2017 Julien DALAT World History

Timeline created by jugoh1061870
In History
  • 7,000 BCE

    3.1 - Mesopotamia - First Farm Settlements

    The first farm settlements were formed in Mesopotamia. Farmers grew wheat, barley, and other types of grain. They also kept livestock such as birds and fish.
  • 3,100 BCE

    4.1 - Upper Egypt - Menes rose to power as the first pharaoh

    Menes was the first ruler of Egypt to be called pharaoh. He unified both Upper and Lower Egypt and founded Egypt's first dynasty.
  • 2,300 BCE

    3.2 - Akkad - Sargon extends Akkadian territory

    Sargon was the first person to have established an empire, land with different territories under a single rule. His soldiers defeated all the city-states of Sumer and conquered Northern Mesopotamia.
  • 2,200 BCE

    6.1 - China - The First Dynasty of China begins, The Xia Dynasty.

    A series of kings ruled early China and one of them, Yu the Great, is said to have started the Xia Dynasty. Many writings told of terrible floods during Yu's reign, and to counter that, he dug channels to drain water to the ocean. They also had many stories about cooperation and working together to build up China.
  • 2,000 BCE

    4.5 - Kush - Kush is formed

    Around 2000BC, farmers that were farming in the along the Nile became village leaders and one of those leaders took control of the other villages and proclaimed himself the king of the region. His new kingdom was called Kush.
  • 1,595 BCE

    3.4 - Asia Minor - The Hittites invent the Chariot

    The Hittites had a lot of military advantages that led them to success. One of them was the chariot, a horse-drowned cart that allowed soldiers to move around quickly in battle.
  • 1,500 BCE

    4.5 - Egypt - Egypt's Conquest of Kush

    As Kush grew wealthy from trading, their military power also increased. Pharaoh Thutmose feared that Kush would grow too powerful and soon attack Egypt. To stop that from happening, Thutmose sent an army to take control of Kush and had control of it for about 450 years. During that time, Many Egyptians settled in Kush and Egyptian culture slowly affected Kush and Kushites started wearing Egyptian clothing, speaking Egyptian, used Egyptian names and adopted Egyptian religious practices.
  • 1,500 BCE

    5.1 - India - Sanskrit is invented.

    Sanskrit, the root of many South Asian languages was the most important language of Ancient India. The Aryan poems and hymns and even the Vedas was written in Sanskrit.
  • 1,500 BCE

    6.1 - China - Oracles

    An Oracle is a prediction. The priests in the Shang Dynasty believed they could read cracks on cattle bones and turtle shells and wrote questions on it.
  • 1,200 BCE

    4.3 - Egypt - Ramses the Great rises to power

    Ramses the Great was the most famous pharaoh in the history of Egypt because he greatly increased the size of Egypt and fought off invaders.
  • -900 BCE

    3.4 - Northern Mesopotamia - Assyrians start controlling the Fertile Crescent

    About 900BC, the Assyrians started to conquer all of the Fertile Crescent using their strong, organized, army. They even got to parts of Asia Minor and Egypt.
  • -900 BCE

    8.1 - Greece - Acropolis

    An acropolis was a fortress built on a high hill, acro meaning high and polis meaning city-state. Greek city-states were built around an acropolis and people would usually hide in there in times of attack and war.
  • -900 BCE

    8.1 - Greece - Classical Age

    300 years after the Mycenaean civilization fell and plunged Greece into the Dark Age, the Classical Age started. The Classical Age was when the Greeks made great achievements. Many city-states, or polis, were founded in the Classical Age.
  • -850 BCE

    4.5 - Kush - Conquest of Egypt

    During 1000BC, the New Kingdom of Egypt was ending and it led to the decline of military power in Egypt. In 850BC, the Kushites had regained its strength and military power and it had been as strong as it was before until Egypt conquered it. Around 700BC a Kushite king named Kashta took advantage of Egypt's weakness and attacked it. By 751BC, they had conquered Upper Egypt. After Kashta died, his son Piankhi took control and by the time he died in 716BC, he had land from Napata to the Nile Delta
  • -800 BCE

    3.4 - Phoenicia - Phoenicians create the worlds first alphabet.

    The alphabet is a set of letters that's combined to form words. It made writing much easier.
  • -800 BCE

    5.2 - India - Hinduism develops by the Aryans.

    The Vedas were the main books for the Aryan religion in India. The Vedas and and other cultures from Persia and Central Asia brought their religious ideas to India, and they all blended with each other, making Hinduism. They believed in reincarnation, the process of which when you die, you come back to life as a different person. They also believed in many gods, there are 3 major ones, Brahma the creator, Siva the destroyer and Vishnu the preserver, similar the the trinity in Christianity.
  • -753 BCE

    10.1 - Rome - Beginnings

    According to legend, Romulus and Remus where 2 twin brothers who were unwanted and thrown out into the Tiber River. A she-wolf eventually found them and nurtured them until a shepherd found them and adopted them. After they grew up, they decided to build a city. Romulus wanted the city to be named after him and Remus wanted the same. Out of anger, Romulus killed Remus and named the city after himself, thus the name, Rome.
  • -700 BCE

    8.3 - Mycenae - Homer

    Homer was a famous Greek Poet that lived in about 800-700BC. He wrote many famous Epic Poems that are still around today. He mostly focuses on the Trojan War, a war fought between the Greeks and the Trojans. The Iliad is a famous piece that talks about the ending of the Trojan War and Achilles, who was said to be invincible but had one weak spot, his heel. He was shot in the heel by an arrow and died. Another piece, the Odyssey, talks about a Greek Hero named Odysseus coming back from the War.
  • -620 BCE

    3.4 - Babylon/Syrian Desert - Chaldens rebuilt Babylon

    Nebuchadnezzar became the most famous Chaldean king and they built the Hanging Gardens.
  • -551 BCE

    6.2 - Qufu - Conficius is born and later starts Confucianism.

    Confucius was born in Qufu around 551BC, when China was still in the warring states period. He grew up in poverty but he also grew up to be one of the most influential teachers/philosophers in the world. During the warring states period in China, he felt that China was being overrun by rude and dishonest people. He also said they needed to return to ethics, or moral values. Confucianism was based of on ethics and Confucius philosophies and many people adopted his teachings and wrote the Analects
  • -550 BCE

    9.1 - Persian Empire - Cyrus II leads a revolt

    In about 550BC, Cyrus II led a Persian revolt against the Medes, who were occupying Persia. His revolt was successful and later conquered many nations and cities. Though they were all under his rule, he let people under his control practice their own customs, traditions, and religions. That was why he was called Cyrus the Great.
  • -546 BCE

    8.2 - Greece - Tyranny

    Tyranny meant "ruled by a tyrant" and a tyrant was a strong leader who had power. When Athens was still an oligarchy, a man named Peisistratus started a rebellion and overthrew the oligarchy and Athens became a tyranny.
  • -500 BCE

    5.3 - India - Siddartha Gautama starts Buddhism.

    Siddartha Gautama, a young man who grew up as a prince started wondering what was the meaning of human life and why was there suffering in the world. He set out on a journey to find the answers and it took him to many regions in India. He meditated and fasted a lot in that time and spoke to many religious priests. He spent 6 years wandering throughout India and when he neared the town of Gaya, he sat down under a tree and meditated under a tree for 7 weeks.
  • -500 BCE

    8.2 - Athens - Cleisthenes starts democracy

    Around 500BC, a new leader named Cleisthenes rose up to power and popularity in Athens. Cleithenes was able to overthrow the aristocrats that were ruling in oligarchy with the support of the people and under Cleisthenes' leadership, the world developed its first democracy. Democracy ended in 330BC when the Macedonians invaded and conquered Athens.
  • -500 BCE

    9.1 - Greece - Darius invades Greece, starting the Persian Wars.

    Darius I claimed the Persian throne after killing all his rivals who also wanted the throne. He conquered the Indus Valley and invaded Greece, starting the Persian Wars.
  • -500 BCE

    13.1 - Africa - Trade

    Salt & Gold were very valuable but common trading materials in West Africa. Traders had to travel across the Sahara desert to get to cities to trade, so they often moved in caravans to stop bandit raids.
  • -500 BCE

    13.1 - Africa - Landforms

    There were 4 different divisions of land in west Africa, the Sahara, the Sahel, the Savannah, and the rainforests. The Sahara is one of the biggest deserts in the world, below it is the Sahel, a strip of land with little rainfall. Below that is the Savannah, open grassland with scattered trees, and lastly rainforests, moist, densely, wooded areas.
  • -500 BCE

    13.4 - Africa - Griots and Oral History

    The Griots, or story tellers of early West Africa, helped preserve history by telling stories of the history of West Africa since they had no written language to write it down. They passed it on to newer generations and they had to memorize it so they don’t forget any details.
  • -494 BCE

    10.1 - Rome - Patricians and Plebians

    In Ancient Rome, there were two people groups, the Patricians and the Plebians. The plebains were common people who couldn’t take part in the government so they wanted a change. They often started revolts and formed a council and elected their own officials which scared many Patricians. They eventually changed their government to a republic.
  • -481 BCE

    6.2 - China - China enters the Warring States period

    When the Zhou Dynasty was declining, loyalty to the Zhou King also declined and many people refused to fight off invasions. According to a legend, a Zhou King used to light signal flares to show that invaders were attacking to entertain himself and a friend so when his army rushed up to defend, no one was there. But in 771BC, invaders actually attacked and he lit the fire but everyone thought it was a joke so no one came. By 481BC, the lords were fighting each other for power.
  • -476 BCE

    11.3 - Byzantine Empire - Fall of the Western Empire

    The Western Empire had paid the Goths not to attack Rome. In 408AD though, the Romans stopped paying the Goths and they led an attack against Rome. This inspired more foreign tribes like the Huns, the Jutes, the Saxons and many more to attack Rome because it was weak and not well defended. In 476 AD, the Western Empire fell.
  • -460 BCE

    8.2 - Athens - Pericles leads Athens.

    After being a democracy for about 40 years, a new elected leader name Pericles led the government from 460-429BC. He encouraged Athenians to take pride and defend their city in war. He paid people who served in public offices or on juries and also introduced democracy to other parts of Greece.
  • -458 BCE

    10.1 - Rome - Temporary Dictators

    During wars or conflicts, the Romans elected dictators, rulers that have almost absolute power, to lead and govern their army. The most famous dictator was a man named Cincinnatus. He was a farmer and a plebian but they elected him to defeat a large group of invaders. He defeated them and returned to farming, long before his six-month term ran out.
  • -450 BCE

    10.2 - Rome - Forums

    The Forum was a public meeting place where people could come meet to talk, and sell things. The law of the 12 tables was also here, which was Rome’s first set of written laws.
  • -431 BCE

    9.2 - Athens - Pelopenesian War

    Athens started a league called the Delian League after the Persian Wars. Athens would collect taxes from other city states in turn of protection. Athens became very wealthy after that and Sparta started their own league, the Pelopenesian League. To stop Athen's Growth, Sparta invaded Athens, starting the Pelopenesian War.
  • -400 BCE

    8.3 - Greece - Aesop's Fables

    A fable is a short story that gives a lesson or advice on how to live. One of the most famous writers was Aesop. Aesop was a man who lived before or during 400BC. He wrote many famous fables such as: The Ants and the Grasshopper, The Tortise and the Hare, The Boy who cried Wolf, and many more.
  • -400 BCE

    10.2 - Rome - Government

    The Romans created a tripartite after the Plebians revolted, which meant 3 forms of government. The first one was the magistrates. They were powerful people who were elected for one year and each one had their own duties, in the magistrates there was also the consul, 2 powerful people who would run the city. The Senate were a council of wealthy officials who would advise consuls. The last one, Assemblies and Tribunes were made up of both Patricians and plebians.
  • -399 BCE

    9.4 - Greece - Socrates

    One of the greatest Greek philosophers of all time was Socrates. He was a teacher and a thinker and taught many things by asking questions to people. We call his type of teaching today the Socratic Method. In 399BC, he was arrested and condemned to death by poison for "corrupting young minds." In his last hours, his followers gathered up with him and he drank the poison calmly.
  • -347 BCE

    9.4 - Greece - Plato

    Plato, Socrates' students taught people philosophy after Socrates' death in 399BC. He also opened a school for people to come and discuss and debate about topics which was called the Academy. He spent most of his time running the Academy but in his free time he would write books and works. One of his greatest works was called The Republic.
  • -346 BCE

    9.3 - Greece - Macedonia conquers Greece

    When Philip II became king of Macedonia, his first target to invade was Greece. Athen's leaders tried to call all city states to join together to fight the Macedonians but only a few responded. By 346BC, Philip had conquered Greece.
  • -336 BCE

    9.3 - Persian Empire - Alexander the Great conquers much of the known world

    After Philips death in 336BC, Alexander took over. Hearing about Philip's death, the people in Thebes revolted as they thought Macedonia couldn't hold their power. Within 1 year, Alexander had burned Thebes and enslaved the people.
  • -322 BCE

    9.4 - Greece - Aristotle

    Aristotle was Plato's student. Maybe the greatest thinker of all time, he taught people that they should live their lives in moderation, or balance. He also said moderation was based on reason; clear and ordered thinking. He made many achievements in the field of logic and was the teacher of the famous Macedonian leader, Alexander the Great.
  • -270 BCE

    5.4 - India - Asoka becomes king of the Mauryans.

    Asoka, was the strongest Mauryan ruler of all time. He extended the Mauryan Empire to cover most of India. His rule was made stronger and richer by conquering neighboring kingdoms. One of the battles he fought, however was a very bloody battle, causing mass casualties on both sides of the army. He decided he didnt want to put his men through hardship and he converted into Buddhism. He used his resources to help improve the lives of his people and after his death, it put the kingdom into anarchy.
  • -264 BCE

    10.3 - Rome & Carthage - The Punic Wars.

    Punic meant Phoenician in Latin. The Punic Wars were a series of battles fought by the Carthaginians and the Romans. It lasted from 264BC to 146BC. Notable generals include Scipio and Hannibal.
  • -264 BCE

    10.3 - Carthage - Hannibal

    Hannibal was considered to be one of the greatest generals of all time. His military tactics were far more advanced than anybody else’s and in 264BC, he invaded Italy from the North. He went all around Italy but never actually touched Rome. In 218BC, the Romans attacked Carthage and Hannibal was forced to retreat. His army consisted of war elephants and many men.
  • -221 BCE

    6.3 - China - Emperor ShiHuangdi unifies China; starting the Qin Dynasty.

    When Shi Huangdi unified China, he accepted Legalist political beliefs so he created a strong government with strict laws and harsh punishments. He also ordered Confucius' books and teachings to be destroyed and those who disagreed were buried alive. He made china more standardized, meaning they had the same writing system, money, etc. He also finished off the Great Wall the Shang Dynasty built earlier in the civilization. The Terra-cotta Warriors were also built by him to guard him when he died
  • -206 BCE

    6.4 - China - Liu Bang, a common person, becomes emperor because of the Mandate of Heaven.

    Liu Bang started the Han dynasty after the Qin Dynasty fell apart. He freed the people from Legalism and earned people's loyalty and trust. He also lowered taxes for peasants and made punishments less harsh.
  • -200 BCE

    6.5 - China - The Han Dynasty expands its trade.

    During the Han Dynasty, Han armies conquered many places, therefore having trade and contact with other cultures. They produced silk at that time, which was highly valued in other areas. They were also masters in iron-working and they made high quality weapons and armor. They had many trade routes leading to Western Europe and other places, including the Silk Road.
  • -140 BCE

    6.4 - China - Wudi becomes emperor in the Han Dynasty.

    After Liu Bang's death in 195BC, Wudi took the throne. Wudi made Confucianism the official government philosophy. He wanted to creat a strong and central government, so he made everything fair. During his reign, peasants were highly respected because they did all the work and made food for people and families were strong. Disobeying your parents was a crime and the father was the head of the family. They made many innovations in science including the sundial, acupuncture, etc.
  • -44 BCE

    11.1 - Rome - Julius Caesar gets assassinated

    Caesar was a great military general. Many Romans admired his bravery, his tactics and his skills in battle. Around 50BC, he conquered nearly all of Gaul. After Caesar returned to Rome at 45BC, he declared himself dictator for life. He reduced the Senate’s power, which made senators angry, eventually leading to assassination in 44BC. He was stabbed 23 times before he died.
  • AD 1

    11.2 - Rome and Judea - Christi

    Jesus was either born on 4BC or 0AD. His birth marks the shift from BC to AD, although some historians argue and debate about this. He went around teaching the Good News of God and he made miracles happen. He was crucified by the Romans after he was arrested. His first 12 followers were called Apostles and they went around teaching about Jesus after he died.
  • 14

    11.1 - Rome - Octavian, or Augustus creates an Empire

    Octavian, Caesar’s adopted son was give a new name by senators, Augustus, which meant “revered one.” He ended the Roman Republic and made it an Empire, him being Emperor. In his time, he made a peaceful period of time called the Pax Romana.
  • 64

    11.2 - Rome - Persecution of Christians

    Emperor Nero was in power when the Great Fire of Rome started. Nero blamed the Christians for starting the fire and he started persecuting them. Instead of making less people convert into Christianity, it made more convert because they were persecuted for something they didn’t do.
  • 200

    11.3 - Roman - Split

    The Roman Empire was thriving at this time, but they didn’t have enough men to hold on to the Empire. This made Diocletian, the Emperor of the Roman Empire at that time split up the Empire, the Eastern Empire, or the Byzantine Empire and the Western Empire.
  • 250

    16.1 - Palenque - Maya Temples

    Maya Temples were high and shaped like a mountain so that the Mayas could “reach the gods.” They also had a pyramid like shape but it had different levels and were painted in bright colors. Priests led religious ceremonies like sacrificing animals or humans.
  • 250

    16.1 - Yucatán Peninsula - Obsidian and Jade Trade

    Obsidian and Jade were mined in mountains and traded throughout Maya cities. Obsidian was considered valuable and sacred to them. They used obsidian to make knives and tools to help them work on things and Jade was used for decorative purposes.
  • 300

    11.3 - Byzantine Empire - Constantine

    After Diocletian left power, an Emperor called Constantine rose up to power. He made the capital of the Roman Empire Constantinople instead of Rome and reunited Rome briefly. He was also the first Emperor to convert to Christianity, which made more people convert too. Eventually, he made Christianity the Roman Empire’s official religion.
  • 300

    13.2 - Ghana - Taxes

    Trade was an important feature in the Ghana Empire, but what helped them get rich was taxes. Every time a trader wanted to pass through Ghana, they had to pay a certain amount to get in to trade and pass to get to different cities.
  • 320

    5.4 - India - A new dynasty is established in India.

    The Gupta dynasty took over and reunited India after the fall of the Mauryan Kingdom. The first emperor was Candra Gupta I. The Gupta dynasty supported any Buddhism and Jainism even though their main religion was Hinduism. At that time, Hinduism's popularity began to rise and they used the caste system to keep order. After Candra Gupta I's death, Candra Gupta II took over. At that time, it reached its high point until the late 400s. The Huns invaded and India divided into small states once again
  • 430

    17.1 - Europe - Iberian and Scandinavian Peninsula

    The Iberian Peninsula is at the very west of Europe and it consists of 2 countries, Portugal and Spain. South of the Iberian Peninsula leads to the Strait of Gibraltar and across the strait is Morocco, Africa. The Scandinavian Peninsula is considered to be the biggest peninsula in Europe and it consists of Norway, Sweden, Finland and Denmark. It is south of Germany and east of the United Kingdom.
  • 430

    17.1 - Europe - Eurasia

    Europe and Asia are both part of a supercontinent that is called Eurasia. Geographers consider the border between Europe and Asia is the Ural Mountains in Russia and the Caucasus Mountains.
  • 500

    15.1 - Japan - Clans

    Clans were small villages ruled by a clan chief and they were mostly extended families. The clan members had to work together to survive and to battle some other clans. Villagers thought that their clan chiefs were descended from a nature spirit called kami, so they respected them.
  • 500

    17.2 - Europe - Monks, Missionaries, and Monasteries

    During the Middle Ages, Christianity was spreading throughout Europe and there were 2 groups of people that helped it. The first one was the missionaries. The pope was the most influential spreader of Christianity but there were also missionaries that went out to spread Christianity, one of the being St. Patrick, the patron saint of Ireland. There were also Christian monks who lived in monasteries, large communities of monks that went around spreading Christianity.
  • 550

    15.2 - Japan - Zen and Pure Land Buddhism

    Buddhism came into a Japan around the 550s and many people adopted it as their religion. But 2 new forms of Buddhism were rising up in the 1100s, Pure Land and Zen Buddhism. Pure Land Buddhism was popular around common people and their rituals were just to chant Buddha’s name over and over again. Zen was more complicated, only nobles could perform rituals. It focused on self-discipline and meditation and it was popular to most nobles and warriors.
  • 570

    12.1 - Saudi Arabia - Muhammad

    Muhammad was born in Mecca in about 570AD. According to legends, he usually goes to hills to pray and meditate But one day, he went to a cave to meditate when an angel of God came down and told him to “recite”. He became Islam’s first prophet and started preaching throughout Saudi Arabia.
  • 570

    12.1 - Saudi Arabia - Life in Arabian Peninsula

    There were two types of life in the Arabian peninsula, the consistently moving Nomadic life, and the settled down sedentary life. The Nomadic lifestyle was herding livestock, living in tents, and moving for water. They also made caravans for easier trade. The sedentary lifestyle settled in a town, usually near oasis’s so that they could farm and have a reliable source of water.
  • 589

    14.1 - China - Period of Disunion

    The Period of Disunion was a Period after the Han Dynasty fell and China split into several kingdoms. This sparked chaos and war throughout China. Although war was common around China, peaceful communities also developed during this time, with Nomadic people settling into China, and the Chinese adopting their cultures. The man who finally stopped the Period of Disunion after more than 300 years was Yang Jian. He reunified China by conquering the south and created the Sui Dynasty.
  • 589

    14.1 - China - The Grand Canal

    The Grand Canal was a Canal that linked northern and southern China. This canal made trade easier and more efficient as boats could enter in and trade with other boats or people on land.
  • 600

    12.2 - Saudi Arabia - The 5 Pillars of Islam

    There are 5 instructions that Muslims have to follow in their lifetime. The first one states that there is no other God than Allah and Muhammad is his prophet. The second one states you need to pray five times a day. The third one states you need to give to the poor and the needy if you have a lot. The fourth one states you need to fast during the month of Ramadan. The final one states you need to travel to Mecca if you can at least once in your life.
  • 618

    14.2 - China - Great Achievements and Inventions

    The Tang and Song Dynasties were the golden ages of China. In this time, many great inventions were made to help with farming, writing, navigation and more. Some of these inventions are still used today like the compass, gunpowder, porcelain, and probably the most important, paper and paper money.
  • 762

    12.3 - Africa, Europe, & Asia - Islamic Empiresan

    There were many Islamic Empires that rise up during Islamic rule. As they continued to conquer more and more land, Empires rose up. The 3 most famous Empires were the Ottoman, the Safavid, and the Mughal.
  • 794

    15.1 - Japan - Influences from China and Korea

    During Prince Shotoku’s rule as a regent, he sent many scholars to China and Korea to learn about their culture. They learned many things about China and Korea and stole their ideas so many of the structures and cultures we see today originated from China and Korea, including their fashion, literature, visual art, architecture, performing arts, and many more things.
  • 800

    17.2 - Europe - Charlemagne

    The Franks were a powerful group of Christians that were slowly rising up to power in Europe. Clovis was the first king of the Franks but another one rose to power in the late 700s. That king was Charlemagne. He led his armies into battle at war and conquered land for the Franks. He also valued education and built schools all around Europe. He lived at his capital of his empire, Aechen, now what is Hamburg, Germany.
  • 800

    17.2 - Europe - Viking, Magyars, and Muslims invade Europe

    While Charlemagne was building up the Frankish empire, invaders started to pour into Europe. Since Morocco was close to Spain, Muslims could enter into Spain through the Strait of Gibraltar and they used the Mediterranean Sea to pour into France and Italy. Fierce warriors called the Magyars came in from the east and attacked cities and towns in what is now Hungary. Vikings came down from the Scandinavian Peninsula and used their sailing skills as an advantage to attack cities.
  • 960

    14.3 - China - Neo-Confucianism

    During the Period of Disunion, more and more people accepted Buddhism instead of Confucianism and Confucianism slowly dies away. During the Tang Dynasty, scholars became more intrested in Confucianism as they wanted to help creat a better government. In the Song Dynasty, Neo Confucianism was founded and the word “neo” means new. This philosophy taught the original teachings of Confucianism but also adopted more spiritual ideas.
  • 960

    14.3 - China - Scholar Officials and Government

    During the Song Dynasty, the government system changed as they formed bureaucracy and scholar officials. Bureaucracy was formed by workers and it is a body of unelected government officials. Scholar officials were educated members of the government. They had to take a very difficult test to qualify as a scholar official and they had to serve for life. These government officials had to do civil service to serve the people and the government.
  • 1000

    15.2 - Japan - Lady Murasaki Shikibu

    Lady Murasaki Shikibu lived in Heian around 1000. She was a noble and a poet/author that served Empress Akiko. She wrote many books and poems including The Tale of Genji and The Pillow Book. The Tale of Genji was the first printed out book in Japan and one of the worlds oldest novels.
  • 1000

    17.4 - Europe - Chivalry and Bushido

    Though Europe and Japan are on different sides of the world, both of their fighters had a code of honor they needed to follow. Bushido for the Samurai and Chivalry for the knights. Both had the same idea of being brave but humble and being kind to others. The Samurai and Knights were also admired for their bravery and courage.
  • 1000

    17.4 - Europe - Differences between Europe and Japan

    While most of the Europeans in the Middle Ages were Christian, the Japanese were a blend of 3 different religions, Buddhism, Shinto, and Confucianism. Their artistic styles and literature are also very different, with European art showing an emphasis on religious paintings while the Japanese focused on nature. The Japanese wrote haikus, which were poems that were short and had 17 syllables.
  • 1066

    17.3 - Europe - Feudalism

    Feudalism was first started by the Franks, it then began to spread to other parts of Europe in the 1000s. It was brought into Britain by William the Conquerer, a duke in Northern France. He won the battle of Hastings in 1066 and declared himself king of England. This Feudal system worked well against the people that were trying to conquer them like the Vikings, Magyars and the Muslims. When trade and population grew after 1000, Feudalism began to decline.
  • 1066

    17.3 - England - Manor System

    When a lord gave a fief to his knight, they didn’t have time to work in the fields to produce crops so instead, Knights allowed peasants to work on their land in return for food or other payments. There was a large house for the knight and his family to live in which was called the manor and many smaller peasant houses. The land was divided among peasants and serfs, so they spent much of their time working on fields and giving it to the knight
  • 1150

    15.3 - Japan - Samurai

    Samurai were highly trained warriors that served his daimyo (powerful landlords) and the shogun. Daimyo hired samurai to defend their land and in return, they got land and food. They were well trained with swords and light armor so it was easy to move around. Each samurai had to practice Bushido, or their code of rules. Bushido means “the way of the warrior” in Japanese and they had to be brave and honorable fighters. They valued honor and loyalty the most.
  • 1180

    15.3 - Japan - Shoguns

    Shoguns were powerful military leaders and a regent for the emperor. The emperor was just a figurehead and had no power so the shoguns controlled Japans military. Around the 1180s, shoguns started ruling Japan and would rule for another 700 years. Many shoguns paid their samurai land or food to keep them happy.
  • 1211

    14.4 - China - Genghis Khan

    Genghis Khan was a great but brutal Mongol leader. His real name was Temujin but it changed when he was elected leader of the Mongol tribes for uniting them together. In 1211, Genghis Khan led his army to China and began their Mongol conquest of China. He wiped out entire cities, killing men, women and children. By 1227, northern China was under Mongol control. He died later that year. But the Mongol conquest of China did not stop yet.
  • 1230

    13.3 - Africa - Mali Empire

    The first leader of Mali was Sundiata. He created the Mali Empire by conquering Ghana. He was called mansa (leader) and he took power away from local leaders. Later came Mansa Musa, the wealthiest and most famous leader of Mali. In 1324, Mansa Musa went on a pilgrimage to Mecca and brought along thousands of officials and slaves, along with his gold. He caused inflation by giving out free gold to cities along the way.
  • 1260

    14.4 - China - Kublai Khanand

    In 1260, Genghis Khan’s grandson, Kublai Khan rose to power as the new Mongol leader. He finished what his grandfather had started in 1279 and declared himself the emperor of China. This started the Yuan Dynasty. Kublai Khan ruled the largest empire in the world, covering 24 million square kilometers. Kublai Khan got greedy and wanted to add Japan into his Empire. In 1274 & 1281, he sent Mongol fleets en route to Japan. Storms stirred up and wiped out their entire Mongol fleet.
  • 1300

    12.4 - Baghdad - Islamic Achievements

    Islamic cultures and achievements contributed to the technology we now have today. They made many great advancements in science, philosophy, astronomy, geography, math, medicine, literature, and architecture.
  • 1300

    13.3 - Africa - Songhai Empire

    During the decline of the Mali Empire, a new Empire rose up, called the Songhai Empire. Askia the Great was a famous ruler from the Songhai Empire, but his real name was Muhammad Ture, he split up the Empire to 5 provinces to keep law and order.
  • 1368

    14.4 - China - The Míng Dynasty

    After Kublai Khan’s failed attack of Japan that weakened the Mongol’s power, a rebellion rose up in China led by Zhu Yuanzhang in 1368. They drove the Mongols out of China and finally gained their independence. This Dynasty was the start of many great sea voyages that included Zheng He. He was a great Chinese sailor and led a fleet of 60 ships and 25000 sailors. In the 1430s, a Míng Emperor told Zheng Heto return to China as they entered the period of isolationism.
  • 1400

    15.3 - Japan - Fall, Unification, Isolation

    By the 1400s, shoguns had lost most of their authority due to rebellion. Daimyos stepped up and decided to split up land and keep some for themselves. They made their own laws and collected taxes. During the 1500s, a new man rose to power and unified the Japanese again. This man was Odu Nobunaga. He gave guns to his soldiers so he was able to cut down enemies quickly and slowly started to unify Japan. Shortly after that, they went into isolation and had no contact with other countries.
  • 1400

    16.2 - Tenochtitlán - Chinimpas

    Since the Aztecs were on island and growing food was not easy there, they built floating raft gardens called chinimpas in a Canal or in the lake. These chinimpas provided food for the Aztecs and farmers could grow crops within their territory so that raiders couldn’t steal the food.
  • 1521

    16.2 - Tenochitlán - Cortes conquers the Aztecs

    After Christopher Columbus had founded the Americas, a man named Hernán Cortés arrived in the Americas, seeking riches, adventures, and for the natives to convert to Catholicism. The conquistadors arrived in Mexico in 1519. The last Aztec emperor, Moctezuma II welcomed the conquistadors into Tenochitlán as he though Hernán Cortés was a god because of old legends. The Aztecs gave Cortés gifts but he wanted more. In 1521, the Aztec empire came to an end because of the conquistadors.
  • 1537

    13.3 - Cuzco - Fall of the Inca Empire

    In the 1520s, 2 Inca rulers fought for the throne, both brothers. This civil war caused the Incas to weaken but eventually Atahualapa won the civil war. Atahualapa got word that there were about 180 Spanish soldiers led by Fransico Pizarro arriving in the Inca empire. With the element of surprise, they attacked the Inca empire, capturing Atahualapa and later killing him. They took 24 tons of gold from them and from there, the Inca empire died off.
  • 12.3 - India - The Taj Mahal

    The Mughals were mainly located in India. Around the late 1600s, Emperor Shah Jahan built a tomb for his wife called the Taj Mahal. It is a very famous tourist attraction today, and it’s at Agra, India.
  • 3.4 - Mordern Day - Malaysia - Hammurabi's code inspired the first laws

    All around the world in every country, there are many laws you have to follow otherwise you will get punished. The first set of laws were created by Hammurabi, and it was called Hammurabi's code.
  • 4.4 - Mordern Day - Malaysia - Papyrus inspires paper

    Around 3300BC, papyrus is made and it is one of the worlds first writing material. Later, paper is made and we use it to this day.
  • 5.5 - Modern Day - Malaysia - Inoculation

    During the Gupta period of the Indus Valley, they invented one of the most used items to prevent diseases, inoculation. Inoculation is injecting someone with a small dose of viruses to help keep the diseases away. Today, we still use it in hospitals to prevent diseases like they did in the Indus Valley Civilizations.
  • 6.5 - Modern Day - Malaysia - Clocks

    In the Han Dynasty, they invented the sundial which helped them tell the time by using the sun and shadows, but now, we use clocks to help us know what time it is.
  • 8.2 - USA - Athens Democracy

    Around 500BC, a man named Cleisthenes decided that people should be able to vote for who had the power. That time, democracy was direct so all men had to go to a meeting place and actually vote on who was going to be the leader. But now, in America, they have a democratic republic so people vote on representatives to vote on the POTUS. The problem is that no one could have what they exactly wanted.
  • 9.4 - Mordern Day - Malaysia - Drama

    The Greeks were excelling in their arts in their time. One of the things they excelled in was Drama. The Greeks were the first ones to come up with drama and we use it today in things we watch such as TV, plays, movies, etc.
  • 10.2 - Modern Day - America - Latin

    Latin inspired and is the root modern day English. The Romans used Latin as their official language.
  • 10.2 - Modern Day - USA - Latin and English

    Many English words we use today come from two main roots, Greek and Latin. Latin inspired a lot of English words we use today.
  • 11.1 - Modern Day - Malaysia - Strong Roads

    Romans were great engineers for their time. They made a road network that connected all of Europe together, along with some other places. If you had combined the length of roads that the Romans built, it would wrap around the world 2 times. Today, we use roads for vehicles.
  • 12.4 - Modern Day - USA - Medicine

    Muslim medicine may have been the greatest advancement that had been made for their time. They created cures for almost every disease known at that time, including smallpox. This inspired many doctors to create more cures. A Muslim doctor that was named Avicenna wrote a medical encyclopedia.
  • 13.3 - Modern Day - USA - Music from Mali

    The Jazz music you listen today may come from the Griots, or storytellers, from Mali. In the 1600s-1800s, slaves were brought from Northern Africa to America and they continued to sing their songs while they work. This adapted into African-American culture and artists such as B.B. King sing it.
  • 14.2 - Modern Day - Malaysia - Paper Money

    During the Song Dynasty, China adopted a new form of currency, paper money. This was lighter than coins and easier to carry around. It helped China manage their wealth and provide better trade. Today, we still use paper money, over 1000 years after it was adopted and if it weren’t for the Chinese, we would be carrying around big bags of heavy coins.
  • 15.3 - Modern Day - Japan - Modern Samurai

    Centuries after samurai, people still practice to become Modern samurais. Many people study the same martial arts used by samurai and sword fighting. They still practice Bushido and value hard work, honor, and sacrifice as it has become part of Japanese culture already.
  • 16.1 - Modern Day - USA - Observatories

    The Maya’s made many great advancements in science, one of which is the observatory, a building for scientists to study the sky and stars. From there, people could know what time of day it was so they made 2 calendars, one for work, and one for religious events. This relates to modern day as if we hadn’t have observatories, we wouldn’t have calendars and we wouldn’t know what time of day it is.
  • 17.2 - Modern Day - Ireland - Saint Patrick’s Day

    Saint Patrick was a British monk who traveled to Ireland to convert and teach people about Christianity. In his teenage days, he was kidnapped and brought to Ireland to work as a shepherd but he escaped and returned to England. In 430, he returned to Ireland and won favor with the Irish by driving all the snakes out of Ireland. After he died, the Irish declared him a saint and on the 17th of March every year, we celebrate St. Patrick’s Day in honor of Saint Patrick.
  • Period:
    10,000 BCE
    -500 BCE

    Chapter 3 - Fertile Crescent- Early Fertile Crescent People

    Babylonians, Hittites, Assyrians, Chaldeans, and Phoenicians.
  • Period:
    4,500 BCE

    Chapter 4 - Egypt - Ancient Egypt and Kush

    First settlers set in Egypt in 4500BC. Old Kingdom - 2700-2200BC. 150 years of chaos. Middle Kingdom - 2050-1750BC. Hyksos invaded and rule for 200 years. New Kingdom - 1550-1050BC. Conquest of Egypt starts in 700BC. 350AD, Aksumite army led by King Ezana destroys Meroë.
  • Period:
    3,000 BCE

    Chapter 5 - Civilization in India and China - Ancient India

    Harrapans - 2300BC-1700BC. Aryans - 2000BC-320BC. Mauryans - 320BC-184BC. Guptas - 320AD-550AD.
  • Period:
    2,200 BCE

    Chapter 6 - Civilization in India and China - Ancient China

    Xia Dynasty - 2200BC -1600BC. Shang Dynasty - 1500BC-1046BC. Zhou Dynasty - 1050BC-400BC. Qin Dynasty - 221BC-206BC. Han Dynasty - 206BC-220AD. Sui Dynasty - 589AD-618AD. Tang Dynasty - 618AD-918AD. Song Dynasty - 920AD-1279AD. Yuan Dynasty - 1279AD-1368AD. Ming Dynasty - 1368AD-1644AD.
  • Period:
    2,000 BCE
    -30 BCE

    Chapter 8 - Foundations of Western Ideas - Ancient Greece

    Minoans - 2000BC - 1400BC. Mycenaeans - 1250BC - 1200BC.
  • Period:
    2,000 BCE
    -30 BCE

    Chapter 9 - Ancient Greece - The Greek World

    Persian Empire - 550BC - 331BC. Persian Wars - 492BC - 449BC. Peloponnesian War - 431BC - 404BC. Alexander the Great - 356BC - 323BC.
  • Period:
    -753 BCE
    -27 BCE

    Chapter 10 - The Roman World - The Roman Republic

    753BC - Rome is founded. 509BC - Rome becomes a Republic. 264-146BC - Rome and Carthage fight the Punic Wars. 27BC - Augustus becomes the first emperor of Rome.
  • Period:
    -500 BCE

    Chapter 13 - Early Islamic and African Civilizations - Early African Civilizations

    500BC - Soninkes band together to form Ghana
    1060AD - Ghana reaches its height, then falls.
    1230AD - Sundiata creates Mali.
    1324AD - Mansa Munsa causes inflation everywhere during pilgrimage to Mecca.
    1431AD - Tuaregs invade and Mali falls.
  • Period:
    -44 BCE

    Chapter 11 - The Roman World - Rome and Christianity

    44BC - Julius Caeser is assassinated. 27BC - Augustus becomes Emperor. 30AD - Jesus is crucified. 312AD - Constintine becomes Emperor and converts to Christian. 1453 AD - The Byzantine Empire is destroyed.
  • Period:

    Chapter 16 - Empires of the Asia and the America - The Early Americas

    200 - The Maya civilization starts
    250 - 900 - Maya Classic Age and fall.
    1325 - Aztecs set up capital at Tenochitlán
    1450 - Incas set up their empire.
    1519 - Hernán Cortés arrives in Mexico
    1521 - Aztecs surrender to Hernán Cortés and empire falls
    1537 - Francisco Pizarro destroys the Inca empire.
  • Period:

    Chapter 17 - Renewal in Europe - The Early Middle Ages

    430 AD - St. Patrick spreads Chrsitianity around Ireland
    500AD - Middle Ages start
    700 - 800 AD - Vikings, Magyars, and Muslims start raiding Europe 800AD - Charlemagne is crowned king of Europe
    1066 AD - Feudalism is Introduced into Britain
  • Period:

    Chapter 15 - Empires of Asia and the Americas - Japan

    550AD - Buddhism is introduced into Japan from China/Korea
    1000AD - Lady Murasaki writes the Tale of Genji
    1192AD - The first shoguns rule Japan
    1603-1868 - Tokugawa shoguns tule Japan
  • Period:

    Chapter 12 - Islamic and African Civilizations - The Islamic World

    570AD - Muhammad is born. 632AD - Muhammad dies. 762AD - Baghdad becomes the capital of the Islamic Empire. 1453AD - The Ottoman Empire captures the Byzantine Empire, ending it. 1501AD - The Savavids conquer Persia
  • Period:

    Chapter 14 - Empires of Asia and the Americas - China

    Period of Disunion - 220-589AD.
    China is reunified, starting the Sui Dynasty - 589AD
    Li Bo and Du Fu start writing famous Chinese poems - 730-760AD
    Mongols start the Yuan Dynasty - 1279AD
    The Ming Dynasty ends - 1644AD