started as a denomination of Judaism, the original religion that talked about the Laws of Moses and the coming of the Messiah. The New Testament talks about the life of Jesus: his teaching's, his death and resurrection. It also talks about Paul of Tarsus' letters (epistles) to parts of the Roman Empire. Christianity has been spread across the world because of Jesus, God's anointed one: the Messiah.
12.2: Mecca: MODERN DAY EVENT: The Five Pillars Of IslamThe Five Pillars Of Islam are five acts of worship required by Muslims. Each pillar has a different meaning that is listed here.
1) Must state their faith by saying, “There is no God but God, and Muhammad is his prophet.”
2) Muslims must pray 5 times a day
3) Muslims donate 2.5% of their wealth to the poor and needy
4) Muslims must fast for around a month
5) Muslims must travel to Mecca at least once
Period:10,000 BCEto-500 BCE
Chapter 3: Early Fertile Crescent PeopleThe groups that had lived in the Fertile Crescent are: Sumerians, Akkadians, Babylonians, Hittites, Kassites, Assyrians, Chaldeans, ant the Phoenicians
Chapter 4: Ancient Egypt & KushOld Kingdom: 2700BC to 2200BC
Middle Kingdom: 2050BC to 1750BC
New Kingdom: 1550BC to 1050 BC
Egytian rule over Kush: 1550BC to 1100BC
Kushite rule over Egypt: 751BC to 670sBC
End of Kush: 300sAD
Period:2,600 BCEto-500 BCE
Chapter 8: Ancient GreeceMycenaeans: 1600-1100BC
Dark Ages: 1100-800BC
Oligarchy rule: 600-546BC
Tyranny rule: 546-500BC
Democracy rule: 500-???
Chapter 4: Ancient IndiaHarrapan civilization: 2300BC to 1700BC
Aryan society: 1500BC to 320BC
Founding of Buddhism: 528BC
Mauryan Empire: 320BC to 185BC
Gupta Empire: 320AD to 500AD
Chapter 6: Ancient ChinaXia Dynasty: 2200BC to ???
Shang Dynasty: 1500BC to 1050BC
Zhou Dyanasty: 1100BC to 400BC (longest dynasty)
Qin Dynasty: 221BC-206BC
Han Dynasty: 206BC-220AD
Period:-753 BCEto-23 BCE
Chapter 10: The Roman RepublicFounding of Rome (According to legend): 753BC
Etruscans take over Rome: 600BC
Roman Republic: 509BC
Punic Wars: 246-146BC
Chapter 9: The Greek WorldPersian Empire (From Cyrus to Alexander: 550BC-330BC
The Persian Wars: 490BC-449BC
Peloponnesian War: 431BC-404BC
Alexander The Great's life: 356BC-323BC
Chapter 11: Rome and ChristianityCaesar’s rule: 45 BC to 50 BC
Beginning of Empire: 27 BC
Life of Jesus: 1 AD to 30 AD
Christianity becomes sole religion: 300s AD
Split of Roman Empire: 395 AD
End of Western Roman Empire: 476 AD
Fall of Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantine Empire): 1453 AD
Chapter 12: The Islamic WorldMuhammad: 570-632
Ottoman Empire: 1299-present day
Safavid Empire: 1501-1700s